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What is Inquiry-Based Learning?

From a student point-of-view,

inquiry-based learning focuses on

investigating an open question or problem.
they must use evidence-based reasoning
and creative problem-solving to reach a
conclusion, which they must defend or
From a teacher point-of-view,

inquiry-based teaching focuses on moving

students beyond general curiosity into the realms
of critical thinking and understanding.
you must encourage students to ask questions and
support them through the investigation process,
understanding when to begin and how to
structure an inquiry activity.
Using methods such as guided research, document analysis
and question-and-answer sessions, you can run inquiry
activities in the form of:

Case studies
Group projects
Research projects
Field work, especially for science lessons
Unique exercises tailored to your students
The 4 Types of Inquiry-Based Learning

Confirmation Inquiry — You give students a

question, its answer and the method of
reaching this answer. Their goal is to build
investigation and critical-thinking skills,
learning how the specific method works.
The 4 Types of Inquiry-Based Learning

Structured Inquiry — You give students

an open question and an investigation
method. They must use the method to
craft an evidence-backed conclusion.
The 4 Types of Inquiry-Based Learning

Guided Inquiry — You give students an

open question. Typically in groups, they
design investigation methods to reach a
The 4 Types of Inquiry-Based Learning

Open Inquiry — You give students time

and support. They pose original
questions that they investigate through
their own methods, and eventually
present their results to discuss and
Characteristics of Classrooms where
Teachers Emphasize Inquiry-Based Learning

Inquiry is in the form of authentic (real life)

problems within the context of the curriculum
and/or community.
The inquiry capitalizes on student curiosity.
Data and information are actively used,
interpreted, refined, digested, discussed.
Teachers, students and teacher-librarian
Community and society are connected with
the inquiry.
The teacher models the behavior of inquirer.
The teacher uses the language of inquiry on an
ongoing basis.
The students take ownership of their
The teacher facilitates the process of
gathering and presenting information.
The teacher and student use technology to
advance inquiry.
The teacher embraces inquiry as both content
and pedagogy.
The teacher and students interact more
frequently and more actively than during
traditional teaching.
There is an identifiable time for inquiry-based
Source: Focus on Inquiry: A Teacher’s Guide to Implementing Inquiry-based Learning
Essential Question

Research is important when we know

how to make sense of it.
“How does inquiry and research facilitate in
finding solutions to real-life problems and
develop critical thinking skills and lifelong
learning? “

Write a reflection paper about the importance of

research in our daily life. Use the following guide
What appears to be the main objective of the research?
Does the research have conclusion and
Why is the research conducted?
How does the research study help you in your daily life?
Transfer Task

 Conduct a survey/interview of 20 students

asking them the importance of research in their
daily life.
 Look for examples of research in different areas
of interest (arts, humanities, sports, science,
information and communication technology and
social inquiry) then present the importance of the
research you have found in your daily activities.

 the scientific investigation of

phenomena which includes collection,
presentation, analysis and
interpretation of facts that lines an
individual‘s speculation with reality.
Characteristics of Research

1. Empirical. Research is based on direct

experience or observation by the
2. Logical. Research is based on valid
procedures and principles.
Characteristics of Research
2. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process
because it starts with a problem and ends
with a problem.
3. Analytical. Research utilizes proven
analytical procedures in gathering the
data, whether historical, descriptive, and
experimental and case study.
Characteristics of Research

Critical. Research exhibits careful

and precise judgment.
Methodical. Research is conducted
in a methodical manner without bias
using systematic method and
Characteristics of Research

Replicability. The research design and

procedures are replicated or repeated
to enable the researcher to arrive at
valid and conclusive results.
Research Diagram

Select a
Select a Review the specific
literature research
general of the problem,
problem. problem. question, or
Research Diagram

Interpret the
findings and
Collect present
conclusions or
data. or
regarding the
Factors to Consider in
Selecting a Research Problem

1. Researcher‘s area of interest

2. Availability of funds
3. Investigator‘s ability and training
Ethics in Research
Ethics generally is considered to deal
with beliefs about what is right or wrong,
proper or improper, good or
bad.(Webster‘s 1968)
to be ethical is to conform to accepted
professional practice.
Ethical considerations in
conducting research

1. Objectivity and integrity

2. Respect of the research subjects‘ right
to privacy and dignity and protection
of subjects from personal harm
3. Presentation of research findings
Ethical considerations in
conducting research

4. Misuse of research role

5. Acknowledgement of research
collaboration and assistance
6. Distortions of findings by sponsor
Unethical practices in conducting
1.Deceiving a respondent about the true
purpose of a study
2.Asking a respondent questions that cause
him or her extreme embarrassment; guilt
emotional turmoil by remaining him or her
of an unpleasant experience
3.Invading the privacy of a respondent
Unethical practices in conducting
4. Studying the respondents or research
subjects without their knowledge
5. When analyzing the data—revealing only
part of the facts, presenting facts out of
context, falsifying findings or offering
misleading presentation such as lying with
Quantitative and Qualitative
Quantitative research is a type of educational
research in which the researcher decides
what to study; asks specific, narrow questions;
collects quantifiable data from participants;
analyzes these numbers using statistics; and
conducts the inquiry in an unbiased, objective
Quantitative and Qualitative
Qualitative research is a type of educational
research in which the researcher relies on the
views of participants; asks broad, general
questions; collects data consisting largely
words (text) from participants; describes and
analyzes these words for themes; and
conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased
Quantitative and Qualitative
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research

Produce a reflection paper of the things

you learned about the differences
between qualitative and quantitative
research and the differing philosophical
assumptions of quantitative and
qualitative researchers.
Look for examples of qualitative and
quantitative researches. Share your
examples with your classmates and
explain the reasons why the research
is considered qualitative or
Tell whether the given statement is a
Quantitative Methodology or Qualitative
1. Preference for specific design control for procedural
2. Primary reliance on researcher to deal with procedural
3. Preference for statistical summary of results.
4. Preference for narrative summary of results.
5. Willingness to manipulate aspects, situations, or
conditions in studying complex phenomena.