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EcE – 41003

Linear System
2017-2018 Academic Year
nd
2 semester

Teacher – Dr. Pyone Ei Ei Shwe


Purpose
• This lecture provides an introduction to the basic history of control
theory and practice. The purpose of this lecture is to describe the general
approach to designing and building a control system.
 An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating device to control the process
directly without using feedback.

Input Process Output

Figure 1.1 Process to be controlled

Desired
output Controller Actuator Process Output
response

Figure 1.2 Open-loop control system (without feedback)


 A closed-loop control system uses a measurement of the output and feedback of
this signal to compare it with the desired output (reference or command).
 Error is adjusted by the controller.
 Output of controller causes the actuator to modulate the process to reduce error.

Desired
Error
output Controller Actuator Process Actual
response output

Sensor
Measurement output Feedback

Figure 1.3 Closed-loop feedback control system (with feedback)


 Closed-loop control has many advantages over open-loop control including
the ability to reject the external disturbances and improve measurement noise
attenuation.
 External disturbances and measurement noise are inevitable in real-world
applications and muse be address in practical control system designs.

Disturbance

Desired +
Error Actual
output Controller Actuator Process output
response +
− + Measurement
+ noise

Sensor
Measurement output Feedback

Figure 1.4 Closed-loop feedback system with external disturbances and


measurement noise
Desired
Error Actual
output Error
response Controller#2 Controller#1 Actuator Process output

− −
Inner
loop
Outer
loop
Sensor #1
Measurement output
Feedback

Sensor #2
Measurement output Feedback

Figure 1.5 Multiple feedback system with an inner loop and an outer loop
Desired
output Comparison Controller Actuator Process Actual
response output

Sensor

Measurement output Feedback

Figure 1.6 Multivariable control system


Actual
Desired + Error
Steering
course Driver Automobile course
mechanism of travel
of travel −

Measurement,
visual and tactile

(a)

Desired
direction
Actual
direction
of travel Figure 1.9 (a) Automobile steering control system
of travel
(b) The driver uses the difference between
(b)
the actual and the desired direction of
Response-direction of travel

Desired direction of travel


Actual direction of travel
travel to generate a controlled
adjustment of the steering wheel.

Time
(c) Typical direction of travel response

(c)