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Important Information

Slide content, tables and diagrams are drawn from the 3 rd (2006) and 4 th (2010) editions of TCP/IP Protocol Suite by Behrouz A. Forouzan /& publisher’s (McGraw Hill) supporting materials.

Use and Reproduction of these slides is not permitted without the permission of the CQUniversity COIT20261 course coordinator.

Week 8 Unicast Routing Protocols (RIP, OSPF, and BGP) (Chapter 11) Jan-19 2

Week 8 Unicast Routing Protocols

(RIP, OSPF, and BGP) (Chapter 11)

Chapter 11 Jan-19 3

Chapter 11


  • Distinguish between intradomain and interdomain routing

  • Understand distance vector routing and RIP

  • Ability to calculate routing table entries in RIP

  • Understand link state routing and OSPF

  • Understand path vector routing and BGP

Intradomain and Interdomain Routing

  • The Internet (and internets) are divided into autonomous systems

  • An Autonomous System (AS) is a group of networks and routers under the authority of a single administration

  • Routing within an AS is referred to as intradomain routing

  • Routing between autonomous systems is referred to interdomain routing

Autonomous Systems

Autonomous Systems Jan-19 6

Unicast Routing Protocols

  • An Internet is a collection of networks connected by


  • Routers determine the path a packet should take based on a metric (cost).

  • A router uses a routing table to specify the optimum path that a packet should take based on a metric.

  • A routing protocol is a combination of rules and procedures that enables routers to exchange information

in their routing tables.

Popular Routing Protocols

Popular Routing Protocols Jan-19 8

Distance Vector Routing

  • In distance vector routing, the least cost route between any two nodes is the route with minimum distance.

  • Minimum distance is determined by the total of the link (network) costs to the destination.

  • Each node maintains a vector (table) of minimum distances to every node in its AS.

Distance Vector Routing Tables

Distance Vector Routing Tables Jan-19 10

Routing Information Sharing

  • In Distance Vector Routing, each node shares its entire routing table with its immediate neighbours periodically and when there is a change.

  • Nodes can only calculate the distance between themselves and their nearest neighbour.

  • Distance between other nodes should be sent by those nodes.

Initialisation of Tables in Distance Vector Routing

Initialisation of Tables in Distance Vector Routing Jan-19 12

3 Step Updating in Distance Vector Routing

3 Step Updating in Distance Vector Routing Jan-19 13

RIP Version 1

  • The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is an intradomain routing protocol used within an autonomous system. It is a very simple protocol based on distance vector routing.

    • The distance metric used is that each network link has the value of 1 (called hop count as the number of links is also the number of hops to the destination).

    • Infinity (not reachable) is defined as 16.

    • So largest AS can only have 15 hops between any two nodes to use RIP.

Example of a Domain using RIP

Example of a Domain using RIP Jan-19 15

RIP Message Format

  • Request and reply messages are limited broadcast.

  • Network address section is 14 bytes so as to accommodate any addressing scheme.

RIP Message Format  Request and reply messages are limited broadcast.  Network address section is

Request message

Request message a. Request an update on a particular network link. b. Request another node’s entire
  • a. Request an update on a particular network link.

  • b. Request another node’s entire table.

RIP Timers

RIP Timers Jan-19 18

Periodic Timer

  • Controls the advertising of regular update messages.

  • Uses a random number between 25 and 35 seconds, to prevent routers updating simultaneously (on average every 30 seconds).

Expiration Timer

  • Governs the validity of a route.

  • On receipt of an update, the expiration timer is set to 180 seconds for that particular route.

  • Each time a new update is received, the timer is reset.

  • If a problem occurs the allotted 180 seconds expires, at this time the hop count is set to 16 (infinity), which means the destination is unreachable.

Garbage Collection Timer

  • When information about a route becomes invalid (destination unreachable), the router does not immediately purge the route from its table.

  • It continues to advertise the route with a metric of 16.

  • At this time the garbage collection timer is set to 120

seconds for the route.

  • When the count reaches zero, the route is purged.

RIP Version 2

  • Advances on RIPv1 to accommodate

    • Route tag information from interdomain routing protocols.

    • Subnet Mask supports classless addressing (must include the mask).

    • Next hop addressing in case routers are boundary routers (need to know next hop outside AS).

    • Authentication by using the first repeated segment to

include this information.

  • Multicast message so only routers are valid receivers.

  • UDP Encapsulation (port 520).

RIP Version 2 Format

RIP Version 2 Format Jan-19 23

Link State Routing

  • Intradomain routing protocol.

  • Each node in the domain finds the entire topology of the domain.

  • Nodes know the type, cost and condition of each link.

  • Each node uses Dijkstra’s algorithm to calculate its path metric and build the routing table.

Building Routing Tables

  • Create a Link State Packet (LSP) to advertise the state of links for the node.

  • Flood AS (multicast) with this information.

  • Each router calculates the shortest path tree for each node.

  • Update routing table based on new/additional information.

  • LSP’s are created when

    • Triggered update change in the network

    • Periodic refresh function every 60 120 minutes

Concept of Link State Routing

Concept of Link State Routing Jan-19 26

Link State Knowledge

Link State Knowledge Jan-19 27

Routing Table for Node A

Routing Table for Node A Jan-19 28

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

  • The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is an intradomain routing protocol based on link state routing.

  • OSPF categorises the AS into different areas:

    • An area is a collection of networks, hosts and routers.

    • Area Border Routers summarise area information and pass between areas.

Areas in an Autonomous System

Areas in an Autonomous System Jan-19 30

OSPF Metrics

  • OSPF allows administrators to assign a cost (metric) to each route.

  • The metric is usually based on type of service

(minimum delay, maximum throughput etc.).

OSPF Links

  • Connections in OSPF are called links

  • There are 4 different types of links:

    • Point-to-point: connects 2 routers without any other host or router between them.

    • Transient: a network with several routers attached to it.

    • Stub: a network connected to only one router (end).

    • Virtual: created when a link is broken and a new path is created.

Example of an AS and its Graphical Representation in OSPF

Example of an AS and its Graphical Representation in OSPF Jan-19 33

Types of OSPF Packets

Types of OSPF Packets Jan-19 34

OSPF Common Header

OSPF Common Header Jan-19 35

Link State Update Packet

Link State Update Packet Jan-19 36

OSPF Other Packets

  • Hello message: creates neighbourhood relationships and tests reachability of neighbours (first step).

  • Database Description message: sent in response to a Hello message from a new router, contains the outline of the routing table.

  • Link State Request message (LSR): sent so a router can complete its table.

  • Link State Acknowledgment message (LSAck): sent in response to every LSU packet received.

Path Vector Routing

  • Used for Interdomain routing.

  • Path Vector Routing is similar to Distance Vector Routing.

  • There is at least one node, called the speaker node, that acts on behalf of each AS.

  • The speaker node creates a routing table and advertises it to speaker nodes in neighbouring ASs.

Path Vector Routing

  • The speaker node advertises the full path and not the metric inside its AS

    • Distance Vector Routing is unstable with too many hops.

    • Link State Routing uses huge resources and adds a large amount of traffic.

Path Vector Routing

  • Loops are prevented by checking the path list to ensure the node is not already listed.

  • Policy routing can be implemented as the entire path is known and therefore, routers can be checked against policy information.

  • Metrics are not included when shared as each network may have different criteria they place on links and each AS may use different routing protocols.

  • The optimum path is the path that fits the organisation and depends on what is important.

Initial Routing Tables in Path Vector Routing

Initial Routing Tables in Path Vector Routing Jan-19 41

Stabilised Tables for Four Autonomous Systems

Stabilised Tables for Four Autonomous Systems Jan-19 42

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

  • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an Interdomain routing protocol using path vector routing

  • It first appeared in 1989 and has gone through four


  • BGP supports Classless InterDomain Routing (CIDR)

  • Uses TCP port 179

Types of BGP Messages

Types of BGP Messages Jan-19 44

Types of BGP Messages (contd.)

  • Open message creates a neighbourhood relationship, the other routers reply with a Keepalive message.

  • Update message is used to advertise new routes or change/delete existing ones.

  • Keepalive message only contains the common header with type set to 3.

  • Notification message is sent when immediate changes need to be made due to error or need to close a connection (graceful shutdown).

After the lecture…

  • Review the lecture material at least once.

  • Read all relevant sections in the textbook.

  • Attempt all tutorial problems.

  • Complete the relevant questions from the assignment.

  • Check if you are competent with the objectives mentioned at the beginning of each topic.