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Wireless Communications

Week 6

Dr. Sajjad Shami

UMT Lahore
House Rules
Please place your mobiles on silent

Please note that Lecturers cannot focus

and concentrate on the topic if there is
noise and disruption during the lecture

Anyone who disrupts the lecture will be

marked absent or asked to leave and will
be awarded minus five mark in the next
 Protocol Specification
◦ Format of protocol data units (PDUs) exchanged
◦ Semantics of all fields
◦ Allowable sequence of PDUs
 Service Definition
◦ Functional description that defines what services are
provided, but not how the services are to be provided
 Addressing
◦ Entities are referenced by means of a service access point

 Communication network – facility that provides a
data transfer service among devices attached to the
 Internet – collection of communication networks,
interconnected by bridges/routers
 Intranet – internet used by an organization for
internal purposes
◦ Provides key Internet applications
◦ Can exist as an isolated, self-contained internet

 End System (ES) – device used to support end-user
applications or services
 Intermediate System (IS) – device used to connect
two networks
 Bridge – an IS used to connect two LANs that use
similar LAN protocols
 Router - an IS used to connect two networks that
may or may not be similar

 Provide a link between networks
 Provide for the routing and delivery of data between
processes on end systems attached to different
 Provide these functions in such a way as not to require
modifications of the networking architecture of any of
the attached subnetworks

 Addressing schemes
◦ Different schemes for assigning addresses
 Maximum packet sizes
◦ Different maximum packet sizes requires segmentation
 Interfaces
◦ Differing hardware and software interfaces
 Reliability
◦ Network may provide unreliable service

 Detailed Study of INTERNET PROTOCOL at the
end of Chapter 4. [APPENDIX 4A]

 Class A, Class B, Class C addresses
 IPv4 …. IPv6

Ref: Stallings Ch 5
 We shall first try to get the overall view
 Then look at details
 Some answers by email…

 Fixed/Landline Telephone Network [PSTN]
 Cordless Home Phone System
 Mobile Phone / Handset
 Cellular Phone Handset/ Cell Phone
 Cellular Phone Network [PLMN]

 Of all advances in data communications and

this is the most
 It supports users that are not easily served
by wired networks

 a radio network distributed over land
areas called cells,
 each served by at least one fixed-

location transceiver
 known as a cell site or base station.
 When joined together
 these cells provide radio coverage
 over a wide geographic area.

 This enables a large number of portable
transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, pagers,
etc.) to communicate with each other
 and with fixed transceivers and

telephones anywhere in the network,

 via base stations,
 even if some of the transceivers are

moving through more than one cell during


 Cellular networks offer a number of
advantages over alternative solutions:
 increased capacity
 reduced power use
 larger coverage area
 reduced interference from other signals

 Global System for Mobile
 originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile
 Is a world wide accepted and
 agreed implementation
 of cellular telephone network

 An example of a simple non-telephone
cellular system is ?
 the old taxi driver's radio system
 where the taxi company has several

transmitters based around a city

 that can communicate directly with each


 In a cellular radio system, a land area to be
supplied with radio service is divided into
regular shaped cells,
 which can be hexagonal, square, circular or

some other irregular shapes,

 although hexagonal cells are

 Each of these cells is assigned multiple

frequencies (set such as f1 - f6) which have

corresponding radio base stations.

 P-GSM-900
 UL 890.2–914.8
 DL 935.2–959.8 MHz

 Channels 1–124 …. Each has a pair

 the uplink is 890-915 & down link is 935-
 each channel having bandwidth of 200KHz &

used by 8 subscribers
 so 25MHz/200Khz ......=125
 ...so there are 125 channels present in

 one channel is use as a guard
 so only 124 channels

 The group of frequencies can be reused in
other cells,
 provided that the same frequencies are not

reused in adjacent neighboring cells

 as that would cause

co-channel interference.

 or CCI is crosstalk from two different
radio transmitters using the same frequency.
 There can be several causes
 In cellular mobile communication frequency
spectrum is a precious resource which is divided
into non-overlapping spectrum bands which
are assigned to different cells.
 However, after certain geographical distance,
those frequency bands are re-used, \
 i.e. the same spectrum bands are re-assigned
to other distant cells.

 The co-channel interference arises in the
cellular mobile networks owing to this
phenomenon of Frequency reuse.
 So ….. besides the intended signal from
within the cell,
 signals at the same frequencies (co-

channel signals) arrive at the receiver

 from the undesired transmitters located

(far away) in some other cells

 and lead to deterioration in receiver

 Hexagonal shaped cells shown are
artificial and cannot be generated in the
real world.
 However this shape is chosen to simplify

planning and design of a cellular

system as hexagons fit together without
any overlap or gap in between them.
 Another advantage of using hexagons is

that it approaches a circular shape

which is the ideal power coverage area.

 The real cell shape is as shown and it's
shape will keep changing due to prevailing

 The size of the cell largely depends on the
area in which the cell is located.
 Generally, rural areas (villages) have less

subscribers compared to urban areas (cities)

 So in an urban area more channels are needed

to accommodate the larger number of

 If each cell in a given rural and urban area

had fixed number of channels, the cell size in

the urban area would have to be smaller to
allow more channels in the given area.

 Reducing the cell size would result in ??
 cells, using similar channel frequency, to

be located closer to each other.

 Therefore reducing the size too much

would cause an increase in ??

 co-channel interference.
 Size of the cell can be varied by ?
 by varying the power and sensitivity of

the base station.

 An alternative way to change the size of the
cell is to split the cell.
 This involves reducing the radius of a cell

by half and splitting an old cell into four

small cells as shown below.

• The increased capacity in a cellular network,
compared with a network with a single
• comes from the fact that ??

• the same radio frequency can be reused

• in a different area for a completely
different transmission.

• If there is a single plain transmitter, only one

transmission can be used on any given
 Unfortunately, there is inevitably some level
of interference from the signal from the
other cells which use the same frequency.
 This means that, in a standard FDMA

system, there must be …

 at least a one cell gap
between cells which reuse the
same frequency.

 To distinguish signals from several different
 frequency division multiple access (FDMA)

 code division multiple access (CDMA) were

 With FDMA, the transmitting and receiving

frequencies used in each cell

 are different from the frequencies used in

each neighbouring cell.

• The principle of CDMA is more complex, but
achieves the same result;
• the distributed transceivers can select one
cell and listen to it.

• Other available methods of multiplexing such

as polarization division multiple access
(PDMA) and time division multiple access
(TDMA) as such cannot be used to separate
signals from one cell to the next
• since the effects of both vary with position
and this would make signal separation
practically impossible.
 Time division multiple access, however, is
used in combination with either FDMA or
CDMA in a number of systems
 to give multiple channels within the

coverage area of a single cell.

 Depending on terrain and other
 a GSM Tower can replace between
 2 and 50 miles of cabling for fixed

 Power ~ 100W

• The key characteristic of a cellular
network is the ability to re-use
frequencies to increase both coverage and
• Adjacent cells must utilize different
• however there is no problem with two
cells sufficiently far apart operating on
the same frequency.

 To ensure that the mutual interference
between users remains below a harmful
level, adjacent cells use different
 In fact, a set of C different frequencies

{f1, ..., fC} are used for each cluster of C

adjacent cells.
 Cluster patterns and the corresponding

frequencies are re-used in a regular pattern

over the entire service area.

 Group of Cells

 The number of cells per cluster is
restricted by the requirement that
 the clusters must fit together like jig-

saw pieces.
 The possible cell clusters are the 4-,

7-, 12- and 21-cell clusters.

Frequency reuse plan for C = 3, (i=1, j

• The elements that determine frequency reuse
are ??
• the reuse distance and the reuse factor.

 The closest distance between the centres of
two cells using the same frequency (in
different clusters)
 is determined by the choice of the cluster

size C and the lay-out of the cell cluster.

 This distance is called the
 frequency 're-use' distance.

 For hexagonal cells, i.e., with 'honeycomb'
cell lay-outs commonly used in mobile
 Cluster is repeated by linear shift
 i steps along one direction
 j steps in the other direction
 possible cluster sizes are C = i2 + ij + j2,
 with integer i and j (C = 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, ...).
 Integers i and j determine the relative

location of co-channel cells.

7-cell reuse with i = 2 and j =1.

• The frequeny reuse distance, D is
calculated as

• where R is the cell radius and

• N is the number of cells per cluster.
• Cells may vary in radius …
• in the ranges (1 km to 30 km).
• The boundaries of the cells can also overlap
between adjacent cells and large cells can
be divided into smaller cells

 For a seven-cell cluster with each cell of
radius 5 km, what is the frequency reuse
 A.

•D = 5 x (3x7) ½
• = 5 x 4.5825
• = 22.91 km Ans.

 The number of cells per cluster is
restricted by the requirement that
 the clusters must fit together like jig-

saw pieces.
 The possible cell clusters are the 4-,

7-, 12- and 21-cell clusters.

 The diagram shows a 7-cell cluster which is
commonly used in the UK.

• The frequency reuse factor is
• the rate at which the same frequency can be
used in the network.
• It is 1/K (or K according to some
books) where
• K is the number of cells which cannot
use the same frequencies for
• Common values for the frequency reuse
factor are 1/3, 1/4, 1/7, 1/9 and 1/12
• (or 3, 4, 7, 9 and 12 depending on notation).

 By using directional antennae on a base
station, each pointing in different
directions, it is possible to sectorise the
base station into wedge shaped sectors,
each with its own set of channels,
 typically 3 or 6 sectors per cell
 each sector is assigned a subset of the

cell’s channels.

 Typically these directional antennas have a

beamwidth of 65 to 85 degrees.
 This increases the traffic capacity of the
base station
 whilst not greatly increasing the

interference caused to neighboring cells

 (in any given direction, only a small
number of frequencies are being
 Typically two antennas are used per sector,

at spacing of ten or more wavelengths


 This allows the operator to overcome the
effects of fading due to physical
phenomena such as multipath reception.
 Some amplification of the received signal as
it leaves the antenna is often used to
preserve the balance between uplink and
downlink signal

• In case of N sector antennas on the same base
station site, each with different direction,
• the base station site can serve N different
• N is typically 3.
• A reuse pattern of N/K denotes a further
division in frequency among N sector antennas
per site.
• Some current and historical reuse patterns are
• 3/7 (North American AMPS), 6/4 (Motorola
NAMPS), and 3/4 (GSM).

 If the total available bandwidth is B,
 each cell can only utilize a number of
frequency channels
 corresponding to a bandwidth of B/K, and
 each sector can use a bandwidth of B/NK.

• Code division multiple access-based systems
use a wider frequency band to achieve the
same rate of transmission as FDMA, but this
is compensated for by the ability to use a
frequency reuse factor of 1,
• for example using a reuse pattern of 1/1.
• In other words, adjacent base station sites
use the same frequencies, and the different
base stations and users are separated by
codes rather than frequencies.

 While N is shown as 1 in this example,
that does not mean the CDMA cell has only
one sector, but
 rather that the entire cell bandwidth is also

available to each sector individually.

 All cellular phone networks worldwide use a
portion of the radio frequency spectrum
designated as ??
 Ultra High Frequency, or "UHF", for the
transmission and reception of their signals.
 The UHF band is also shared with Television,
Wi-Fi and Bluetooth transmission.
 The cellular frequencies are the sets of
frequency ranges within the UHF band that
have been allocated for cellular phone use.
 Due to historical reasons, radio frequencies
used for cellular networks differ in the
Americas, Europe, and Asia.
 Many GSM phones support three bands
 (900/1800/1900 MHz or

850/1800/1900 MHz)
 or four bands

(850/900/1800/1900 MHz),
 and are usually referred to as tri band and

quad band phones, or world phones;

 with such a phone one can travel

internationally and use the same handset.


 www.fab.gov.pk

 Also
 www.pta.gov.pk

The overall cellular system is granted some
part of the spectrum, which is subdivided into
 Each BS is assigned a (sub-)set of channels to
serve mobiles
 Neighboring BS's are assigned different sets
of channels to avoid interference
 The same channel could be re-used by
another base station having sufficient
distance to avoid interference = frequency
 Moving mobiles will occasionally leave the
transmission range of one BS to enter the
range of another = handover 67
 During a call a BS assigns a fixed portion of a
slot to a mobile:
 mobiles arriving to a “full” BS will get no
 Reducing cell size / transmission power
while increasing the number of BS:
 increases the system capacity
 also … increases the number of handovers
 Handover is initiated by the mobile, which
has to constantly check the signal levels of
surrounding BS
 There are different channel assignment
 Fixed assignment: each BS is allocated a
fixed set of frequencies and
 allocation does not change over time
 Fixed assignment with borrowing:
before a call is blocked, a BS might try to
borrow" a channel from a neighboring BS
 Dynamic assignment: MSC keeps all
channels and allocates them on request to
a BS

 Mobile networks based on different standards
may use the same frequency range;
 for example, AMPS, D-AMPS, N-AMPS and IS-95
all use the 800 MHz frequency band.
 Both AMPS and IS-95 networks can be in use on
the same frequency in the same area that do not
interfere with each other.
 This is achieved by the use of different channels
to carry data.
 The actual frequency used by a particular phone
can vary from place to place, depending on the
settings of the carrier's base station.