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What is a Project ???

 Unique, one-time event


 Specific start and end dates
 Work scope with definable tasks
 Allocated resources
 Projected budget or cost
 Tangible set of deliverables
  
  

§hallenges to project management in executing ͞one


one off
off͟ multi-
disciplinary projects are different from those encountered in
production planning.

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uSame environment uŒifferent environment


uSame people uŒifferent people
uSame product uŒifferent product
uSame technique uŒifferent technique
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@ctivity:
Activities represent work to be done in order to
complete a project.

R (Rriginal ration) and R (Remaining


ration):
The estimated time required to complete an activity is
called OŒ. The amount of time left to complete an
activity after it has started is known as RΠ(Remaining
Œuration).
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Predecessor:
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ccessor:
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Relationship:
Any sort of connection between two activities is
known as relationship.
Generally there are four types of relationships:
u SS (Start to Start)
u FS (Finish to Start)
u FF (Finish to Finish)
u SF (Start to Finish)
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ºag :
ºag staggers or delays the relationship of one activity
(predecessor) to another (successor).
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  Relationship between activities in which the start
of a successor activity depends on the start of its
predecessor.
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   

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ë  Relationship in which the start of successor
activity depends on the completion of its predecessor
activity.

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 
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ëë  Relationship in which the finish of successor
activity depends on the finish of its predecessor activity

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! 

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ë  Relationship in which the finish of successor
activity depends on the start of its predecessor activity

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ÿ (ÿarly tart) and ÿë (ÿarly ëinish) dates:


ÿarliest possible date by which an activity can be started /
finished.

º (ºate tart) and ºë (ºate ëinish) dates:


ºatest possible date by which an activity can be started /
finished.
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@ (@ctal tart) and @ë (@ctal ëinish) dates:


Actual Start and Actual Finish dates are the dates on which
an activity has actually started and finished.
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|ë (|otal ëloat):
Œuration, measured in planning units, the activity can be delayed
without affecting the project finish date.

Negative or zero Total Float indicates that timely completion of


the activity is critical to the completion of the project. Such
activities are called §  

ëë (ëree ëloat):
The amount of time, measured in planning units, the early start
of an activity can be delayed without delaying early start of a
successor activity. Such activities are called Ñ  
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§onstraints:
§onstraints are ground realities that over-rule the logical
start and finish time of the activity.

ë   A certain piece of equipment will be received on,


say, 25th of March. That equipment͛s erection activity cannot be
started before 26th of March irrespective of the fact that the
foundation will be ready by 15th of March.

So we will simply put a constraint to this activity that it cannot


start before 26th of March. Similarly concreting work cannot be
easily done in winter months in regions where temperature goes
below freezing during winter.
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—arious types of constraints can be used but most
commonly used are as follows:
^ 

    - This type of constraint is applied
to restrict that activity to 

!  a certain date
^ 

"
   - This type of constraint is applied to
restrict that activity from 

!# a certain date
^ ë     - This type of constraint is applied to restrict
that activity to  !  a certain date.
^ ë "
   - This type of constraint is applied to restrict
that activity to  !# a certain date.
^ 

$ - To impose a compulsory 


 to that activity.
^ ë $ - To impose a compulsory  to that activity.
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§ritical @ctivity:
An activity that has potential of delaying a project is called a critical
activity. Such activities possess total float equal to zero or even less.

§ritical Path:
§hain of critical activities that has potential of delaying a
project is called §ritical Path.

§ritical Path Method (§PM):


A network analysis technique used to predict project duration, by
analyzing which sequence of activities (which path) has the least
amount of scheduling flexibility (the least amount of float).
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§ 

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 §

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@   §    # $   %


              
!"
!
!#
 $!
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chedling:
The process of calculating start and end dates of the activities.
This process is carried out in two passes i.e. Forward Pass &
Backward Pass.

ëorward Pass:
The process of calculating start and finish dates of each activity
starting from the project start date.
This process generates early start and early finish
dates for each activity.
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mackward Pass:
The process of calculating finish and start dates of each activity
starting from the project finish date.
This process generates ºate Start and ºate Finish
dates for each activity

ata ate:
The point in time that separates actual (Historical) data
from future (Scheduled) data.
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Man-Hors:
÷t is yardstick for measurement of effort. For example, 4
Man-Hour will mean any of the following:
^ 1 man working for 4 hours
^ 2 men working for 2 hours
^ 4 men working for 1 hour

tandard Man-Hors:
ÿstimated effort per unit required to perform a job in terms
of man-hours.
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ÿarned / @chieved Man-Hors:
÷t is amount of work executed in terms of standard man-
hours.

Project / mdgeted Man-Hors:


Total number of man-hours required to execute a project.

@ctal Man-Hors:
÷t is the man-hours actually utilized to execute work.
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Rriginal (|arget / mase ºine) Plan:
A plan showing all activities as foreseen at start of the project.

ºatest ëorecast Plan:


Revised / Updated Plan showing expected dates for balance activities
at certain point in time during project life span.

ÿ iciency:
÷t is the ratio of earned man-hours to actual man-hours.

Prodctivity:
÷t is number of work units produced per man-hour spent.
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mdgeted §ost:
Total estimated cost approved for execution of a project.

§ost at §ompletion:
The expected total cost at completion of an activity or a
project.
§ost at completion is estimated periodically during course
of project execution.
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Program ÿvalation and Review |echniqe (PÿR|):
An event oriented network analysis technique used to estimate
project duration when there is a higher degree of uncertainty with
the individual activity duration estimates. PÿRT applies the §ritical
Path Method (§PM) to a weighted average duration estimates.

Gantt §hart:
A graphic display of schedule-related information listing project
elements on left side of the chart, dates across the top and activity
durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. ÷t is also known
as Bar §hart.

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§ost §enter:
§ost §enter is the lowest identifiable/measurable activity against
which costs incurred can be booked.

irect §ost:
§ost which can be clearly attributed to the activity performed is know
as Œirect §ost. That cost is also called —  ! 
because it is
dependent on quantity of work performed.

÷ndirect §ost:
§ost which cannot be clearly attributed to specific activity is know as
indirect cost . ÷t is also known as ë
because these are
incurred irrespective of the quantity of the work performed.
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Resorce:

^ Anything that is required to perform an activity is called a


resource

^ Resources can be Manpower, ÿquipment and Materials



  

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 Timely completion of the Project


 Budgetary §ontrol so as to complete the Project within the
budgetary provisions established by the §ompany.
 ÿnsure quality of works as required under the §ontract.
 Maintain established standards of Health, Safety and
ÿnvironment at the work places.
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 Planning
 §ontrol
 
 ÷dentify activities to be done
 ÷dentify milestones
 Œefine WBS and OBS
 Œecide/calculate duration of activities
 Œecide sequence of activities
 Œecide resources
 Prepare cost budget
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 Breaking down a long and complex project into work
packages of smaller duration and complexity.

 A properly planned WBS delivers the following benefits:


^ The project can be planned systematically
^ Resources can be effectively scheduled
^ Work teams can be assigned responsibilities
^ §osts and budget elements can be compared
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 Represents a project organization structure that matches
with WBS.

 Facilitates better control through mini projects within large


and complicated projects.

 Œefines responsibility for each level of WBS.


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ººRº 

ºÿÿº - Î Pº@:
Sequence of major phases e.g., ÿ, P & § inter-phase, or
§ivil, Mechanical & ÿlectrical sequences.
ºº º 
ººRº 

ºÿÿº ± r Pº@:
Breaks major phases into geographic distribution (Zone/Area)
and/or disciplines e.g., Piping, Structure, Foundation, etc.
ºº º 
ººRº 

ºÿÿº -  Pº@:
Breaks all discipline activities into §ost §enters
ºº º 
ººRº 

ºÿÿº - - Pº@:
Further breaks down work into smaller activities e.g.,
material withdrawals from stores, layout, tacking, welding,
Q.§ checks, etc.
ºº º 
 
 º  

Resources required may include:

 Manpower
 Tools & Plants
 Œirect materials
 §onsumables
 Special jigs & fixtures
 
 º  

 Resource requirement should be a smooth curve i.e. ;


gradual increase till it reaches its peak, maintains peak for
required period and then gradually decrease till project is
completed.

 Resource ºeveling is done in P3.


e inition o Maintenance:
All actions which have the objective of retaining or
restoring an item in or to a state in which it can perform its
required function. These actions include combination of all
technical and corresponding administrative, managerial &
supervision activities

|ypes o Maintenance:
i. §orrective Maintenance
ii. Preventive Maintenance
§orrective Maintenance:
Type of maintenance where equipment is maintained after break
down. This maintenance is often expensive because worn equipment
can damage other parts & cause multi damages

Preventive Maintenance:
Where equipment is maintained before breakdown occurs.
This type has many variations & is subject of various researches to
determine best & most efficient way to maintain equipment. Recent
studies have shown that preventive maintenance is effective in
preventing age related failures of equipment
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