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COURSE : EE602- CIRCUIT

ANALYSIS
Time-domain Laplace s-domain
ODE problems algebra problems
Transform
(LT)
Difficult Easy

Inverse
Solutions of time- Solutions of algebra
domain problems problems
LT

2
 Find differential equations that
describe system
 Obtain Laplace transform
 Perform algebra to solve for output or
variable of interest
 Apply inverse transform to find
solution
The Laplace transform of a
function f(t) is defined as

F ( s )  L  f (t ) 

  f (t )e dt  st
0

Laplace, Pierre-Simon Where s    j  is a complex


1749-1827 variable.
4
t is real, s is complex!
 Inverse requires complex analysis to solve
 Note “transform”: f(t)  F(s), where t is
integrated and s is variable
 Conversely F(s)  f(t), t is variable and s is
integrated
 Assumes f(t) = 0 for all t < 0

* The Laplace transform is an integral


information of a function f(t) from the time
domain into the complex frequency
domain, F(s)
• Some Laplace Transforms wide variety of
function can be transformed
Inverse Transform

1
L [ F (s)] f (t )

• Often requires partial fractions or other


manipulation to find a form that is easy to
apply the inverse
Name f(t) F(s)
1 t 0
Impulse f (t )   1
0 t 0
1
Step f (t )  1
s
1
Ramp f (t )  t
s2
1
Exponential f (t )  e at
sa
1
Sine f (t )  sin( t )
 2  s2
Addition/S caling L[af1 (t )  bf 2 (t )]  aF1 ( s )  bF2 ( s )

d 
Differenti ation L  f (t )  sF ( s )  f (0)
 dt 

Integratio n L  f (t)dt F s(s)  1s  f (t)dt t 0


t
Convolutio n  f (t  τ)f (τ )dτ  F (s) F (s)
0
1 2 1 2

Initial -value theorem f (0)  lim sF ( s )


s 

Final -value theorem lim f (t )  lim sF ( s )


t  s 0
Laplace Transform of the unit step.

 1  st 

 st
L[u (t )]  1e dt  e |
s 0
0


s
e
 1  s (  )  s ( 0)
e 
1

s
The Laplace transform of a unit impulse.


L[ (t )]    (t )e  st dt
0
 s(0)
e
1
The Laplace transform of a exponential function


L[e  at u (t )]  e  at e  st dt
0



 ( s  a )t 1  ( s  a )t
 e dt   e
sa 0
0


1
sa

e  ( s  a )(  )  e  ( s  a )( 0) 
1

sa
The Laplace transform of a trigonometry function


 st
F ( s)  L[sin t ]  e sin t dt
0

u  e  st  f (x)g' (x)dx  uv   vdu


 st
du   s.e dt
dv  sin t dt
cos t
v

  s   st 

 st
  (e cos t ) /   e cos t 
 0  0 

 e


1  s ( )
cos  ()  e  s (0)
 
s    st
cos  (0)   e cos t 
 0


1 s   st  s   st 
  (e sin t ) /  
  0   0
e sin t 

1 s2 
  2 F ( s)  F ( s)  2 ,s  0
  s  2
 If F1(s) and F2(s) are respectively, the Laplace
transform of f1(t) and f2(t), then

L af1 (t )  bf 2 (t )   aF1 (s)  bF2 (s)


 
L af1 (t )  bf 2 (t )   a  e  st
f1 (t )dt  b  e  st
f 2 (t )dt
0 0
 aL f1 (t )  bL f 2 (t )
 e jt  e  jt  1
Lcost   L   
  Le
jt 1
 Le  jt
 
 2  2 2

Euler' s Rule
e jt  e  jt
sin t 
j2
e j t  e  j  t
cos t 
2
2

Lcos t   L e  e
1 jt  jt

1 1
  
1 

2  s  j s  j  
1  s  j  s  j  1  2s 
 
  2 
2  s  js   js   j 2 2  2  s 2   2 
s

s2   2
1. Find the laplace transforms of these
functions : r(t )tu(t ),that is ramp function
and e u (t ).
at

2. Determine the Laplace transform of


f (t )  cos t u (t ) .
3. Obtain the Laplace transform of
f (t )  (t )  2u(t )  3e 2t , t  0
If F ( s ) is Laplace transform of f (t ), then

L f (t  a ) u (t  a )   f (t  a ) u (t  a )e  st dt, a  0
0
But u (t  a )  0 for t  a and u (t  a )  1 for t  a. Hence

L f (t  a ) u (t  a )   f (t  a ) e  st dt
0
If we let x  t  a then dx  dt and t  x  a.
As t  a, x  0 and as t  , x  , Thus

L f (t  a ) u (t  a )   f ( x) e s( xa)
dx
0


 e  as f ( x) e  sx dx  e  as F ( s )
0

so, L f (t  a) u(t  a)  e as


F ( s)
As example we know ,

Lcos t   2
s
s  2

Using time shift property,

Lcos  (t  a ) u (t  a )  e  as s
s 
2 2
If F ( s ) is Laplace transform of f (t ), then

Le   at
 
f (t )  e  at
f (t )e  st
dt
0


 ( s  a )t
 f (t ) e dt  F ( s  a)
0

Le   at

f (t )  F ( s  a )
As example we know that,

Lcos wt   2
s
s 2
Using frequency shift property,


Le  at

cos wt 
sa
( s  a)  
2 2
Given that F(s) is the Laplace transform of f(t),
the Laplace transform of its derivative s is,

 df 

df  st
L   e dt
 dt  0
dt

To integrate by this part, let u  e -st , du   se -st dt


df
and dv  dt  df (t ), v  f (t )
dt
Then,

 df 
L    f (t )e  st 

0  f (t )[  se  st dt ]
 dt  0


 0  f (0  )  s f (t )e  st dt
0

 sF ( s )  f (0 )

L f ' (t )  sF (s)  f (0 )


The Laplace transform of second derivative is,
d 2 f 
L 2   sL  f ' (t )   f ' ( 0 
)
 dt 
 
 s sF ( s)  f (0  )  f ' (0  )
 s 2 F ( s)  sf (0  )  f ' (0  )

L f ' ' (t )  s 2 F (s)  s f (0 )  f ' (0 )

We can obtain nth derivative s,


d n f  n 1   n2
L n   s F ( s )  s f (0 )  f ' (0 )  s
n
f ' (0  )  ...  s 0 f n 1 (0  )
 dt 
If we let f(t)  cos ωt,then f (0)  1
and f ' (t )   sin t.

L[ sin t ]  sF ( s)  f (0 )
1

L[sin t ]   sF ( s )  f (0  )


1 s  
  s 2  1 
  s   2  s2   2
If F (s) is Laplace transform of f(t), then

F(s)  
0
f (t )e  st dt

Taking derivative with respect to s,


 

 f (t )( te 
dF(s)  st  st
 )dt  [tf (t )]e dt  L[tf (t )]
ds
0 0
and frequency differenti ation property becomes
dF(s)
L[tf (t )]  
ds
Repeated applicatio n of this equation lead to
d n F(s)
L[t n f (t )]  (1) n
ds n

1 at
We know that L[e ] 
sa
Using property of frequency of derivative ,
 at d  1  1
L[te ]   
ds  s  a  ( s  a ) 2
If F (s) is Laplace transform of f(t)
the Laplace transform of integral is
t  t

 
L[ f (t )dt ]  [ f (t )dt ]e  st dt
0 0 0
t
To integrate let, u   f (t )dt, du  f (t )dt
0
 st


 st e
and dv  e dt, v  , using formula uv- vdu
s
t t  e  st  1

L[ f (t )dt ]   f (t )dt 
  0 

e  st f (t )dt
   s  s
0 0   0

For the first term on right - hand side of equation,


evaluating the term t   yield zero due to e
10
and evaluating at t  0 give  f(t)dt  0,thus
s0
t 

 
1  st 1
L[ f (t )dt ]  e f (t )dt  F ( s )
s s
0 0


1
L[ f (t )dt ]  F ( s )
s
0
1
If we let f(t)  u (t ), and F(s)  ,
s
t
1 1  1

L[ f (t )dt  L[t ]     2
0
s s  s
Thus Laplace transform of ramp function is
1
L[t ]  2
s
1
If we let f(t)  t u (t ), and F(s)  ,
s2
t
1 1 
2


t
L[ t dt  L[ ]   2 
2 s s 
0
2
L[t ] 2
3
s
Repeated applicatio n
n!
L[t ]  n 1
n
s
Similarly, using integratio n by part, we can show
t


1 1 1 
L[ f (t )dt ]  F ( s)  f (0 )
s s

0

 f (t )dt
1 
where, f (0 ) 

If F (s) is Laplace transform of f(t), then

F(s)  
0
f (t )e  st dt

Taking integral with respect to s,


   
 st

  
e f (t )  st f (t )
F ( s )ds  f (t )( ) dt  [ ]e dt  L[ ]
t t t
s 0 s 0
and frequency differenti ation property becomes


f (t )
L[ ]  F ( s )ds
t
s
1
If we let f(t)  t u (t ), and F(s)  2
,
s
 

s 
f (t ) 1 2
L[ ] 2
ds  s ds
t
s s
1 
s 1 1
 |  1( s )
1 s
1

s
1. Find the laplace transforms of these
functions:
a) f (t )  2te2t
1 4  3t
b) f (t )  t e
2
c) f (t )  5e 2t cos 3t
5t
d ) f (t )  4e sin t
Definition:Inverse Laplace transform,
denoted by L1[ F ( s)] is given by
C  j
1

1
f (t )  L [ F ( s)]  F ( s ) e st
ds(t  0)
2  j C  j

where C is a real constant。

Note: The inverse Laplace transform operation involving


rational functions can be carried out using Laplace
transf orm table and par tial-fraction expansion .
1 1
a) L [ ]  1
s
1  s 
b) L  2 2
 sin t
s  
1  1  1 1  3  1
c) L  2  3L  2 2
 sin 3t
s  9 s 3  3
 
  1
1  5  5 5 t
1   e
d )L   L 3
 3s  1   

1  3
 
3 s 
  3
1 6 1 
2! 
e) L [ 3 ]  3L  21   3t 2
s s 
1  3  1 1  3!  1 3
f ) L  4   L  31   t
s  2 s  2
1 7s  1  s 
g )L  2   7L  2 2
 7 cos 2t
s  4 s  2 
 2 
1 1
 1  1 3t 4 1 3t 4
h) L    2 L    2 e t  e t
 s  35
  s  35
 4! 12
 Suppose F(s) has a general form of :
N ( s)
F (s) 
D( s )

 Where N(s) – numerator polynomial


D(s) – denominator polynomial
 N(s)=0 are called zeros of F(s), while
D(s)=0 are called poles of F(s).
 IfF(s) has a simple poles, then D(s) become a
product of factor:
N ( s)
F ( s) 
s  p1 s  p2 ...s  pn 
 For all s = -p1,-p2,…,-pn are the simple poles.
k1 k2 kn
F ( s)    ... 
s  p1 s  p2 s  pn
 k1,k2,…,kn - are known as residues of F(s)
 If we multiply bothside with (s + p1)
s  p1 F (s)  k1 
s  p1  k 2
 ... 
s  p1  k n
s  p2 s  pn
 Since pi ≠ pj, setting s = -p1
s  p1 F (s) s  p 1
 k1

 Thus in general form,


ki  s  pi F ( s) s   pi

 Sincethe inverse transform of each


terms,
 p1t  p2 t  pn t
f (t )  k1e  k2e  ...  k n e
2s  3
Example 14 : F(s) 
s s  3
2s  3 k1 k2
 
s ( s  3) s s 3
2s  3 sk 2
multiply bothside with s ,  k1 
s 3 s 3
2s  3
k1  s 0
s 3
k1  1
2 s  3 ( s  3)k1
multiply bothside with s  3,   k2
s s
2s  3
k2  s 3
s
k2  1
2s  3 1 1
Hence  
ss  3 s s  3
1  2s  3  1  1 1 
L  L   
 s s  3    s s  3 
from table,
f (t )  1  e 3t
s 2  12
Example 15 : F(s) 
s s  2 s  3
s 2  12 k1 k2 k3
  
ss  2 s  3 s s  2 s  3
s 2  12 sk 2 sk 3
multiply bothside with s ,  k1  
s  2s  3 s2 s3
s 2  12
k1 
s  2s  3 s 0

k1  2

multiply bothside with s  2,


s 2  12 s  2 k1
  k2 
s  2 k 3
s s  3 s s3
s 2  12
k2 
ss  3
s  2

k 2  8
s 2  12 s  3k1 s  3k 2
multiply bothside with s  3,    k3
s s  2 s s2
s 2  12
k3 
ss  2 
s  3

k3  7
s 2  12 1 8 7
Hence ,   
s s  2s  3 s s  2 s  3
1  s 2
 12  1  1 8 7 
L  L    
 s s  2 s  3   s s  2 s  3 
from table,
f (t )  1  8e  2t  7e 3t
 Suppose F(s) has n repeated poles at s = -p
kn k n 1 k2 k1
F(s)    ...    F1 ( s )
s  p n
s  p n 1
s  p 2
s  p 1

 Where F1(s) is the remaining part of F(s)


[does not have a pole at s = -p].
 Determine kn as,

k n  s  p  F ( s) s  p
n
 Todetermine kn-1, multiply each term by
(s+1)n and differentiate to get rid of kn,
evaluate the result a s = -p to get rid of
other coefficients except kn-1
k n 1 
d
ds

s  p n F ( s)  s  p

 Repeating this gives


k n2 
1 d2
2! ds 2

s  p n
F ( s)  s  p

 mth term becomes


k nm 
1 dm
m! ds m
s p n
F ( s)  s  p

 Where m = 1,2,…,n-1
10 s 2  4
Example 16 : Calculate v(t) given that V(s) 
ss  1s  22
10 s 2  4 A B C D
   
ss  1s  22 s s  1 s  2 s  2
2

10 s 2  4 sB sC sD
multiply bothside with s,  A  
s  1s  22 s  1 s  22 s  2
10 s 2  4 4
A 2 s 0
 1
s  1s  2 (1)( 2) 2

multiply bothside with s  1,


10 s 2  4

s  1A
B
s  1C s  1D

ss  22
s s  2 s  2
2

10 s 2  4 14
B 2 s  1
  14
ss  2 (1)(1) 2
multiply bothside with s  2 2 ,
10 s 2
 4

s  2 2
A

s  2 2
B
 C  ( s  2) D
ss  1 s s 1
10 s 2  4 44
C   22
ss  1
s  2
(2)( 1) 2

D
d
ds

s  22 V ( s)  s  2 
d 10 s 2  4 
 
ds  ss  2  
s  2


s 2
 
 s 20 s   10 s 2  4 2 s  1  
52
 13
s 2
s 2 s  2
4

10 s 2  4 1 14 22 13
Hence,    
ss  1s  22 s s  1 s  2 2
s2

1
 10 s 2
4  
1 1 14 22 13 
L  2
L     
 ss  1s  2    s  2 
2
 s s 1 s 2 
from table
f (t )  1  14 e t  22 te  2t  13e  2t
 F(s) may have a general form
A1s  A2
F (s)   F1 ( s )
s  as  b
2

 Where F1(s) remaining part of F(s) [does


not have this pair of complex poles.
 Complete the square by letting

s  as  b  s  2s      s      2
2 2 2 2 2
 We also let
A1s  A2  A1 s     B1

 Then equation become


A1 s    B1
F ( s)    F1 ( s )
s    2
2 s   
2
2

 From table
t t
f (t )  A1e cost  B1e sin t  f1 (t )
Example 17 : Find the inverse transform of the frequency
20
domain function , H(s) 
s  3s 2  8s  25 
In this example, H ( s ) has a pair of complex poles
s 2  8s  25  0 or s  4  j 3.
20 A Bs  C
H(s)    2
 
s  3 s  8s  25 s  3 s  8s  25
2

solution :

Algebraic method : multiplyin g both side by s  3 s 2  8s  25 
 
20  A s 2  8s  25  Bs  C s  3
20  As 2
 8s  25   B s 2

 3  C s  3
Equation coefficien ts :
s 2 : 0  A  B  A  B
s : 0  8 A  3B  C  5 A  C  C  5 A
constant : 20  25 A  3C  25 A  15 A  A  2
That is, B  2, C  10 . Thus
2 2s  10 2 2s  4  2
H(s)   2  
s  3 s  8s  25 s  3 s  42  9
2 2s  4 2 3
  
s  3 s  4  32 3 s  42  32
2

3t  4t 2  4t
Then, f (t )  2e  2e cos 3t  e sin 3t
3
L f ' (t )  sF ( s )  f (0  )
or
 dy 
L   sL  y   y ( 0 
)
 dx 

L f ' ' (t )  s 2 F ( s)  s f (0  )  f ' (0  )


or
d 2y
L  2   s 2 L[ y ]  sy (0  )  y ' (0  )
 dx 
Procedure :
Take the Laplace transform of both sides of the
differential equation by applying the formula
for the Laplace transforms of derivatives
Put in the given initial conditions, i.e. y(0) and
y’(0).
Rearrange the equation to make L [y] the
subject.
Determine y by using, where necessary,
partial fractions, and taking the inverse of
each term by using Table of Laplace
dy
 2 y  12 y (0)  10
dt
 dy 
L    2 L  y   L 12
 dt 
12
sY ( s )  10  2Y ( s ) 
s
12
 s  2  Y ( s)  10 
s
10 12
Y ( s)  
s  2 s( s  2)
57
12 A1 A2
 
s( s  2) s s  2
 12   12 
A1  s     6
 s ( s  2)  s 0  s  2  s 0
 12  12 
A2  ( s  2)      6
 s ( s  2)  s 2  s  s 2
10 6 6 6 4
Y (s)     
s2 s s2 s s2
2t
y(t )  6  4e

58
dy
 2 y  12sin 4t y (0)  10
dt
12(4)
sY ( s )  10  2Y ( s )  2
s  16
10 48
Y ( s)  
s  2 ( s  2)( s  16)
2

48 A B1s  B2
  2
( s  2)( s  16) s  2 s  16
2

59
48  48
A 2    2.4
s  16  s 2 20
48 2.4 B1s  B2
  2
( s  2)( s  16) s  2 s  16
2

48 2.4 B2 B2  4.8
 
(2)(16) 2 16
48 2.4  B1  B2 B1  2.4
 
(1)(17) 1 17
10 2.4 2.4s 4.8
Y (s)    2  2
s  2 s  2 s  16 s  16
2t
y(t )  12.4e  2.4cos 4t  1.2sin 4t
60
2
d y dy
2
 3  2 y  24
dt dt
y (0)  10 and y '(0)  0
24
s Y ( s)  10s  0  3  sY ( s)  10  2Y ( s) 
2

s
24 10s  30
Y ( s)   2
s( s  3s  2) s  3s  2
2

24 10s  30
 
s( s  1)( s  2) ( s  1)( s  2)
61
24 12 24 12
  
s( s  1)( s  2) s s  1 s  2
10s  30 20 10
 
( s  1)( s  2) s  1 s  2
12 4 2
F ( s)   
s s 1 s  2
t 2t
f (t )  12  4e  2e
62
Exercise 3
1. Find f(t) for each of the following functions

6s  26s  26 2
a  F s  
s  1s  2s  3
16s  30s  500
2
b  F s  
s s  2s  50
2

c  F s  
400

s s  4s  5
2
 2

10s  105s  216s  104


3 2
d  F s  
s  10s  16
2
63
2. Solve the following differential equation using Laplace
transforms.

d2x dx
2
 3  2x(t)  e -t
for t  0
dt dt
dx(0)
and x(0)  2,  -3
dt
a) Resistor

Time domain S-domain

66
b) Inductor

Time domain S-domain

67
c) Capacitor

Time domain S-domain

dv(t )
i (t )  C
dt

68
LAPLACE CIRCUIT SOLUTIONS

di
KVL : v S (t )  Ri (t )  L (t )
dt
 di 
VS ( s )  RI ( s )  LL  
 dt 
 di 
L    sI ( s )  i (0)  sI ( s )
 dt 
1
  RI ( s )  LsI ( s )
s
1
I (s) 
s ( R  Ls )
1/ L K1 K2
I (s)   
s( R / L  s) s s R/L
1
K1  sI ( s ) | s  0 
R
1
K 2  ( s  R / L) I ( s ) | s   R / L  
R
1 
R 
1  e L ; t  0
t
i (t ) 
R 
 
i (t )

vS

using KVL : Ri (t )  v(t )  v s


dv dv
i (t )  C , so RC  v  vS
dt dt
 dv 
RCL    V ( s )  VS ( s )
 dt 
 dv 
L    sV ( s )  v(0)  sV ( s )
 dt 
v S (t )  0, t  0  v (0)  0
1
v S  u (t )  VS ( s ) 
s
1
RCsV ( s )  V ( s ) 
s
1 1 / RC
V (s)  
s ( RCs  1) s ( s  1 / RC )
1 / RC K1 K2
V (s)   
s ( s  1 / RC ) s s  1 / RC
K1  sV ( s ) | s  0  1
K 2  ( s  1 / RC )V ( s ) | s  1 / RC  1
t

v (t )  1  e RC ,t0
Find the transfer function relating the capacitor voltage ,
To the input voltage
di (t ) 1
L
dt
 Ri (t ) 
C  i (t )dt  v(t )
as q(t)   i(t)dt
d 2 q (t ) dq (t ) 1
L 2
R  q (t )  v (t )
dt dt C
output v C , q(t)  Cv C (t )
d 2 v C (t ) dv C (t )
LC 2
 RC  v C (t )  v (t )
dt dt
LCs 2 VC ( s )  RCs VC ( s )  VC ( s )  V ( s )
VC ( s ) 1
G(s)  
V ( s) LCs 2  RCs  1
1
G(s)  LC
R 1
s2  s 
L LC