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TEXTBOOK

• OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR TECHNOLOGIST, ENGINEERS AND MANAGERS 7TH EDITION
BY: DAVID L. GOETSCH
COURSE OUTLINE
• HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND OVERVIEW CHAPTER 1
• LAWS AND REGULATIONS CHAPTER 2
• THE HUMAN ELEMENT CHAPTER 3
• HAZARDS AND ASSESSMENT, PREVENTION AND CONTROL CHAPTER 4
• MANAGEMENT OF SAFETY AND HEALTH CHAPTER 5
SAFETY AND HEALTH

• SAFETY AND HEALTH ARE CLOSELY RELATED, BUT ARE NOT THE SAME.
• ONE VIEW IS THAT SAFETY IS CONCERNED WITH INJURY-CAUSING SITUATIONS,
WHEREAS HEALTH IS CONCERNED WITH DISEASE-CAUSING CONDITIONS.
• ANOTHER VIEW IS THAT SAFETY IS CONCERNED WITH HAZARDS TO HUMANS THAT
RESULTS FROM SUDDEN SEVERE CONDITIONS; HEALTH DEALS WITH ADVERSE REACTIONS
TO PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO DANGEROUS HAZARDS.
SAFETY AND HEALTH
• EXAMPLE:
• ON THE ONE HAND, STRESS IS A HAZARD THAT CAN CAUSE BOTH PHYSIOLOGICAL AND
PHYSICAL PROBLEMS OVER A PROLONGED PERIOD. IN THIS CASE, IT IS A HEALTH
CONCERN.
• ON THE OTHER HAND, AN OVERLY STRESSED WORKER MAY BE PRONE TO
UNINTENTIONALLY FORGET SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND THUS MAY CAUSE AN ACCIDENT.
IN THIS CASE, STRESS IS A SAFETY CONCERN.
ILP FOR PRELIM

• SEARCH ABOUT THE MILESTONES IN THE SAFETY MOVEMENT


TRAGEDIES THAT HAVE CHANGED THE
SAFETY MOVEMENT
• SAFETY AND HEALTH TRAGEDIES IN THE WORKPLACE HAVE GREATLY ACCELERATED THE PACE OF THE
SAFETY MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
• THREE OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF SAFETY AND MOVEMENT WERE THE
• HAWK’S NEST TRAGEDY
• ASBESTOS MENACE
• BHOPAL TRAGEDY
HAWK’S NEST TRAGEDY
• DATE: 1930 - 1935
• LOCATION: GAULEY BRIDGE, WEST VIRGINIA
• DEATHS: 476 – 1000 (ESTIMATED)
• CAUSE: OCCUPATIONAL SILICOSIS
HAWK’S NEST TRAGEDY
• THE PUBLIC BEGAN TO TAKE NOTICE OF THE HEALTH PROBLEMS SUFFERED BY EMPLOYEES WHO WORKED
IN DUSTY ENVIRONMENTS. THE GREAT DEPRESSION WAS INDIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ATTENTION
GIVEN TO AN OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE THAT CAME TO BE KNOWN AS SILICOSIS.
• AS THE ECONOMIC CRASH SPREAD, BUSINESS AFTER BUSINESS SHUT DOWN AND LAID OFF ITS
WORKERS.
• UNEMPLOYED MINERS AND FOUNDRY WORKERS BEGAN TO EXPERIENCE PROBLEMS FINDING NEW JOBS
WHEN PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS REVEALED THAT THEY HAD LUNG DAMAGE FROM BREATHING SILICA.
HAWK’S NEST TRAGEDY
HAWK’S NEST TRAGEDY
• THIS MARKED THE BEGINNING OF INDUSTRY-WIDE INTEREST IN WHAT WOULD EVENTUALLY BE CALLED
THE “KING” OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES.
• WORKERS SPENT AS MANY AS 10 HOURS PER DAY BREATHING THE DUST CREATED BY DRILLING AND
BLASTING.
• IT TURNED OUT THAT THIS PARTICULAR MOUNTAIN HAD AN UNUSUALLY HIGH SILICA CONTENT.
• IT RAISES THE QUESTION, IS BREATHING SILICA BAD?
• THE ANSWER IS YES BECAUSE,
• CRYSTALLINE SILICA HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED AS A HUMAN LUNG CARCINOGEN. ADDITIONALLY,
BREATHING CRYSTALLINE SILICA DUST CAN CAUSE SILICOSIS, WHICH IN SEVERE CASES CAN BE DISABLING, OR EVEN
FATAL.

• SILICOSIS - LUNG FIBROSIS CAUSED BY THE INHALATION OF DUST CONTAINING SILICA.


• FIBROSIS MEANS THICKENING AND SCARRING OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
HAWK’S NEST TRAGEDY
• SILICOSIS IS A DISEASE THAT NORMALLY TAKES 10 TO 30 YEARS TO SHOW UP IN EXPOSED WORKERS.
• AT HAWK’S NEST, WORKERS BEGAN DYING IN AS LITTLE TIME AS A YEAR.
• BY THE TIME THE PROJECT WAS COMPLETED, HUNDREDS GAD DIED.
• TO MAKE MATTERS EVEN WORSE, THE COMPANY OFTEN BURIED AN EMPLOYEE WHO DIED FROM
EXPOSURE TO SILICA IN A NEARBY FIELD WITHOUT NOTIFYING THE FAMILY.
• THIS TRAGEDY AND THE PUBLIC OUTCRY THAT RESULTED FROM IT LED A GROUP OF COMPANIES TO FORM
THE AIR HYGIENE FOUNDATION TO CONDUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOP STANDARDS FOR WORKING
DUSTY ENVIRONMENTS.
ASBESTOS MENACE TRAGEDY
• ASBESTOS MENACE – IN 1964 , DR. IRVING J. SELIKOFF TOLD A CONFERENCE ON BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF
ASBESTOS THAT THE WIDELY USED MATERIAL WAS KILLING THE WORKERS CAUSING THEM TO HAVE LUNG
CANCER.
• ASBESTOS WAS ONCE CONSIDERED A ‘MIRACLE’ FIBER.
• AFTER A DECADE FROM HIS FINDINGS, ASBESTOS BECAME A CONTROLLED MATERIAL AND REGULATIONS
GOVERNING THE USE OF THE MATERIAL WERE DEVELOPED AND A SET STANDARD FOR EXPOSING
ASBESTOS WERE ESTABLISHED.
ASBESTOS MENACE TRAGEDY
• ASBESTOS – IS A HEAT-RESISTANT FIBROUS SILICATE MINERAL THAT CAN BE WOVEN INTO FABRICS, AND
IS USED IN FIRE-RESISTANT AND INSULATING MATERIALS.
• FOUND IN HOMES, SCHOOLS, OFFICE, FACTORIES, SHIPS AND EVEN IN FILTERS OF CIGARETTES.
• THIS CONFERENCE CHANGED HOW AMERICANS VIEWED NOT JUST ASBESTOS, BUT WORKPLACE
HAZARDS IN GENERAL.
• SELIKOFF WAS THE FIRST TO LINK ASBESTOS TO LUNG CANCER AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES.
ASBESTOS MENACE TRAGEDY
• SELIKOFF CONTINUED TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF ASBESTOS EXPOSURE FROM 1967 TO 1986.
• IN THE 1970S IN THE 1970S-80S ASBESTOS BECAME A CONTROLLED MATERIAL 80S, ASBESTOS BECAME A
CONTROLLED MATERIAL

• REGULATIONS GOVERNING USE, STANDARDS FOR EXPOSURE WERE ESTABLISHED, AND ASBESTOS-
RELATED LAWSUITS CHANGED HOW INDUSTRY DEALT WITH THIS TRAGIC MATERIAL.
BHOPAL TRAGEDY
• ON THE MORNING OF DECEMBER 3, 1984, OVER 40 TONS OF METHYL ISOCYANATE (MIC) AND OTHER
LETHAL GASES, INCLUDING HYDROGEN CYANIDE, LEAKED INTO NORTHERN END OF BHOPAL.
• KILLING MORE THAN 3,000 PEOPLE IN ITS AFTERMATH.

• IT WAS DISCOVERED THE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT THAT COULD HAVE HALTED IMPENDING DISASTER
WAS NOT IN FULL WORKING ORDER.
• THE INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL COMMISSION FOUND THAT AS MANY AS 50,000 PEOPLE WERE EXPOSED,
AND MAY STILL SUFFER DISABILITY AS A RESULT.
• THIS DISASTER SHOCK THE WORLD
BHOPAL TRAGEDY
• THE OWNER OF THE PLANT, UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION, WAS ACCUSED OF MANY THINGS,
INCLUDING:
• CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE
• CORPORATE PREJUDICE
• CHOOSING POVERTY-STRICKEN BHOPAL, ON THE ASSUMPTION FEW WOULD CARE IF ANYTHING WENT WRONG.
• AVOIDANCE
• PUTTING ITS PLANT IN BHOPAL TO AVOID STRICTER US SAFETY & HEALTH STANDARDS.
BHOPAL TRAGEDY

• IN FEBRUARY 1989, INDIA’S SUPREME COURT ORDERED UNION CARBIDE INDIA LTD., TO PAY $470
MILLION IN COMPENSATORY DAMAGES.
• FUNDS WERE PAID TO THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT TO BE USED TO COMPENSATE THE VICTIMS.
SAFETY MOVEMENT

• THE SAFETY MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES HAS DEVELOPED STEADILY SINCE THE EARLY 1900S.
• IN THAT TIME PERIOD, INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS WERE A COMMONPLACE IN THIS COUNTRY.
• FOR EXAMPLE, 1907, MORE THAN 3,200 PEOPLE WERE KILLED IN MINING ACCIDENT.
• THERE WERE FEW PROTECTIONS FOR WORKERS’ SAFETY.
SAFETY MOVEMENT

• WORKING CONDITIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL TODAY HAVE IMPROVED SIGNIFICANTLY.


• EXAMPLE. SAFETY GUARDS. (THE DEFINITION OF A SAFEGUARD IS SOMEONE OR SOMETHING THAT REDUCES OR
ELIMINATES THE RISK OF SOMETHING UNDESIRABLE HAPPENING)

• THE CHANCE OF A WORKER BEING KILLED IN AN INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT IS LESS THAN 60 HALF OF WHAT
IT WAS FROM 60 YEARS AGO.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND FIRST THE PAST, SO THAT THE SAFETY AND HEALTH PROFESSIONALS
EXAMINE THE PRESENT AND FUTURE WITH A SENSE OF PERSPECTIVE AND CONTINUITY.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• IT ALL BEGINS WITH THE DAYS OF THE ANCIENT BABYLONIANS. DURING THAT TIME, CIRCA 2000 BC.,
THEIR RULER, HAMMURABI, DEVELOP HIS ‘CODE OF HAMMURABI’.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CODE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SAFETY AND HEALTH IS THAT IT CONTAINED
CLAUSES DEALING WITH INJURIES, ALLOWABLE FEES FOR PHYSICIANS, AND MONETARY DAMAGES
ASSESSED AGAINST THOSE WHO INJURED OTHERS.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• THIS CLAUSE FROM THE CODE ILLUSTRATES HAMMURABI’S CONCERN FOR THE PROPER HANDLING OF
INJURIES.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• “IF A MAN HAS CAUSED THE LOSS OF A GENTLEMAN’S EYE, HIS OWN EYE SHALL BE CAUSED TO BE LOST”
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• THIS MOVEMENT CONTINUED AND EMERGED IN LATER EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. AS EVIDENCE FROM THE
TEMPLES AND PYRAMIDS THAT STILL REMAIN, THE EGYPTIANS WERE AN INDUSTRIOUS PEOPLE.
• MUCH OF LABOR WAS PROVIDED BY SLAVES, AND THERE IS AMPLE EVIDENCE THAT SLAVES WERE NOT
TREATED WELL – THAT IS, UNLESS IT SUITED THE NEEDS OF THE EGYPTIAN TASKMASTERS.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• ONE SUCH CASE OCCURRED DURING THE REIGN OF RAMESES II (CIRCA 1500 BC), WHO UNDERTOOK A
MAJOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECT, THE RAMESSEUM.
THE
RAMESSEUM
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• TO ENSURE MAINTENANCE OF A WORKFORCE TO BUILD A HUGE TEMPLE BEARING HIS NAME, RAMESES II
CREATED AN INDUSTRIAL MEDICAL SERVICE TO CARE FOR THE WORKERS.
• THEY WERE REQUIRED TO BATHE DAILY IN THE NILE AND GIVEN REGULAR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS, AND SICK
ARE BEING ISOLATED.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• THE ROMANS WERE VITALLY CONCERNED WITH SAFETY AND HEALTH, AS SEEN FOR THEIR CONSTRUCTION
PROJECTS.
• AQUEDUCTS, SEWERAGE SYSTEMS, PUBLIC BATHS, LATRINES, AND WELL-VENTILATED HOUSE.
AQUEDUCT
LATRINE
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• AS THE CIVILIZATION PROGRESSED, SO DID THE SAFETY AND HEALTH DEVELOPMENTS.


DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• IN 1567, PHILIPPUS AUREOLES PRODUCED A TREATISE ON THE PULMONARY DISEASES OF MINERS


• COVERED DISEASES OF SMELTER WORKERS AND METALLURGIST
• DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH HANDLING/EXPOSURE TO MERCURY.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• AROUND THE SAME TIME, GEORGIUS AGRICOLA PUBLISHED “DE RE METALLICA” , EMPHASIZING NEED FOR
VENTILATION IN MINES, SHOWING DEVICES FOR FRESH AIR INTO MINES.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

• THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY SAW THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF BERNARDINO RAMAZZINI, WHO WROTE
“DISCOURSE ON THE DISEASE WORKERS”.
• DREW CONCLUSIVE PARALLELS BETWEEN DISEASES SUFFERED BY WORKERS AND THEIR OCCUPATIONS.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
• THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CHANGED FOREVER THE METHODS OF PRODUCING GOODS, SUMMARIZED
AS:
• INTRODUCTION OF INANIMATE POWER (STEAM POWER) TO REPLACE PEOPLE AND ANIMAL POWER.
• SUBSTITUTION OF MACHINES FOR PEOPLE
• INTRODUCTION OF NEW METHODS FOR CONVERTING RAW MATERIALS
• ORGANIZATION/SPECIALIZATION OF WORK, RESULTING IN A DIVISION OF WORK
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
• THESE CHANGES NECESSITATED A GREATER FOCUSING OF ATTENTION ON THE SAFETY AND HEALTH OF
WORKERS
• STEAM POWER INCREASED MARKEDLY THE POTENTIAL FOR LIFE-THREATENING INJURIES, AS DID AS MACHINES.
• THE NEW METHODS USED FOR CONVERTING RAW MATERIALS ALSO INTRODUCED NEW RISK OF INJURIES AND
DISEASES.
• SPECIALIZATION, BY INCREASING THE LIKELIHOOD OF BOREDOM AND INATTENTIVENESS, ALSO MADE A
WORKPLACE A MORE DANGEROUS ENVIRONMENT
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS

• SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS TIED TO WORKPLACE HAZARDS HAVE PLAYED SIGNIFICANT ROLES IN THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN SAFETY AND HEALTH MOVEMENT.
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS

• SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS TIED TO WORKPLACE HAZARDS HAVE PLAYED SIGNIFICANT ROLES IN THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN SAFETY AND HEALTH MOVEMENT.
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS

• LUNG DISEASE IN COAL MINERS WAS A MAJOR PROBLEM IN THE 1800S, PARTICULARLY THE GREAT
BRITAIN, WHERE MUCH OF THE WESTERN’S COAL WAS MINED AT THAT TIME.
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS

• ANTHRACOSIS, OR THE “BLACK SPIT” ,PERSISTED FROM THE EARLY 1800S, WHEN FIRST IDENTIFIED,
UNTIL ABOUT 1875.
• IT WAS FINALLY ELIMINATED BY THE SAFETY AND HEALTH MEASURES.
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS

• BY THE EARLY 1940S, BRITISH SCIENTIST WERE USING THE TERM COAL-MINER’S PNEUMOCONIOSIS, OR
CWP, TO DESCRIBE A DISEASE SUFFERED BY MANY MINERS.
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS
•ADD ON TRIVIA:
• THERE ARE THREE MAIN TYPES OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS, EACH WITH
DIFFERENT CAUSES:
• BLACK LUNG DISEASE – ALSO REFERRED AS TO A COAL WORKER’S
PNEUMOCONIOSIS OR CWP , CAUSES BY INHALATION OF COAL DUST.
• SILICOSIS – EXPOSURE TO SILICA, A MINERAL DUST FOUND IN ROCKS, SAND
AND MINERAL ORES, CAN LEAD TO SILICOSIS.
• SIDEROSIS – BREATHING IN DUST THAT CONTAINS IRON PARTICLES CAN
CAUSE SIDEROSIS, ALSO KNOWN AS WELDERS’ LUNG
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS

• AN WEST VIRGINIA COAL MINE EXPLOSION THAT KILLED 78 MINERS FOCUSES ATTENTION ON MINING
HEALTH AND SAFETY.
• CONGRESS PASSES COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, 1969.
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS
• MERCURY POISONING WAS FIRST NOTICED AMONG CITIZENS OF A
JAPANESE FISHING VILLAGE IN THE EARLY 1930S.
• A CHEMICAL PLANT NEAR THE VILLAGE MINAMATA PERIODICALLY DUMPED METHYL
MERCURY INTO THE BAY THAT WAS THE VILLAGE’S PRIMARY SOURCE OF FOOD.
• THE CITIZENS INGESTED HAZARDOUS DOSAGES OF MERCURY EVERY TIME THEY ATE
FISH FROM THE BAY.
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS
•MERCURY POISONING BECAME AN ISSUE IN THE US AFTER A 1940S
STUDY ON NEW YORK’S HAT MAKING INDUSTRY.
• MANY WORKERS DISPLAYED THE SAME TYPES OF SYMPTOMS AS THE
CITIZENS IN MINAMATA JAPAN.
•AS A RESULT , USE OF THIS HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL IN THE HAT-
MAKING INDUSTRY WAS STOPPED.
• A SUITABLE SUBSTITUTE , “HYDROGEN PEROXIDE” , WAS FOUND.
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS

• BY THE TIME IT WAS DETERMINED THAT ASBESTOS IS A HAZARDOUS MATERIAL, THE FIBERS OF WHICH
CAN CAUSE ASBESTOSIS OR LUNG CANCER ( MESOTHELIOMA ).
• AS BUILDINGS BEGAN TO AGE, THE ASBESTOS, PARTICULARLY THAT USED IN INSULATING PIPES– BREAKS
DOWN.
• AS ASBESTOS BREAK DOWN, IT RELEASE DANGEROUS MICROSCOPIC FIBERS INTO THE AIR.
ROLE OF SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS

• THE FIBERS ARE SO HAZARDOUS THAT REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM OLD BUILDINGS HAS BECOME A
HIGHLY SPECIALIZED TASK REQUIRING SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING.
DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
PROGRAMS
• WIDELY USED ACCIDENT PREVENTION TECHNIQUES INCLUDES:
• FAILURE MINIMIZATION, FAIL-SAFE DESIGNS.
• ISOLATION, LOCKOUTS, SCREENING
• PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
• REDUNDANCY, AND TIMED REPLACEMENTS
DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
PROGRAMS
• INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS OF BROADER SAFETY PROGRAMS HAVE EVOLVED SINCE THE LATE 1800S.
• EARLY EMPLOYERS HAD LITTLE CONCERN FOR WORKER SAFETY.
• BETWEEN WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II, INDUSTRY DISCOVERED THE CONNECTION BETWEEN QUALITY
AND SAFETY.
• WORLD WAR II LABOR SHORTAGES CREATED OPENNESS TOWARD GIVING SAFETY THE SERIOUS
CONSIDERATION IT DESERVED.
DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
PROGRAMS

• INDUSTRY BEGAN TO REALIZE:


• IMPROVED ENGINEERING COULD PREVENT ACCIDENTS
• EMPLOYEES WERE WILLING TO LEARN AND ACCEPT ESTABLISHED SAFETY RULES, WHICH COULD BE ENFORCED.
• FINANCIAL SAVINGS FROM SAFETY IMPROVEMENT COULD BE REAPED BY SAVINGS IN COMPENSATION AND
MEDICAL BILLS
DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
PROGRAMS

• EARLY SAFETY PROGRAMS WERE BASED ON THE THREE E’S OF SAFETY


DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
PROGRAMS

• ENGINEERING
• EDUCATION
• ENFORCEMENT
DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
PROGRAMS

• ENGINEERING
• ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF A SAFETY PROGRAM INVOLVE DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS TO BOTH PRODUCT AND
MASS.
• MANUFACTURING PROCESSES CAN BE ENGINEERED TO DECREASE POTENTIAL HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH
THEM.
DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
PROGRAMS

• EDUCATION
• EDUCATION ENSURES THAT EMPLOYEES KNOW HOW TO WORK SAFELY, WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO DO SO, AND
THAT IS EXPECTED BY THE MANAGEMENT.
DEVELOPMENT OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION
PROGRAMS

• ENFORCEMENT
• ENFORCEMENT INVOLVES MAKING SURE EMPLOYEES ABIDE BY SAFETY POLICIES, RULES, REGULATIONS,
PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES.
• -SUPERVISORS AND FELLOW EMPLOYEES PLAY A KEY ROLE.
DEVELOPMENT OF SAFETY ORGANIZATION

• NUMEROUS ORGANIZATION ARE DEVOTED IN FULL, OR AT LEAST IN PART, TO PROMOTION OF SAFETY AND
HEALTH IN THE WORKPLACE.
DEVELOPMENT OF SAFETY ORGANIZATION
DEVELOPMENT OF SAFETY ORGANIZATION

• SEVERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND TWO RELATED ORGANIZATION CONCERNED WITH SAFETY AND
HEALTH.
DEVELOPMENT OF SAFETY ORGANIZATION