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!( 

RECTANGULAR CIRCULAR
(RW: Rigid Waveguides)

RW: TWIST 90°


RW: DIRECTIONAL AND
CROSS COUPLERS
RW: 90° BENDS IN PLANES Ö 
and Ö planes
RW: WAVEGUIDE STRAIGHT
SECTION
5˜ 0'( 0 5 / 5 . m
666 ( "
 
˜ $%&m'(
KW: Klexible Waveguides
KW: Rectangular Klex-Twist Waveguide

ATM Type "125"Klex-Twist W/G assemblies:


Used in requirements where both bending and twisting of the Waveguide is needed.
Supplied with Neoprene® jacket in order to hold pressure, as a standard model.
Silicone jacket available upon request.
| |
 
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KW: Rectangular Klex Waveguide,
High Power, Non-Twistable

ATM Type "124" flexible, non twist W/G assemblies:


Kor use in Hi Power Applications.
Kinished with high temperature paint.
| |
 
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5  6%& 5 ˜% ' *

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Assume that the waveguide is filled with:


A source-free  *  3 7  3 lossless dielectric material with  * ã
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HOW TO SOLVE
HOMOGENEOUS HEMHOLTZ¶S
EQUATION

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HOW TO SOLVE THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS?


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; ,
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(2.14d)
; ,
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Ë  ;
(2.16c)
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 a @a
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:Ê  ;
Ë  ;

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  +   ,

Where:    Ë  1   1 , 1 +
0 -# ##I   #<      ))  
+
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#  ) 


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Components of EM fields in a rectangular waveguide


(a) TE mode @ z  3 (b) TM mode H z  3
5 "
   1   M
 0 5     2 3
Ë   1   Ë    :  :1
 
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    +

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m " *
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# 


;
2 3  + 2 3 #@
;
2 3  + 2  #@
;
2 3  , 2 3 #@
;
2 3  , 2  #@
 -# #@   #@  -
 2 3 2 I  -# #


 -# #  

 ;
  3 
 1 , , 
 1 + +  Ë; (2.18)

Where:  3   F
 -# #@   #@  "   -# #A  - 

 1 ,   3 and
 1 +   3
 
"

1 ,     2 IP
"+ 
*    
1 +   2 IP
 5    
-
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1,   1+ 
 
 
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) -# #3  
#F (C  ;
2 3#   
Ë     ,   +   ËÒ (2.21a)

,
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Ë    ,   +   Ë= (2.21b)
 +
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:Ê     ,   +   Ë= (2.21c)
 ,
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 
      
:Ê     ,   +   Ë= (2.21d)
 +
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 
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Where:    1 , 1 +   f 
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*
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*
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Ù  ) "  
* 
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Ë  f   f  1 (2.22)
 
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a
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@ @@ a
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am 
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If: 1  Ê
  f  f
   
Ë3 OR  3K
The value of Ȧ that causes this is called
the cutoff angular frequency, Ȧc where:
   
 
  
   (2.23)
   f   f

RECALL:    Ë  1   1 , 1 +
Ë K
( . $ 6( 6
 
      
If: 1  Ê
  f   f
  

Ë and 3

m 

  "" 6  *  + *   ""#

       


  *
 #
 / "+ 5 *    )" 

   *
  *
#
( /5 / % m 6

 
      
m) 1  Ê

 f   f
  

Ë  :   3
Krom this limitation, the phase constant, ȕ will become:

   
  1   f  

KM 
    f



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  "" 1 "
 
"" ) "  
"" *  ) ) ËÒ   Ò #
REKER TABLE 1
m  !/

0" 

/5 / % m 6

Q
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Q
))
)) 0 - + )
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a   
       
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)" # 
  

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)   OR )     
     f   f   

   
˜  
* "+ )  ) " *   "

"



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  ã      *  #
)) ˜* "  S

    (2.24)
)

OR


 
  (2.25)
   

   
 
/

  M

 
K       f

OR


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  R   f
)

Where:          phase constant of uniform plane


wave in the dielectric medium
L ) *
  


 ) 
Ë    K    
)
/
$ "+    *     *  


  
K
S   ˜% Different from Ȝc

  
 
 )

Some books denote Ȝ in the WG as Ȝg


m 
 ˜* m   )  
 T 
L 2 :M
 
 a   
Ù   
  
    

 
 *    +  )  #
Ù m 

 
 % 1 "   KL T )
 
    #
Ù   
    
  
 )  
)  "  ) "     ) "#
, + K

    ) 
    f
+ ,  )

 
) R 

 
    )

OR:   R    ) f  ) " *    " 
 #
/5m *
˜m & /5m
Ù  - 
˜m  9
 ˜*  

)   "    


+  * 
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 *     *     
  
)""    " #

Ù  - 
˜m & 
 ˜*  

)    


 + 
*  #
,"  

( V|
 and
indicate the number of half-cycle variations
in the - cross section of the guide.
 

 m 
+ )    "  ) " E 

* 

"     )  # 
    

 
  *
   

;  3



 0
 "  
     +   

,
2 3  + 2 3 #<
,
2 3  + 2  #<
,
2 3  , 2 3 #<
,
2 3  , 2  #<
 

 0 -# #<   #<   +  


 
 

 ;
at y=0
3
+
 ;
at y=b
3
+
 ;
at x=0
3
,
 ;
x=a
3 at
,
 &
  +  
 -# #I "" * 

 ,   +  Ë=
 ;
  3 
  
  (2.27)
   
Where:    ..I
 

 '     ) "  



  -# #@   #<

     ,   +   ËÒ (2.28a)


 ,

   3 
 
  
      
     ,   +   ËÒ (2.28b)
 +
    3
   
 
      
Ë     ,   +   ËÒ (2.28c)
,
    3
   
 
      
Ë    ,   +   ËÒ (2.28d)
+
    3 
 
  
      

But for TE modes: m = 0,1,2,3,««


n = 0,1,2,3,««
  ) 
     33   33
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""
)  ) "  
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#
3   3
 
"
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*  #
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 3 
 "
   
 3  p  3 
 
  
   3 
"
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m
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a@a 

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a@ a 
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!  

! 3
 
) X

'    3


 

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)  
,  ) T

cTE  cTM
T
, +
  
+ ,
Ê

     
 Ê




   f


OR:  

 
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T   T   "+


*    + *+ 
) - + 
 
  )

    
 
 5  " ˜* 
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R
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 3  

> *  "


    +  *  ) - + )  ) 3   3 
will not be propagated   
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"+ 
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Note:  1 + 
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WHY ?
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ð
 

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Õ

0  * 


   

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U ¨ U   2 
WHY ?


 
U2U 
h h
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  I

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àà
à  
U2 àà
h h
h  :   
à
 
 

´  ´ ´


3 3
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1 
 
  
) " ,


)
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 ;
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5 "" 

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Amplitude,    
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3 
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3 3 3IP !, 2 
  
3 3 I3 F3 H3 <3!,  2 H
   
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H H
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M    F#IU  #H F3],H3 ]+
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m (+ ) 5  " ˜* 

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4 . * )) ) - +   ) 3
m (+ 5  " ˜* 

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"*       ) " *

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#
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""+ )  + 

 
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   ) ˜* ) 
Bold line : constant phase at the maximum value 3
Lighter line : constant phase at the minimum value  3

 +!";   *    D;  


 ˜* )  *  )  *  /" ˜*
˜* )   /" ˜*
 6 
    )  "
 *
 #
 
*
  
    #
 6  ; " "

   
 

*
 
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" ) " (intersection
between maximum and
minimum)

˜ 1   " !";   *



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         #
  "  ) " 
 ,
    * 
+     

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    ""

, 2    , 2 

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3    
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uu = u¶
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) ;  )
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)   

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) * "+
# Medium velocity, u¶ # The phase velocity, uph
" Velocity at which constant phase are
§ | propagated down the guide
|
"|
§›  = Ȧ/ȕ

       |
R R
      

° 
  
)
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  §    
° 
!




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m)   
""      

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3. The group velocity, ug
 

""+  * "+ )  )  "  ) "



 "   * 
 m 
 +  * "+   
"+
"


-"  9
 
) 
  5     R 
°   R    f
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Note that:       R


  *     D;!  


 ))  
* "  )  )  " *
# 
* " 
      
""  *  * "   

* +   

 
 where     ð
   f

 m  ) % $ "+ &
  * "+   
* " 4  -*" "+ 
*  4 * "

   
""  
 * "+ 


  
 * "+ )
 +   + 
*    )   )
   #

"  * )  




 * 
    K 
    K 
"  Ȧ-ȕ for TE and TM modes
in a hollow rectangular
waveguide

0  "  2  




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0 U 
  +

   )) ) - +

 )     "
   
 
  "
) - 
 ))
    

 * +
))   *"

Ȧ=0 # #  ))  2 ^  2 3


 As frequency increases
Q!M *
) U 

   " #


6   
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 _ 9    ` 9


) ! ^      

 
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m ) * "
 
* "+  
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 + ) 5 "*+
""  *" #

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+  F%;   )  ," " #
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* "+    
* "+#

|
M 3 ""   J I#II,3A U
J #@3 , 3A U

," @
5   ," < ) 

|
M  2 I#AA %= ""   
$ 2 #C , 3A U
J
$ 2 @#CI , 3@ U

4 


 m          )"   *    *
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#
 a
/*  @
—


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    1    /+   * 

"   D;!  # 


/*  5   ,
a+
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a,
a ;

 
,
+

 a;

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 T 2 T )  

  " *    


  


 cross section )  *  "" 
 
*  * Ó w
 
  ,
+

 w+w,
, 3 + 3 

 ˜       


   
," A
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2F 2 


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TYPES OK RESONATORS
ÙA popular resonator used with bipolar and KET oscillators
ÙCan be used up to 20GHz
Ù Provides the highest Q (Quality Kactor) of any resonator
Ù Thus, provides the most stable frequency
Ù However, it is large especially at the low end of microwave
frequency band and not compatible with microstrip mounting
Ù Has almost as good a Q as the metal rectangular cavity
Ù Much smaller since a coaxial transmission line does not need
a half-wavelength width as the rectangular cavity does
Ù Easy to fabricate but has low Q
Ù Oscillators using it have poor frequency stability
Ù Has almost as good a Q as the metal rectangular or coaxial
cavities
Ù Size is compatible with microstrip dimensions in the microwave
band above 5GHz
Ù Also known as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)
Ù Provides a small resonator at the low end of the microwave
band below 1GHz with much higher Q that could be obtained
by stripline resonators
Ù Uses Lithium Niobate, a piezoelectric material
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