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EE-480

Wireless Communications

Week 1

Dr. Sajjad Shami


EED SST
UMT Lahore
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House Rules
Please place your mobiles on silent

Please note that Lecturers cannot focus


and concentrate on the topic if there is
noise and disruption during the lecture

Anyone who disrupts the lecture will


be marked absent or asked to leave
and will be awarded minus five
mark in the next quiz. INDISCIPLINE
OF ANY KIND WILL RECEIVE A MINUS
FIVE MARK PENALTY.
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 Participants
 Self

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• 1. Lecture Slides
• 2. Textbook Sections
• 3. Textbook Examples
• 4. End Problems
• 5. Other Sources: Web,
articles etc.
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COURSE OUTLINE

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 This course deals with the fundamental and
practical aspects in the analysis and design of
wireless systems.
 Topics that will be covered are:
 the wireless communication channel, cellular

communication principles, techniques used to


combat the channel, overview of multiple access
techniques and example wireless
communication systems.

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 Starting from the transmission fundamentals to
case study of systems like GSM and CDMA, there
will be discussions on cellular planning,
propagation, fading, channel assignments
strategies, handoffs etc.
 The course will also give an overview of Wi-Fi

systems and Bluetooth technology.


 The course directly contributes to objectives

a,d,e and f of the HEC Electrical Engineering


Curriculum.

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 EE315 Signals and Systems

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 After completing this course students will
have basic understanding of wireless
communication systems at the physical layer.
 They shall also have familiarity with state of

the art technologies like GSM and CDMA


systems.
 This course strongly supports expected

outcomes a, b, d and i of the HEC Electrical


Engineering Curriculum.

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 Recommended Text:
 Wireless communications and networks,
second edition by William Stallings, 2005.
 Reference:
 Introduction to Wireless Systems
by P. Mohana Shankar, 2002
 Wireless Communications: Principles and
Practice by T. Rappaport, 2001.

 Online Tutorials

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• It is vitally important that students use their
tutors as support and as a resource,
throughout the course.
• Students are also encouraged to enrich their
knowledge by searching the Web and
making use of any reference library with a
view to doing course assignments
independently.

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 Candidates missing more than 20% of the
lectures will receive “F” grade in the course.
 Please arrive in time

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 Exam candidates attempting to gain an unfair
advantage or colluding in anyway whatsoever
are liable to be disqualified.
 Plagiarism is an offence . However it is ok to
cooperate with your colleagues to help them
to resolve problems with things like operating
the computers, development tools and
program syntax errors.
 These are not honour violations and you can
learn a lot from your colleagues in the course.

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 All media [CDs etc] must be virus free
 Media containing viruses, or media which

cannot be run directly, will result in a FAIL


grade being awarded for this module.

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 Quizzes and Assignments[4-8]: 30% marks
 Mid term Exam: 30% marks
 Final Exam: 50% marks
 Total: 100 marks

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Detail No of
TOPIC Lectur
es
Overview of Wireless Systems
Evolution of wireless communication
Trends in wireless communication
 Introduction Examples of wireless communication 2
systems
Technical challenges of wireless
communication
Analog and Digital Data Transmission
 Transmission
Channel Capacity
Fundamenta 2
Transmission Media
ls
Multiplexing
Propagation Characteristics, Large
 Wireless
Scale Fading, Small Scale Fading, Path 2
Channel
Loss Models, Channel Modeling

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Detail No of
TOPIC Lectur
es
Cellular Network Principles
 Cellular Study and overview of different
Communicati Cellular technologies like AMPS, GSM 4
on and CDMA. Discussions on 2G, 3G
and 4G systems.
Cell Shapes, Cell splitting,
Interferences, Frequency Reuse
Channel Assignment Strategies
 Cellular Handoff Strategies 6
Concept Interference and System Capacity
Improving Coverage and Capacity in
Cellular System
Signal Encoding, Spread Spectrum
 Modulation Modulation, Frequency Hopping
2
Techniques Spread Spectrum, Direct Sequence
Spread Spectrum 17
Detail No of
TOPIC Lectur
es
Time Division Multiple Access,
 Multiple Access Frequency Division Multiple
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Techniques Access, Code Division Multiple
Access.
 Wireless
Standards and Cordless systems, WLL, WiMAX. 2
Mobile IP
A wireless communication
 Wireless LANS, technology for the
Wi Fi & communication of computers. 4
Bluetooth Study of its implementation as
LAN. Bluetooth.

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INFORMAL QUIZ

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Ref: Stallings
 Chapter 1:

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 Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph in
1896
 Communication by encoding alphanumeric characters in
analog signal
 Sent telegraphic signals across the Atlantic Ocean
 Communications satellites launched in 1960s
 Advances in wireless technology
 Radio, television, mobile telephone, communication
satellites
 More recently
 Satellite communications, wireless networking, cellular
technology

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 Higher data rates obtainable with broadband wireless
technology. Apps?
 Apps:
 Graphics, video, audio
 Shares same advantages of all wireless services:
convenience and reduced cost …how?
 How..
 Service can be deployed faster than fixed service
 No cost of cable plant
 Service is mobile, deployed almost anywhere

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 Wireless is convenient and less expensive
 Limitations and political and technical difficulties inhibit

wireless technologies
 Lack of an industry-wide standard
 Device limitations ??

E.g., small LCD on a mobile telephone can only display a


few lines of text
E.g., browsers of most mobile wireless devices use wireless
markup language (WML) instead of HTML

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 William Stallings
 Wireless Communications and Networks 2e
 2005

 Overview of textbook

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 Chapters 2-4
 Provides preview and context for rest of book
 Covers basic topics

◦ Data Communications
◦ TCP/IP

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 Basic overview of transmission topics
 Data communications concepts

◦ Includes techniques of analog and digital data transmission


 Channel capacity
 Transmission media
 Multiplexing

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 Comparison of basic communication network
technologies …which are ?
 These…

◦ Circuit switching
◦ Packet switching
◦ Frame relay
◦ ATM

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 Protocol architecture
 Overview of TCP/IP
 Open systems interconnection (OSI) reference model
 Internetworking

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 Chapters 5-8
 Underlying technology of wireless transmission
 Encoding of analog and digital data for wireless

transmission

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 Cellular wireless network design issues
 First generation analog (traditional

mobile telephony service)


 Second generation digital cellular networks

◦ Time-division multiple access (TDMA)


◦ Code-division multiple access (CDMA)
 Third generation networks

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 Principles of radio and microwave
◦ Antenna performance
◦ Wireless transmission modes
◦ Fading

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 Signal Encoding
 Wireless transmission

◦ Analog and digital data and signals


 Spread Spectrum Modulation
◦ Frequency hopping
◦ Direct sequence spread spectrum
◦ Code division multiple access (CDMA)

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 Error Detection
 Correction codes
 Automatic repeat request (ARQ) techniques

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 Frequency Division Multiple Access
 Time Division Multiple Access
 Code Division Multiple Access
 Packet Radio Access

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 Chapters 10-12
 Examines major types of networks
◦ Satellite-based networks
◦ Cellular networks
◦ Cordless systems
◦ Fixed wireless access schemes
 Use of mobile IP and Wireless Access Protocol (WAP)
to provide Internet and Web access

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 Geostationary satellites (GEOS)
 Low-earth orbiting satellites (LEOS)
 Medium-earth orbiting satellites (MEOS)
 Capacity allocation

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 Cordless systems
 Wireless local loop (WLL)

◦ Sometimes called radio in the loop (RITL) or fixed wireless


access (FWA)
 WiMax

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 Modifications to IP protocol to accommodate wireless
access to Internet
 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

◦ Provides mobile users access to telephony and information


services including Internet and Web
◦ Includes wireless phones, pagers and personal digital assistants
(PDAs)

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 Chapters 13-15
 Examines underlying wireless LAN technology
 Examines standardized approaches to local wireless

networking

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 Overview of LANs and wireless LAN technology and
applications
 Transmission techniques of wireless LANs ??
 These are …

◦ Spread spectrum
◦ Narrowband microwave
◦ Infrared

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 Wireless LAN standards defined by IEEE 802.11
committee
 WiFi

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 Bluetooth is an open specification for wireless
communication and networking …used for ??
 Used for …

◦ Personal computers
◦ Mobile phones
◦ Other wireless devices

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 Web page for this book
◦ WilliamStallings.com/Wireless2e.html
◦ Useful web sites, internet mailing list, wireless courses
 Computer Science Student Support Site
◦ WilliamStallings.com/StudentSupport.html
 Newsgroups
◦ comp.std.wireless
◦ comp.dcom.*

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