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Wireless Communications

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Wireless Communications

Week 2

EED SST

UMT Lahore

1

House Rules

Please place your mobiles on silent

and concentrate on the topic if there is

noise and disruption during the lecture

be marked absent or asked to leave

and will be awarded minus five

mark in the next quiz. INDISCIPLINE

OF ANY KIND WILL RECEIVE A MINUS

FIVE MARK PENALTY. 2

2

WEEK 2

3

INFORMAL QUIZ

4

Ref: Stallings: Chapter 2

Function of time

Can also be expressed as a function of frequency

6

Analog signal

- signal intensity varies in a smooth fashion over time

◦ No breaks or discontinuities in the signal

Digital signal

- signal intensity maintains a constant level for some

period of time and then changes to another constant level

Periodic signal

- analog or digital signal pattern that repeats over time

◦ s(t +T ) = s(t ) - ∞ < t < ∞

where T is the period of the signal

7

Aperiodic signal ?

- analog or digital signal pattern that doesn't repeat over

time

Peak amplitude (A) ?

- maximum value or strength of the signal over time;

typically measured in volts

Frequency (f ) ?

-Rate, in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz) at which the

signal repeats

8

Period (T ) ?

- amount of time it takes for one repetition of the signal

◦ T = 1/f

Phase () ?

- measure of the relative position in time within a single

period of a signal

Wavelength () ?

- distance occupied by a single cycle of the signal

- Or, the distance between two points of corresponding

9

DC …. DV

AC ….. AV

10

In physics, the wavelength of a

sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the

wave – the distance over which the wave's

shape repeats.

It is usually determined by considering the

points of the same phase, such as crests,

troughs, or zero crossings.

11

Wavelength of a sine wave, λ, can be measured between

any two points with the same phase, such as between

crests, or troughs, or corresponding zero crossings as

shown. 12

In linear media, any wave pattern can be

described in terms of the independent

propagation of sinusoidal components.

The wavelength λ of a sinusoidal waveform

λ = v/f

where v is called the phase speed (magnitude of

the phase velocity) of the wave and f is the

wave's frequency.

13

In the case of electromagnetic radiation—such

as light—in free space, the phase speed is the

speed of light, about 3×108 m/s.

For sound waves in air, the speed of sound is

atmospheric pressure).

As an example, the wavelength of a 100 MHz

3×108 m/s divided by 100×106 Hz = 3 metres.

14

General sine wave ?

◦ s(t ) = A sin(2ft + )

Figure 2.3 shows the effect of varying each of the

three parameters

◦ (a) A = 1, f = 1 Hz, = 0; thus T = 1s

◦ (b) Reduced peak amplitude; A=0.5

◦ (c) Increased frequency; f = 2, thus T = ½

◦ (d) Phase shift; = /4 radians (45 degrees)

note: 2 radians = 360° = 1 period

15

16

When the horizontal axis is time, as in Figure 2.3,

graphs display the value of a signal at a given point in

space as a function of time

With the horizontal axis in space, graphs display the

of distance

◦ At a particular instant of time, the intensity of the signal

varies as a function of distance from the source

17

SINUSOIDS?

18

Fundamental frequency?

- when all frequency components of a signal are integer

multiples of one frequency, it’s referred to as the

fundamental frequency

Spectrum?

- range of frequencies that a signal contains

Absolute bandwidth?

- width of the spectrum of a signal

Effective bandwidth?

(or just bandwidth) - narrow band of frequencies that

most of the signal’s energy is contained in

19

Any electromagnetic signal can be shown to consist of

a collection of periodic analog signals (sine waves)

….

at different amplitudes, frequencies, and phases

The period of the total signal is equal to the period of

20

FOURIER SERIES

REPRESENTING PERIODIC SIGNALS AS

SINUSOIDS

FOURIER TRANSFORM

REPRESENTING APERIODIC SIGNALS AS

SINUSOIDS

21

The greater the bandwidth, the higher the

information-carrying capacity

Points

◦ BUT the transmission system will limit the bandwidth that

can be transmitted

◦ AND, for any given medium, the greater the bandwidth

transmitted, the greater the cost

◦ HOWEVER, limiting the bandwidth creates distortions

22

AUDIO (human ear) :

20Hz to 20,000Hz

[music equip ? ]

SPEECH:

100 Hz to 7,000 Hz

VOICE SIGNAL [used on

telephone]:

300 Hz to 3,400 Hz

23

Data ?

- entities that convey meaning, or information

Signals ?

- electric or electromagnetic representations of data

Transmission ?

- communication of data by the propagation and

processing of signals

24

Analog

….Video

…. Audio

Digital

….Text

…. Integers

25

A continuously varying electromagnetic wave that

may be propagated over a variety of media,

depending on frequency

Examples of media: ?

…Copper wire media (twisted pair and coaxial cable)

… Fiber optic cable

….Atmosphere or space propagation

Analog signals can propagate analog and digital data

26

A sequence of voltage pulses that may be transmitted

over a copper wire medium .. Or other ..

Generally cheaper than analog signaling

Less susceptible to noise interference

Suffer more from attenuation

Digital signals can propagate analog and digital data

27

28

29

Digital data, digital signal

◦ Equipment for encoding is less expensive than digital-to-

analog equipment

Analog data, digital signal

◦ Conversion permits use of modern digital transmission and

switching equipment

Digital data, analog signal

◦ Some transmission media will only propagate analog signals

◦ Examples include optical fiber and satellite

Analog data, analog signal

◦ Analog data easily converted to analog signal

30

Transmit analog signals without regard to content

Attenuation limits length of transmission link

Cascaded amplifiers boost signal’s energy for longer

distances but cause distortion

◦ Analog data can tolerate distortion

◦ Introduces errors in digital data

31

Concerned with the content of the signal

Attenuation endangers integrity of data

Digital Signal

◦ Repeaters achieve greater distance

◦ Repeaters recover the signal and retransmit

Analog signal carrying digital data

◦ Retransmission device recovers the digital data from analog

signal

◦ Generates new, clean analog signal

32

Impairments, such as noise, limit data rate that can be

achieved

For digital data, to what extent do impairments limit data

rate?

Channel Capacity

– the maximum rate at which data can be transmitted over

a given communication path, or channel, under given

conditions

Unit?

33

Data rate

- rate at which data can be communicated (bps)

Bandwidth

- the bandwidth of the transmitted signal as constrained

by the transmitter and the nature of the transmission

medium (Hertz)

Noise

- average level of noise over the communications path

Error rate

- rate at which errors occur

◦ Error = transmit 1 and receive 0; transmit 0 and receive 1

34

For binary signals (two voltage levels)

◦C = 2B

With multilevel signaling

◦ C = 2B log2 M

M = number of discrete signal or voltage levels

35

LOG BASE 10 = COMMON LOG

LOG BASE 2

LOG BASE e = LOG BASE 2.7182818258 =

NATURAL LOG = ln

log 2 247.7 [7.9524..]

ln 247.7 = log e247.7 [5.5122..]

36

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