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Estimating the

Median from
Grouped Data
Estimating the Median from Grouped
Data
Let's look at our data again:
Seconds Frequency Cumulative
frequency (B)

51 - 55 2

56 - 60 7

61 - 65 8

66 - 70 4
Locate first the median class

• The median is the middle value, which in our case is the


11th one, which is in the 61 - 65 group:
• We can say "the median group is 61 - 65"
• But if we want an estimated Median value we need to
look more closely at the 61 - 65 group.
(n/2)−B
Estimated Median = L + ×w
G
• where:
• L is the lower class boundary of the group containing the
median
• n is the total number of values
• B is the cumulative frequency of the groups before the median
group
• G is the frequency of the median group
• w is the group width
For our example:

• L = 60.5
• n = 21
•B=2+7=9
•G=8
•w=5
(n/2)−B
Estimated Median = L + ×w
G

(21/2) − 9
Estimated Median = 60.5 + ×5
8
= 60.5 + 0.9375
= 61.4375
Baby Carrots Example
• Example: You grew fifty baby carrots using
special soil. You dig them up and measure their
lengths (to the nearest mm) and group the
results:

Cumulative frequency
Length (mm) Frequency
(B) First find the following:
150 - 154 5
155 - 159 2 •L =(the lower class boundary)
160 - 164 6 •n = ?
165 - 169 8 •B = ?
170 - 174 9 •G = ?
175 - 179 11
•w = ?
180 - 184 6
185 - 189 3
Baby Carrots Example
• Example: You grew fifty baby carrots using
special soil. You dig them up and measure their
lengths (to the nearest mm) and group the
results:

Cumulative frequency
Length (mm) Frequency
(B) First find the following:
150 - 154 5
155 - 159 2 •L = 169.5 (the lower class
160 - 164 6 boundary of the 170 - 174 group)
165 - 169 8 •n = 50
170 - 174 9 •B = 5 + 2 + 6 + 8 = 21
175 - 179 11
•G = 9
180 - 184 6
•w = 5
185 - 189 3
Baby Carrots Example
• Example: You grew fifty baby carrots using
special soil. You dig them up and measure their
lengths (to the nearest mm) and group the
results:

Cumulative frequency
Length (mm) Frequency
(B) First find the following:
150 - 154 5 5
155 - 159 2 7 •L =69.5
160 - 164 6 13 •n = 50
165 - 169 8 21 •B = 5 + 2 + 6 + 8 = 21
170 - 174 9 30 •G = 9
175 - 179 11 41
•w = 5
180 - 184 6 47
185 - 189 3 50
(n/2)−B
Estimated Median = L + ×w
G

(50/2) − 21
Estimated Median = 69.5 + ×5
9
= 169.5 + 2.22...
= 171.7 mm (to 1 decimal)
Age Example

• Age is a special case.


• When we say "Sarah is 17" she stays "17" up until her
eighteenth birthday.
She might be 17 years and 364 days old and still be called
"17".
• This changes the midpoints and class boundaries.
Example: The ages of the 112 people who
live on a tropical island are grouped as
follows:
Age Number Cumulative
frequency (B) First find the following:
0-9 20
10 - 19 21 •L =(the lower class boundary)
20 - 29 23 •n = ?
30 - 39 16 •B = ?
40 - 49 11
•G = ?
50 - 59 10
•w = ?
60 - 69 7
70 - 79 3
80 - 89 1
Estimating the Mode from Grouped Data

We can easily find the modal group (the


group with the highest frequency)
fm − fm−1
Estimated Mode = L + ×w
(fm − fm−1) + (fm − fm+1)

where:
• L is the lower class boundary of the modal group
• fm-1 is the frequency of the group before the modal group
• fm is the frequency of the modal group
• fm+1 is the frequency of the group after the modal group
• w is the group width
In this example:

Seconds Frequency
• L = 60.5
51 - 55 2
• fm-1 = 7
56 - 60 7
• fm = 8
61 - 65 8
• fm+1 = 4
66 - 70 4
•w=5
Use the Formula:

fm − fm−1
Estimated Mode = L + ×w
(fm − fm−1) + (fm − fm+1)

8 −𝟕
Estimated Mode = 60.5+ ×5
(8− 7) + (8−4)

= 60.5 + (1/5) × 5
= 61.5
Baby Carrots Example
• Example: You grew fifty baby carrots using
special soil. You dig them up and measure their
lengths (to the nearest mm) and group the
results:

Length (mm) Frequency


First find the following:
150 - 154 5
155 - 159 2
L=?
160 - 164 6 fm-1 = ?
165 - 169 8
fm = ?
170 - 174 9
175 - 179 11 fm+1 = ?
180 - 184 6 w=?
185 - 189 3
Estimated Mode

fm − fm−1
=L+ ×w
(fm − fm−1) + (fm − fm+1)
Example: The ages of the 112 people who
live on a tropical island are grouped as
follows:
Age Number
First find the following:
0-9
10 - 19
20
21
L=?
20 - 29 23 fm-1 = ?
30 - 39 16
fm = ?
40 - 49 11
50 - 59 10 fm+1 = ?
60 - 69 7 w=?
70 - 79 3
80 - 89 1