Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 261

SAFETY & LOSS CONTROL

A. Siswanto
2010
• Means being able to recognize unsafe
practices and conditions. It requires following
safety procedures.
• It means getting to know all you can about
conditions that promote safety, including
emergency response procedures. Safety
awareness signifies your willingness to take time
to prevent accidents.
• Most of all, safety awareness means having the
right attitude about safety ------ both your own
and your coworkers’ safety.

34
Safety awareness begins with a thorough
safety inspection. A comprehensive inspection
can:
• Help spot and eliminate safety hazard.
• Help keep work area free of hazards.
• Assess which work operations meet or exceed
acceptable safety and government standards.
• Help maintain product quality and operational
profitability.

35
• At many worksites, on-the-job safety committees
are responsible for conducting safety inspections.
• One way to take charge of your own safety is to
serve on the safety committee for your workplace.
• This will allow you to take part in a thorough and
effective safety inspection.
• It is also a constructive and practical way to make
sure your workplace stay safe. A safety inspection
can help spot and eliminate hazards.

36
Safety awareness means being on
the lookout for unsafe practices and
conditions in your work area.

37
Machines and Equipment
1. Are all machine guards in place ?
2. Does any equipment not designed to do so, turn
on or off by itself?
3. Have you or your coworkers receive a shock
while using any equipment? If so, report this to
your supervisor.

38
Materials Handling and Storage
1. Perhaps you work with substances labeled
“flammable”, “corrosive”, “poison” or “acids”.
If so, do you follow the material handling rules
spelled out on the MSDS?
2. Are hazardous or toxic substances stored
correctly? For example, flammable liquids
should be stored in an approved flammable
liquid cabinet.
3. Are cylinders of compressed gas secured with
a chain or a clamp when they are moved?

39
Hand and Portable Power Tools
1. Are hand tools kept in good condition, with no
frayed cords?
2. Are electric tools double-insulated?
3. Are portable ground fault circuit interrupters
used in wet or outdoor locations? Are they
also used in other locations where company
policy requires?

40
Fire Protection
Are fire exits, fire extinguishers and
sprinklers clearly marked and free of
obstructions?

41
Housekeeping and Maintenance
1. Are ladders kept in good repair, with no
damaged rungs or side-rails?
2. Is temporary storage kept off floors and
out of aisles and walk areas?
3. Are spills and leaks wiped up promptly?

42
• Working right. Safe work habits are an
important part of total safety awareness.
Use this safety checklist as your guide.
• Use hand and portable power tools only
for the job they were designed for.

43
• If you use equipment, are you correctly dressed
to avoid injury ?
• For example, do not wear neckties, long
sleeves, gauntlet, gloves or loose-fitting clothing.
They can be dangerous around moving
equipment. Do not wear rings or other jewelry
which could get caught in moving parts.

44
• Use the right size tool for the job.
• Do not smoke except in designated smoking
areas.
• Do not use improper electrical cords, receptacles
or grounding.
• Wear PPE whenever it is necessary for your
work.
• Follow your employer’s policies on the Hazard
Communication Standard, Confined space Entry
and lockout/tagout programs.

45
Handling Emergencies
No matter how careful you may be, emergencies
sometimes happen. When they do, knowledge is
the best way to stay safe.
Fire
Get to know your employer’s fire emergency
response plan. If your facility has an audible alarm,
get to know what it sounds like.

46
Medical
1. Get to know the medical emergency
response plan for your work area.
2. Take advantage of first aid and CPR
(Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation)
classes that your employer offers.

47
A simple five-step management model
(known as CLEAR) shows there is no
magic bullet involved:
• Clarify the objectives.
• Locate the problems.
• Execute the change strategy.
• Assess current progress.
• Review and adapt the process.

48
Behavioral Safety

• The purpose of a behavioral safety process is to


reduce incidents triggered by unsafe or at-risk
behaviors.
• To achieve this, specific behavioral problems are
identified by focusing on incidents that result
from the interaction between people and their
working environment.
Behavioral Safety

• This could include the presence, quality and


functioning of various management systems
(safety and nonsafety), the quality of
leadership, resources available (financial and
nonfinancial) and the overall safety culture
(Cooper, 2000).
Behavioral Safety
• Once these problems are identified, attempts
are made to discover which antecedents (e.g.,
unavailable equipment) are driving at-risk
behavior (e.g., using improvised tools), and
which consequences (e.g., saves time) are
reinforcing or maintaining that behavior so that
appropriate corrective actions can be taken.
Behavioral Safety
• Executing the change strategy usually involves
addressing the antecedents to remove barriers
while the associated safety behaviors are
placed on checklists so workers can conduct
observations of ongoing behavior.
• Observation results are used to facilitate
corrective feedback (i.e., a consequence) to
those observed and to track overall progress
Behavioral Safety

• The trends in observation data over a period of


time are used to adapt the process to suit the
particular circumstances (e.g., change the
behaviors on the observation checklists, provide
tailgate topics).
Weather

• Check your employer’s disaster plans for


pointers on how to response to weather
emergencies, such as floods, tornados,
hurricanes and earthquakes.

54
What safety awareness means
• Looking out for unsafe conditions in your work
area.
• Learning how to work safely.
• Working safely every day and in every part of
your work.
• Knowing how to handle emergencies quickly
and effective?

55
• Safety awareness requires foresight and
sound judgment. Workers who are safety
conscious are alert and practice good
safety habits.
• Safety awareness is one way you can
control your own safety on the job.

56
It is a method for making your job safer. In a job
Safety analysis, you do three things:
1. Observe step by step how a worker does an on-
the-job task.
2. Look for possible hazards in each step of the
task.
3. Suggest ways to eliminate or reduce each
hazard so each step of the task is safer.

57
• A supervisor and typically three employees who
know the many steps involved in a job usually
make up a JSA team. This number can vary
depending on the complexity of the equipment
or process.
• One employee can actually do the steps of the
task. The others watch and write down on a JSA
worksheet what they see.

58
Benefits
1. Make the job safer so there are fewer accidents
and fewer people getting accidents.
2. Cut down on lost time and production because
accidents related injuries.
3. Cut down on damage to the facility, material, or
equipment.
4. Increase production and efficiency
5. Improve workers’ attitudes toward on-the-job
safety and make them more aware of safety.

59
USES
1. Use as training guide for new employees.
2. Use as refresher training for current employees.
3. Use for pre-job instruction on tasks that are not
done regularly.
4. Help assess why an accident occurred.

60
1. Select tasks for JSAs in the following order :
2. Tasks on which workers have had the most
accidents.
3. Tasks that have dangerous steps but have not
yet produced accidents.
4. New jobs that have started.
5. Current jobs for which new equipment or
processes have been added or changed.

61
• A JSA for the forklift truck operator job.
• Doing the JSA : Listing the steps in the task.
• While one employee performs the task, the
others watch and write down each step of the
task.
• Keep the following tips in mind as you make the
list in the first column of the Job Safety Analysis
(JSA) form:

62
1. Is there danger of striking or list from 6 to 8
task steps that you can see.
2. Number each step from 1 to 6 or more.
3. List the steps in the order in which they are
performed.
4. The action words such as “turn on”, “load”,
“steer”, or “unload”.

63
5. Ask yourself, “What step starts this task?”
List the first task step, such as “put on PPE”.
6. Then ask yourself, “what is the next basic
step?”
7. List the next steps, such as “check if the power
is OFF” or get into the operators’ seat.”

64
8. Tell completely but briefly what is done in each
step, such as “lift the load and back out.” Do
not tell how the step is done, “lift the load with
the fork slightly raised and back out slowly.”
9. Continue in this way until you have listed
every basic step in the task.

65
• Identify all possible hazards and accidents for each
step in the task. Be sure to include hazards from
the task itself, as well as from the work area.
• List each hazard in the middle column of the JSA
form with the corresponding number used in the
“Steps” column.

66
Checklist of some possible hazards :
1. Physical hazards, such as temperature
extremes or lifting a load that is too heavy.
2. Chemical hazards, such as breathing in
dust or coming in contact with other
chemicals.
3. Job or workstation hazards, such as blind
corners or low overhead clearance.

67
Questions to ask for identifying hazards :
a. Is there danger of being struck by an object?
b. Is there danger of being caught in or between
objects?
c. Is there a danger of slipping, tripping or falling?
d. Can pushing, pulling, lifting, bending, or twisting
cause strain?
e. Is there danger of harms to eyes, hands, feet or
other parts of a worker’s body?

68
• For each hazard that you have identified, make
a recommendation that will eliminate the hazard
and reduce the chance of accident.
• Write your recommendations in the last column
of the JSA form using the corresponding
numbers used in the “Steps” and “Hazards”
column. If no hazard is listed, then write “N/A” in
column 3.

69
Before JSA is approved, review the task and test
your recommendations. Tips for testing a JSA :
1. Check with the workers you observed to be sure all
the task steps are listed and in the correct order.
2. Ask the workers you observed if they can think of
any more hazards.
3. Have workers test the safety recommendations. You
can then be sure that your recommendations work.

70
WHEN TO
REVIEW A COMPLETED JSA

1. Whenever a task is changed, such as when new


equipment is used when a new way of doing a task
is started.
2. Every 6 to 12 months if a task has not changed.
3. When an accident takes place.

71
TEST WHAT
YOU HAVE LEARNED ABOUT JSA

1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words


2. JSA stands for................................................................
3. Employees are chosen to write JSAs because they are
the …………….. at their job tasks.
4. JSAs help make jobs …………………. by reducing the
number of ………………………………………………
5. JSAs can be used as ……………….. guides for new task.
6. JSAs should be done first on tasks with the …………….
accidents.

72
6. JSAs forms have ……………. parts.
7. Use …………….. words to describe the steps
of a task.
8. Identify all ……………, chemical, and
workstation hazards for each step of a task.
9. Check with the …………….. you observed to
be sure all the steps and hazards of a task are
in the JSAs and in the correct order.
10. Review a completed JSA, whenever a task is
……………………………………………………

73
Answers to the above questions:

1. Job Safety 6. Four


Analysis 7. Action
2. Experts 8. Physical
3. Safer, accidents 9. Workers
4. Training 10. Changed
5. Most

74
DEFINITIONS
HAZARD
 Source or situation with a potential for harm in
terms of human injury or ill health, damage to
property, damage to the workplace
environment, or a combination of these.
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
 Process of recognizing that a hazard exists and
defining its characteristics. (OHSAS
18001).
75
DEFINITIONS
 Incident
Event that gave rise to an accident or had the
potential to lead to an accident.
Note: An incident where no ill health, injury,
damage, or other loss occurs is also referred to
as a “near miss”. The term “incident” includes
“near-misses”.
 Interested parties
Individual or group concerned with or affected by
the OHS performance of an organization.
76
DEFINITIONS

 NON-CONFORMANCE
Any deviation from work standards, practices,
procedures, regulations, management system
performance, etc, that could either directly or
indirectly lead to injury or illness, property damage,
damage to the workplace environment, or a
combination of these.

77
Defintions

• Objectives
Goals, in terms of OH&S performance, that
an organization sets itself to achieve.
Note: objectives should be quantified
wherever practicable.

78
Occupational Safety and Health

Conditions or factors that affect the well-


being of employees, temporary workers,
contractor personnel, visitors and any
other persons in the workplace.

79
Definitions
• INCIDENT: An undesired event which, under
slightly different circumstances, could have resulted
in harm to people, damage to property or loss to
process. An undesired event which could or does
result in a loss.
• ACCIDENTS result from contact with a substance or
source of energy above the threshold limit of the
body or structure.
• ACCIDENT : undesired event giving rise to death, ill
health, injury damage or other loss.
80
• Safety : Control of accidental loss.
• Safety : Freedom from unacceptable risk or harm
(OHSAS 18001).
• Built-in hazards are those that occur naturally or
exist in a machine, a piece of equipment, the
structure of the plant, or the materials used on
the job.

81
Definitions
 BUILT-ON HAZARDS are the ones contributed by
employees or management by carelessness,
inattention, or ignorance.
 CAUGHT BETWEEN. When any parts of your body is
caught between a moving and a stationary object, it is
called a caught between accident. The most common one is
slamming a door on your fingers, that
may hurt, bruise your finger, or even cut off part of it.

82
Definitions
OHS Managemnt System
• Part of the overall management system that
facilitates the management of the OHS risks
associated with the business of the organization.
• This includes the organizational structure, planning
activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures,
processes and resources for developing,
implementing, achieving, reviewing, and maintaining
the organization’s OHS policy.

83
Definitions

• Organization
Company, operation, firm, enterprise,
institution or association, or part thereof,
whether incorporated or not, public or
private, that has its own functions and
administration.

84
Definitions
• Performance
Measurable results of the OHS management
system, related to the organization’s control
of health and safety risks, based on its OHS
policy and objectives.
Note : performance measurement includes
measurement of OHS management activities
and results.

85
DEFINITIONS
 RISK
Combination of the likelihood and
consequences of a specified hazardous event
occurring.
 RISK ASSESSMENT
Overall process of estimating the magnitude
of risk and deciding whether or not the risk is
tolerable (OHSAS 18001).

86
Definitions

Tolerable Risk

Risk that has been reduced to a level that can


be endured by the organization having regard
to its legal obligations and its own OHS policy.

87
 CAUGHT IN
When two parts of a machine are moving
and the worker is caught into them, it can
cause a very serious accident. A powerful
machine can simply draw you in as it
continuous to run, even though the only
thing it has grabbed is part of your clothing
or jewelry.

88
 STRUCK BY AND STRIKING AGAINST.
Being hit by a moving object is called a
struck-by accident. For example, you can be
struck by a tool dropped from a scaffold or by
a piece of material thrown violently from a
machine. If you are in motion and hit
something that is not moving, the accident is
called striking against.

89
Safety Program
All the activities of management in which safety
is formally and consciously addressed.
Human influences safety :
 Safety does not just happen. You need to be
concerned about your safety ----- you need
to be alert. On most jobs, if your attention is
focused on something else ----- even for a
moment ----- you may do the wrong thing or
act too slowly to avoid an accident.

90
Human Factors Affecting Safety
• Reasoning and Comprehension.
Reasoning is a mental ability that can vary
widely, even within the same person. You use
your ability to reason when you troubleshoot
(mencari dan memecahkan kesulitan) and
repair equipment.
• Comprehension means understanding -----
understanding the job and understanding the
instructions you receive about how to the job.
When you understand both written and oral
instructions, you can do the job well and
safely.
91
Human Factors Affecting Safety

 Attentiveness and alertness .


Attentiveness simply means paying attention
to what you are doing ----- your ability to
concentrate on the job. Alertness means
noticing what is going on around you.
Alertness is often your best protection
against accidents

92
Human Factors Affecting Safety
• Skill.
Some people seem to have a “knack”,
(ketangkasan/kepandaian khusus) a natural ability, for
using tools and their hands. This ability is called
manual dexterity. But the ability to work well and
safely requires more than manual dexterity.
• Training and experience.
Most people can overcome a lack of dexterity by
training and experience. In most jobs, knowledge and
experience are more important than natural skill. How
well and how safely you work depends largely on what
you learned and on how much practice you have had.

93
Human Factors Affecting Safety
• Motivation.
Your own personal reason for doing a job well
or carelessly is called motivation. A few people
do good work mainly for their own personal
satisfaction. Others work well because they
expect a raise or promotion as a result of good
performance. Some try hard to avoid a
reprimand or even dismissal. And a few just put
in (menghabiskan) their time until the shift is
over.
94
Human Factors Affecting Safety
Emotion and Attitudes
• Your emotions affect the way you work. Angry
people expose themselves and others to
needless danger when they slam doors, through
things around, or try to “work it out of their
systems” by working extra hard or fast.
• If you get mad at the driver who cut in front of
you in traffic, or the bus driver who made you
later for work, leave that anger outside the
plant. If you are angry with someone in the
plant, talk it over with your supervisor or your
union steward before you begin work.
95
Human Factors Affecting Safety

• Health.
Your health also has an important effect on your
work. Poor eyesight or hearing can affect job
performance in some situations. Heart trouble, a
hernia, or an allergy are things that you and your
employer must keep in mind when making job
assignments. In some jobs ----- for example, food
service ----- your health can directly affect the
health of others.
It is important for you to eat properly, exercise in
moderation, and get enough sleep. As you grow older,
regular medical checkups become more important.
96
Human Factors Affecting Safety

• Size and strength.


Once you become an adult, you height does not
change much. But other things about you can
change.
You can gain or lose weight, and you can increase
your strength through regular exercise. But there
are limits to how much weight you can gain or lose,
and there are limits to how much you can increase
your strength.

97
Safety off The Job

Strange as it may seem, you are safer on the


job than off it. The moment you leave the
plant, your chances of being injured or killed
triple.
Over 75 percent of all accidents involving
workers occur off the job.

98
Accident Prevention Program

• Successful accident prevention programs


depend on three essentials :
1. Leadership by the employer
2. Safe and healthful working conditions
3. Safe work practices by employees
If any one of these three essentials is
missing, accidents on the job are likely to
occur.
99
Accident Prevention Program

 Employer, company presidents and plant


managers must be willing to accept the
responsibility for occupational safety and
health as an integral part of their jobs.
 They must established policies, stimulate
awareness of safety in others, and show their
own interest if others are to cooperate in
making working conditions safe and healthful.

100
Accident Prevention Program

• Representatives of management, both line and


staff, must reflect this interest in safety. Each
department head must assume leadership for
his or her own department and must be given
the authority to fulfill responsibility for the
safety and health program.

101
Management Safety Program
The management in any organization must have
a safety policy clearly describing management’s
into for safety in areas such as the following:

 Production relative to safety.


This is important area for management to
address. For example, an effective management
program must value safety as highly as
production, quality, and employee morale;
otherwise safety rules can easily be ignored for
the sake of production or product quality.
102
Management Safety Program

• Staffing procedures
Management must ensure that an adequate
staff is in place to carry out safety policies
and rules and to provide a means for the
smooth upward and downward flow of safety
information.

103
Management Safety Program

• Assignment of responsibility, authority, and


accountability
It is extremely crucial for management to clearly
define the responsibility, authority, and accountability
of each member of the organization in regard to
safety. Those individuals who are responsible for the
creation or the enforcement of safety rules (such as
safety officers or members of an inspection team)
must have the authority to carry out their duties and
have the clear support of management.

104
Management Safety Program

Employee selection, training and


supervision :
Management should clearly define its policies in
regard to the selection, training, and supervision of all
personnel in general, and of personnel who are
responsible for safety in particular.
The latter should receive enough training to acquire
the knowledge and expertise needed to carry out
their duties.

105
Management Safety Program

• Communication procedures
It is management’s responsibility to set forth policies
for the flow of safety information within the
organization.
Often a safety program may sound effective but fail for
lack of proper communication among management,
safety personnel, and other employees.

106
Management Safety Program

Inspection procedures
Management should clearly define how and by whom
the safety inspections will conducted, emphasizing how
the recommendations that may result from a safety
inspection will be implemented within the organization.
For example, if a number of unsafe conditions have
been identified in a safety inspection, management
should clearly established procedures and a time frame
for the rectification of those conditions.

107
Management Safety Program

• Standard and emergency procedures


An effective safety program requires a system that
clearly defines the organization’s standard operating
emergency procedures. The standard operating
procedures must contain guidelines for the safe use
of equipment, safe work practices, and PPE. The
emergency procedures must clearly identify the steps
to be followed during an emergency.

108
Management Safety Program

• Equipment, supplies, and facilities design


An effective management safety program should set
forth policies and procedures for the safe design for
new equipment and any design changes needed in
existing equipment, supplies, or facilities. Many
accidents have occurred because of an unsafe design
or a change in the design of otherwise safe
equipment. For example, management might require
that any design changes in equipment be approved by
the organizations’ safety committee or safety officer.
109
Loss Causation Model
Loss (people, property, environment, product,
service)
 The result of an accident is loss.
 The most obvious losses are harm to people, property
or process.
 Implied and important related losses are “performance
interruption” and “profit reduction”.
 So there are losses involving people, property, process
and ultimately, profit. (ILCI = International Loss Control
Institute)

110
Loss
• Nothing is more important or more tragic than
the human aspects of accidental loss i.e.
injury, pain, sorrow, anguish (a great sorrow),
loss of body parts or functions, occupational
illness, disability or death.
• The best known way to minimize these is to
use both the human aspects and the
economic aspects to motivate control of the
accidents that lead to the losses.

111
Accident Cost Iceberg
 Injury and illness costs ( $ 1)
a. Medical
b. Compensation costs (insured cost)
 Ledger costs of property damage (uninsured,
$ 5 to $ 50)
a. Building damage
b. Tool and equipment damage
c. Product and material damage
d. Production delays and interruptions
e. Legal expenses
f. Expenditure of emergency supplies and equipment
g. Interim equipment rentals
h. Investigation time
112
ACCIDENT COST ICEBERG
Uninsured miscellaneous costs ($1 to $ 3)
 Wages paid for time lost
 Cost of hearing and/or training replacements
 Overtime
 Extra supervisory time
 Clerical time
 Decreased output of injured worker upon
return
 Loss of business and goodwill

113
ACCIDENT COST ICEBERG
BIAYA KECELAKAAN DAN PENYAKIT
• Pengobatan/ Perawatan
• Gaji (Biaya Diasuransikan)
$1
• Kerusakan gangguan
• Kerusakan peralatan dan perkakas
• Kerusakan produk dan material

$5 $50
• Terlambat dan ganguan produksi
HINGGA • Biaya legal hukum
• Pengeluaran biaya untuk penyediaan
BIAYA DALAM PEMBUKUAN: fasilitas dan peralatan gawat darurat
KERUSAKAN PROPERTI • Sewa peralatan
(BIAYA YANG TAK • Waktu untuk penyelidikan
DIASURANSIKAN)
• Gaji terusdibayar untuk waktu yang hilang
$1 HINGGA $3 • Biaya pemakaian pekerja pengganti dan/
BIAYA LAIN YANG atau biaya melatih
TAK DIASURANSIKAN • Upah lembur
• Ekstra waktu untuk kerja administrasi
• Berkurangnya hasil produksi akibat dari
sikorban
• Hilangnya bisnis dan nama baik
114
INCIDENT/CONTACT
 This is the event that precedes the “loss” ------
the contact that could or does cause the harm or
damage.
 When potential causes of accidents are permitted
to exist, the way is always open for a contact with
a source of energy above the threshold of the
body or structure.
 As an example, a flying or moving object involves
kinetic energy which transfer to the body or
structure it hits or contacts.
115
INCIDENT/CONTACT

 If the amount of energy transferred is too much, it


causes personal harm of property damage.
 This is true not only of kinetic energy but also
electrical energy, acoustic energy, thermal energy,
radiant energy and chemical energy.

116
INCIDENT/CONTACT
Here are some of the more common types of
energy transfers, as listed in the American
Standard Accident Classification code.
 Struck against (running or bumping into)
 Struck by (hit by moving object)
 Fall to lower level (either the body falls or the
object falls and hits the body)
 Fall on the same level (slip and fall, tip over)

117
INCIDENT/CONTACT

 Caught in (pinch and nip points)


 Caught on (snagged, hung)
 Caught between (crushed or amputated)
 Contact with (electricity, heat, cold, radiation,
caustics, noise, toxics)
 Overstress/overexertion/overload

118
IMMEDIATE CAUSES
 The “immediate causes” of accidents are
circumstances that immediately precede the
contact.
 They usually can be seen or sensed.
 Frequently they are called ‘unsafe acts (behaviors
which could permit the occurrence of an accident)
and “unsafe conditions” (circumstances which
could permit the occurrence of an accident).

119
IMMEDIATE CAUSES

 Modern managers tend to think a bit broader, and


more professionally, in terms of substandard
practices and substandard conditions (deviations
from an accepted standard or practice).

120
IMMEDIATE CAUSES

 This line of thinking has distinct advantages :


a. It relates practices and conditions to a
standard, a basis for measurement,
evaluation and correction.
b. It somewhat minimizes the finger-pointing
stigma of the term “unsafe act”.
c. It broadens the scope of interest from
accident control to loss control,
encompassing safety, quality production,
and cost control.
121
SUBSTANDARD PRACTICES

 Operating equipment without authority


 Failure to warn
 Failure to secure
 Operating at improper speed
 Making safety devices inoperable
 Removing safety devices
 Using defective equipment
 Using equipment improperly
 Failing to use personal protective equipment
properly.
122
SUBSTANDARD PRACTICES

 Improper lifting
 Improper loding
 Improper placement
 Improper position for task
 Servicing equipment in operation
 Horseplay
 Under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs

123
SUBSTANDARD CONDITIONS

 Inadequate guards or barriers


 Inadequate or improper protective equipment
 Defective tools, equipment or materials
 Congestion or restricted action
 Inadequate warning systems
 Fire and explosion hazards
 Poor housekeeping; disorderly workplace

124
SUBSTANDARD CONDITIONS

 Hazardous environmental conditions : gases,


dusts, smokes, mists, fumes, vapors
 Noise exposure
 Radiation exposure
 High or low temperature exposures
 Inadequate or excessive lighting/illumination
 Inadequate ventilation

125
SUBSTANDARD
PRACTICES/CONDITIONS

 It is essential to consider these


practices and conditions only as
immediate causes or symptoms, and to
do a thorough job of diagnosing the
diseases behind the symptoms.

126
SUBSTANDARD
PRACTICES/CONDITIONS

 If you only treat the symptoms, they will occur


again and again. You need to answer the
questions :
a. Why did that substandard practice occur?
b. Why did that substandard condition occur
exist?
c. What failure in our supervisory/management
system permitted that practice or condition?

127
BASIC CAUSES
 Basic causes are the diseases or real causes
behind the symptoms; the reasons why the the
substandard acts and conditions occurred; the
factors that, when identified, permit meaningful
management control.
 Often, these are referred to as root causes, real
causes, indirect causes, underlying or contributing
causes.

128
BASIC CAUSES
Two major categories of basic causes :
1. Personal factors
a. Inadequate capability
- Physical/physiological
- Mental/psychological
b. Lack of knowledge
c. Lack of skill
d. Stress (physical or mental)
e. Improper motivation
129
BASIC CAUSES

2. JOB FACTORS (WORK ENVIRONMENT)


a. Inadequate leadership and/or supervision
b. Inadequate engineering
c. Inadequate maintenance
d. Inadequate purchasing
e. Inadequate tools, equipment, materials
f. Inadequate work standards
g. Wear and tear
h. Abuse and misuse
130
BASIC CAUSES
(PERSONAL FACTORS)

Inadequate physical/physiological capability


 Inappropriate height, weight, size, strength, reach, etc.
 Restricted range of body movement
 Vision deficiency
 Hearing deficiency
 Respiratory incapacity
 Other sensory deficiency (touch, taste, smell balance)
 Other permanent physical disabilities
 Temporary disabilities
131
BASIC CAUSES
(PERSONAL FACTORS)
Inadequate mental/psychological capability
 Fears and phobias
 Emotional disturbances
 Mental illness
 Intelligent level
 Poor judgment
 Slow reaction time
 Memory failure
 Low learning aptitude
 Inability to comprehend
132
BASIC CAUSES
(PERSONAL FACTORS)
Physical/physiological stress
 Fatigue due to task load or duration
 Injury or illness
 Fatigue due to lack of rest
 Exposure to health hazards
 Exposure to temperature extremes
 Oxygen deficiency
 Constrained movement
 Drugs
 Blood sugar insufficiency
 Atmospheric pressure variation
133
BASIC CAUSES
(PERSONAL FACTORS)

Mental/psychological stress
 Mental illness
 Conflicting demands
 Confusing directions
 “Meaningful” or “degrading” activities
 Extreme judgment/decision demands
 Fatigue due to mental task load or speed
 Emotional overload
 Routine, monotony, demand for uneventful vigilance
 Extreme concentration/perception demands
134
BASIC CAUSES
(PERSONAL FACTORS)

Lack of knowledge
 Lack of experience
 Inadequate orientation
 Inadequate initial training
 Inadequate update training
 Misunderstood directions

135
BASIC CAUSES
(PERSONAL FACTORS)

Lack of skill
 Inadequate initial instruction
 Inadequate practice
 Inadequate performance
 Lack of coaching

136
BASIC CAUSES
(PERSONAL FACTORS)

Improper motivation
 Improper performance is rewarding
 Proper performance is punishing
 Lack of incentives
 Excessive frustration
 Improper supervisory example
 Inadequate performance feedback
 Improper attempt to save time or effort
 Improper attempt to avoid discomfort
137
BASIC CAUSES (JOB FACTORS)

Inadequate leadership and/or supervision


 Unclear or conflicting reporting relationship
 Unclear or conflicting assignment of responsibility
 Giving inadequate policy, procedure, practices or
guidelines
 Inadequate instructions, orientation and/or training
 Inadequate identification, evaluation of loss exposures
 Lack of supervisory/management job knowledge
 Inadequate performance measurement and evaluation
 Inadequate or incorrect performance feedback

138
BASIC CAUSES (JOB FACTORS)

Inadequate work standards (continued)


 Inadequate communication of standards
- publication
- distribution
- translation to appropriate languages
- reinforcing with signs, colors, codes
and job aids.

139
BASIC CAUSES (JOB FACTORS)

Inadquate work standards (continued)


 Inadequate maintenance of standards
- tracking of workflow
- updating
- monitoring use of standards/
procedures/rules

140
BASIC CAUSES (JOB FACTORS)
 Inadequate engineering
 Inadequate assessment of loss exposures
 Inadequate consideration of human
factors/ergonomics
 Inadequate standards, specifications, and/or
design criteria
 Inadequate monitoring of construction
 Inadequate assessment of operational readiness
 Inadequate monitoring of initial operation
 Inadequate evaluation of changes
141
BASIC CAUSES (JOB FACTORS)
Inadequate purchasing
 Inadequate specifications on requisitions
 Inadequate research on materials/equipment
 Inadequate specifications to vendor
 Inadequate mode or route of shipment
 Inadequate receiving inspection and acceptance
 Inadequate communication of safety and health data
 Improper storage/transporting/handling of materials
 Inadequate identification of hazardous items
 Improper salvage and/or waste disposal

142
BASIC CAUSES (JOB FACTORS)

Inadequate maintenance
 Inadequate preventive
- assessment of needs
- lubrication and servicing
- adjustment /assembly
- cleaning or resurfacing

143
BASIC CAUSES (JOB FACTORS)

 Inadequate reparative
- communication of needs
- scheduling of work
- examination of units
- part substitution

144
BASIC CAUSES (JOB FACTORS)

Inadequate tools and equipment


 Inadequate assessment of needs and risks
 Inadequate human factor/ergonomics
considerations
 Inadequate standards or specifications
 Inadequate availability
 Inadequate adjustment/repair/maintenance
 Inadequate removal and replacement of
unsuitable items
145
BASIC CAUSES (JOB FACTORS)

Inadequate work standards


 Inadequate development of standards
- inventory and evaluation of exposure and
needs
- coordination with process design
- employee involvement
- inconsistent standards or procedures/rules

146
LACK OF CONTROL
 Control is one of the four essential management
functions : plan, organize, lead, and control.
 These functions relate to any manager’s work,
regardless of level or title. Whether the function is
administration, marketing, production, quality,
engineering, purchasing or safety, the
supervisor/leader/manager must plan, organize,
lead and control to be effective.

147
LACK OF CONTROL
 The person who manages professional knows the
safety/loss control program; knows the standards;
plans and organizes work to meet the standards;
leads people to obtain the standards; measure
performance of self or others; evaluate results
and needs; commends and constructively corrects
performance. This is management control.
 Without it, the accident sequence begins and
triggers the continuing causal factors that lead to
loss.
148
LACK OF CONTROL

There are three common reasons for


lack of control :
1. Inadequate program
2. Inadequate program standards
3. Inadequate compliance with standards

149
LACK OF CONTROL

Inadequate program
A safety/loss control program may be inadequate
because of poor few program activities. While the
necessary program activities vary with an
organization’s scope, nature, and type, significant
research and the experience of successful
programs in many different companies and countries.

150
LACK OF CONTROL

Inadequate program standards


A common cause of confusion and
failure is standards that are not specific
enough, not clear enough and/or not
high enough.

151
LACK OF CONTROL
Inadequate compliance with standards
 Lack of compliance with existing standards is a common
reason for lack of control. In fact, most managers agree
that this is the single greatest reason for failure to control
accident loss.
 Correcting these three common reasons for lack of
control is a critical management responsibility. Developing
an adequate program and standards is an executive
function, aided by supervisors. Maintaining compliance
with standards is a supervisory function, aided by
executives.
152
PRESCRIPTION WITHOUT DIAGNOSIS IS
MALPRACTICE, WHETHER IT BE IN MEDICINE OR
MANAGEMENT (KARL ALBRECHT, ORGANIZATION
DEVELOPMENT).

15
3
Three Stages of Control

PRE-CONTACT
 Leadership and Administration
 Hiring and Placement
 Management Training
 Employee Training
 Personal Communications
 Group Meetings

154
Three Stages of Control
• Job/ Task analysis and Procedures
• Job/Task Observation
• Planned Inspections
• Emergency Preparedness
• Rules and Protective Equipment Compliance
• Purchasing Controls
• Engineering Controls
• Safety Promotion
155
Three Stages of Control
CONTACT
• Substituting Alternative Energy Forms Or Less
Harmful Substances
• Reducing The Amount Of Energy Used Or
Released
• Placing Barricades Or Barriers Between The
Energy Source And The People Or Property
• Modifying Contact Surface
• Strengthening The Body Or Structure
156
Post Contact
• Emergency Action Plans
• First Aid & Medical Care
• Rescue Operations
• Fire & Explosion Control
• Damage Control
• Prompt Repairs
• Ventilation Of Polluted-Air Areas
• Cleanup Of Spills
• Compensation Claims Control
• Liability Claims Control
• Salvage & Waste Control
• Prompt Rehabilitation Of Injured Workers
157
ACTIVITIES
FOR MANAGING CONTROL
 I - Identification of work.
Specifying the program elements and activities
to achieve desired results.
 S - Standards.
Establishing performance standards (criteria by which
methods and results will be evaluated).
 M - Measurement.
Measuring performance; recording and reporting work in
progress and completed.

158
ACTIVITIES
FOR MANAGING CONTROL
 E- Evaluation.
Evaluating performance as measured and compared
with established standards; appraising work and
compared results.
 C- Commendation and Correction
Regulating and improving methods and
results by commending desired performance and
constructively correcting substandard
performance.
159
CONSEQUENTIAL LOSSES

1. Disruption of business.
2. Loss of customers
3. Adverse publicity; loss of goodwill;
difficulty recruiting new employees.

160
GENERAL LOSSES
4. Reduced effectiveness of the injured person after
return to work; causes can include medical restrictions,
such as a ban on heavy lifting.
5. Temporary or long-term stoppage of production and
facilities.
6. Liability claims, and legal expenses arising from
compensation hearings.
7. Higher insurance premiums.
8. Expenses unique to the particular operations, or
relating to specific accidents.
9. Penalties and fines.

161
COLLEAGUES’ LOSSES

10. Time lost when the accident occurred and in


accompanying the employee concerned to receive
medical assistance.
11. Effects of shock, sympathy or diverted interest;
curiosity of people in other departments; discussions
and exchanges of opinion as to the cause.
12. Clearing up at the site of the accident, collecting
information, holding reviews.

162
COLLEAGUES’ LOSSES

13. Additional working required to make good the


absence of the injured persons.
14. Time spent by safety staff and supervisors, both
then and later.
15. Assisting the injured employee.
16. Investigating the causes ----- initially, follow-up and
research into prevention.

163
COLLEAGUES’ LOSSES

17. Arranging for work to be continued; arranging repairs;


obtaining new material; re-scheduling production.
18. Arranging a replacement ----- selecting, transferring,
training, evaluating.
19. Preparing accident reports ----- injuries, damage to
property, vehicle insurance.
20. Attending hearings related to the case.
21. Expenditure on emergency supplies and equipment.
22. Damaged equipment and plant.

164
COLLEAGUES’ LOSSES
23. Repairs to damaged machinery and materials.
24. Time devoted to repairs and obtaining
replacements.
25. Purchase of replacement machinery and materials.
26. Corrective actions other than repair.
27. Costs due to the obsolescence of spares
in stock.
28. Rescue and emergency equipment.

165
One of the most important attributes of a
manager is effective leadership. He must
motivate his staff and encourage them to
commit themselves to the objectives of the
safety program. This is best achieved by displays
of the manager’s own direct and visible
commitment to safety.

166
 One of the most effective ways in which
managers can demonstrate their leadership
of the safety program is by setting loss-control
performance standards.
 Standards are simply statements that define the
accountability of individuals for their own safety
performance; they specify what is to be done,
who is to do it, and how often the task should be
performed.

167
An essential feature of any effective
safety management program is a manual
that sets out the individual performance
standards for all levels
of management.

168
COMMITMENT AND LEADERSHIP

Commitment and leadership can be demonstrated


as part of a planned program in many ways
including the following:
1. Issuing instructions and policies over the manager’s
signature to show that he is determined to prevent
accident.
2. Including safety responsibilities in all management job
descriptions.

169
Commitment and leadership
3, Establishing safety-management performance goals
throughout the organization.
4. Becoming involved in activities that increase the
manager’s visibility in safety matter, and bring him
into regular contact with his stuff ---- in safety
inspection, performance audits, group discussions,
problem-solving teams and works committees.

170
Commitment and leadership
 Communicating clear and precise oral safety information
and instruction to his staff.
 Developing and using a safety-management reference
manual.
 Ensuring that the subject of safety is on the agenda at all
relevant meetings.
 Giving equal weight to safety, quality and productivity
targets in performance and salary reviews.
 Wearing protective clothing when necessary, observing
rules and using equipment in the recommended manner,
so as to set a good example at all times.

171
Commitment and leadership
11. Giving praise to employees who work safely and
observe the rules of the job.
12. Correcting or disciplining those who fail to carry out the
rules.
13. Providing adequate resources for a loss control program.
14. Taking the lead in concern for off-the-job safety and the
welfare of employees and their families.
15. Demonstrating concern for the education and training of
employees in matters of safety.

172
 Accidents cause losses of many kinds, among
them lost time through injury, lost production
through damaged plant and equipment, and poor
quality through spoilt materials.
 Accidents are direct expense to any business,
and should be seen as symptoms of general
malaise and lack of management control.

173
 Loss prevention is synonymous with
profit.
 The improvement of safety management
can be seen as an opportunity to
improve overall management.

174
MANAGEMENT TRAINING

Each manager will benefit from receiving, where


possible, formalized training as follows:
1. On appointment, familiarization with his organization’s
safety program and with his specific safety responsibility,
as laid down in the program’s performance standards.
2. An understanding of the principles of safety and health
protection management.

175
MANAGEMENT TRAINING
3. Training appropriate to his role and the organization’s
technology ---- for example, in leading group meetings,
awareness of local hazards, and methods of hazard
identification. It should include his particular safety
responsibilities and the more important safety activities of
all his staff.
4. Awareness of local and national legal requirements.
5. Refresher training on all these points, at regular
intervals.

176
Training for safety and health protection
coordinators should include:
1. The philosophy and theory of loss control.
2. The twenty basic elements of effective safety
management.
3. The role and responsibility of coordinators.
4. Motivational techniques.
5. Problem-solving techniques.
6. Control of property damage.
7. Technical safety systems appropriate to the plant or
installation.

177
PLANNED INSPECTIONS

 The purpose of planned inspections is to identify


hazardous situations and organize remedial action
before things can develop to a point where injury, fire
or other losses can occur. In addition to planned
maintenance and equipment inspection program, which
is an essential operating practice on every site,
regular inspection of the plant and workplace should
take place, under the following three headings:

178
PLANNED INSPECTIONS
General
 Visual inspections to detect any deviations from
the required standards, and in the interests of order and
good housekeeping; conducted by staff of supervisory
level, who should develop and use a checklist as a
systematic aid for this purpose.
 Any hazardous condition should be reported immediately,
in writing, classified according to seriousness. Procedures
for monitoring the remedial action should also be
established as a written standard. Proper training for
inspectors should be given.

179
PLANNED INSPECTIONS
Critical parts/items.
 These are the parts or items that could create particularly
hazardous conditions if they were to fail. Such parts/items
require regular inspection by experienced staff.
 All plant, equipment, materials, machinery and structures
should be systematically reviewed, to identify the
parts/items whose inspection requirements are of especial
significance. Such a review is complementary to, but
significantly more detailed than, a typical planned
maintenance program review.
 A special program of inspection for the identified critical
parts/items should be set.
180
PLANNED INSPECTIONS
Before use.
 Mobile handling equipment such as forklift trucks
and cranes should be inspected at the start of
each day, with the aid of a short checklist, to
ensure that essential safety items (such as brakes
and tires) are in good working order.
 Employees should also be encouraged to report
substandard or hazardous conditions discovered
at any time, not only during inspections. These
reports should be in writing and should be followed
up.
181
PLANNED INSPECTIONS

 All inspection regardless of type, should take palace


at regular planned intervals, as dictated by need.
 The specified performance standards should specify
who is to do the inspections and how often they
should be carried out in each area. Middle and senior
management should involve themselves in these
inspections by taking part in nominated inspections
or conducting their own.

182
PLANNED INSPECTIONS

The minimum standards for inspection frequency


are given below, but sites with particular hazards
May need to initiate inspections more often.
1. Non-operating or administrative areas should be
covered in their entirety every three months.
2. Low-medium hazard operating areas should be
covered in their entirety every two months.
3. High hazard areas should be covered in their
entirety every month.
183
PLANNED INSPECTIONS

 The benefits of from these inspections will be


enhanced if they are monitored and if an
effective written follow-up procedure is
instituted.
 Whenever equipment can not be withdrawn
from service for expert inspection, continuous
monitoring should be considered.

184
PLANNED INSPECTIONS

 An impartial person should regularly check


inspection records and reports, to determine if
standards are being met.
 The number of inspections made should be
compared with the number required for each
major unit on the site, and the results reported
in writing to departmental heads and above.

185
PLANNED INSPECTIONS
An effective method of classifying hazards is
to group them in terms of their loss potential:

Class A Hazard
A condition or practice likely to cause permanent
disability, or loss of life or a part of the body;
and/or likely to cause extensive loss of structure,
equipment or material.

186
PLANNED INSPECTIONS

Class B Hazard.
 A condition or practice likely to cause serious
injury or illness resulting in temporary disability; or
likely to cause property damage that is disruptive
but not extensive.
Class C Hazard.
 A condition or practice likely to cause minor, non-
disabling injury or illness, or non-disruptive
property damage.
187
CATEGORIES OF INSPECTIONS

Depending upon the company’s safety organization and


in the interest of safety manager, various methods of
carrying out inspections have been devised. Listed here
are the three most generally used methods for carrying
out inspections:
1. Informal inspections
2. General (planned) inspections
3. Critical parts inspections
188
CATEGORIES OF INSPECTIONS
Informal inspections or spot inspections
These types of inspections are made on a daily basis by
the supervisor within his or her department to check
and see that tools, equipment, machinery are in safe
operating condition; aisles and passageways are clear
and unobstructed; good housekeeping is maintained; and
last, employees are complying with established safety
rules. From time to time, a member of the safety
department will make such an inspection within the
various department of the plant.
189
CATEGORIES OF INSPECTIONS

GENERAL INSPECTIONS
General inspections are planned wall-to-wall
inspections of the entire plant by a management team
of safety committee members at regular intervals.
A written report of the group’s findings should be
made during the inspections and processed fro action
through established organizational channels.

190
CATEGORIES OF INSPECTIONS

Critical parts inspection


 Critical parts inspection is the daily inspecting and
checking of operating equipment by operating
personnel as a part of their working procedure. The
items that should be inspected are any piece of
equipment or machinery which could cause bodily
harm to employees.
 Example of equipment that should be inspected on
a daily basis are overhead crane cables and hooks,
punch presses, fire extinguishers, elevators,
personal protective equipment, etc. 191
PLANNED INSPECTIONS

 Loss exposures are created by the day-to-day


activities in any type of organization.
 Equipment and facilities do wear out. At some
point, wear and tear make the risk of accidents
too high. Inspections are needed to detect such
exposures in a timely manner.

192
PLANNED INSPECTIONS
 They also provide feedback on whether equipment
purchasing and employee training are adequate.
Also, conditions change. People, equipment,
materials, and the environment are constantly
changing.
 Some changes remove previous hazards, others
create new ones. A prominent management
philosophy is “all problems result from changes.”
Inspection focus on these changes and help
identify and solve problems.
193
PLANNED INSPECTIONS
NOTHING IS RISK-FREE.
A good inspection program can identify:
1. Potential safety problems.
2. Potential equipment deficiencies.
3. Potentially unsafe acts by employees.
Potential safety problems can include unsafe
equipment, poor housekeeping practices, fire and
explosion hazards.
Potential equipment deficiencies include unsafe design,
inadequate guards on machines and equipment, and
defective work tools and equipment.
194
PLANNED INSPECTIONS

Poor unsafe acts by employees could include


improper lifting, using equipment unsafely, making
safety devises inoperable, and failing to use personal
protective equipment when required. Again, there are
but a few of the many examples that could be
included here.
(Anton, Thomas J., 1999)

195
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

All accidents and near misses should be reported


and their potential for loss assessed; those of
high potential should be immediately and
thoroughly investigated.
The standard investigation procedure should
specify:

196
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
1. Who is to be notified.
2. Who has the decision-making responsibility with
regard to the interruption of work and the re-
allocation of resources.
3. Whom to contact, and how, for the various
accident-investigation services.
4. Instruction for preparing the accident report.
5. A structured follow-up system to ensure rapid
completion of remedial action.
197
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

All high-potential accidents that cause, or could have


caused, serious injury or disruptive property damage
must be investigated. Other accidents should be
investigated where the cost of damage exceeds
predetermined criteria appropriate to that work area.

198
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION --- A MANAGEMENT


COMMITMENT.
A systematic approach to accident investigation,
identification of causal factors, and implementation
of corrective actions is essential for a good safety
and health financial loss.

199
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
Good accident investigation procedures:
1. Provide information needed to determine injury rates, identify
trends or problem areas, permit comparisons, and satisfy
workers’ compensation requirements.
2. Identify without placing blame, the basic causal factors that
contributed directly or indirectly to each accident.
3. Identify deficiencies in the management system.
4. Suggest corrective actions alternatives for a given accident.
5. Suggest corrective action alternatives for the management
system.

200
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
 The accident investigation process must determine not
only the causal factors that contributed to an accident, but
also the deficiencies in the management system that
permitted for the accident to occur.
 The objective of any accident investigation is to identify the
causal factors and recommend corrective actions that will
eliminate or minimize them.
 Investigators should avoid any emphasis on identifying the
individuals who could be blamed for the accident. Looking
for someone to blame jeopardizes the investigators’
credibility and effectiveness and will usually reduce the
quantity and accuracy of the information received.

201
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

The investigation should follow a sound plan


developed and tested before an accident occurs. The
plan should guide the investigators from the moment
they learn of the accident until they release the final
report.
Although unusual circumstances may dictate
occasional deviations from the tested, structured
approach, following the investigative plan will lead to
the best results.

202
INVESTIGATION TEAM

 The size and makeup of the investigation team


should be dictated by the accident’s seriousness
and complexity.
 The supervisor, with the help of employees involved,
usually investigates cases resulting in minor injury
or property damage.

203
INVESTIGATION TEAM

 The team for a major investigation involving a


serious injury, a fatality, or extensive property
damage might include the employee(s) directly
involved, the supervisor, safety personnel,
technical specialists, and employees familiar with
the process or operation.

204
INVESTIGATION TEAM
 The team also might include members of middle
and upper management, such as a general
foreman, a department superintendent, and a plant
manager. If there is a fatality or major property
damage accident, the team may include corporate
safety and health staff and corporate officers.
 A team can add more members as the
investigation uncovers complications, injury, or
damage potential that was not recognized when
the team was formed.

205
INVESTIGATION TEAM
The qualifications needed by the members of
the accident investigation team include:
 Technical knowledge
 Objectivity
 Inquisitiveness and curiosity

 Familiarity with the job, process, or operation

 Tact in communicating with others

 Intellectual honesty
 An analytical approach to problems

206
INVESTIGATION TEAM

 The chairman of the team should be designated


as soon as possible after the accident occurs.
 The manager should designate, or approve
 the designation of, the chairman and other
members of the team.
 If a written procedure is established, designation
can be carried out automatically.

207
INVESTIGATION TEAM

 The chairman should have management status,


the authority to get the job done, and the
experience to do it right. The chairman’s duties
should include :
 Calling and presiding over meetings.
 Controlling the scope of team activities by
identifying the line of investigation to be pursued.
 Assigning tasks and establishing schedule.

208
INVESTIGATION TEAM

 Assuring that no potentially useful data source is


overlooked.
 Keeping interested parties advised of the
investigation’s progress.
 Overseeing the preparation of the final report.
 Arranging liaison with employee representative(s),
government agencies, and news media.

209
ACTION PLAN
 When an accident occurs, the investigators
must be ready to act immediately to turn chaos
into order.
 There is no time for training after the accident.
Investigators need advance training and
preparation so they can act promptly and
effectively.
 Management should adopt a written action plan
for team investigations. The plan should
provide for:
210
ACTION PLAN

1. Identification of the individual who is in charge and


assign responsibilities.
2. Authority to conduct the investigation.
3. Prompt notification of team members that specifies
when and where they should report.
4. Instructions on the personal protective clothing and
special equipment to be worn or brought to the
scene.

211
ACTION PLAN
5. Provisions for a work area and administrative
support.
6. Transportation and communication, if needed.
7. Securing the accident site for the duration of
the investigation after rescue and damage control
are complete.
8. Provision for access of the team members to
the accident site.
9. Photographic support and capability.

212
ACTION PLAN

10. Procedures and equipment to ensure the


observation and recording of fragile, perishable, or
transient evidence (for example, instrument
readings, control panel settings, weather and
other environmental conditions, chemical spills,
stains, skid marks).
11. Development of a comprehensive report.

213
NOTIFICATION PROCEDURES

 Management should adopt a formal notification


procedure to assure that all appropriate persons
receive prompt notification when an accident
occurs.
 The procedure should specify who is responsible
for notifying each person involved.

214
NOTIFICATION PROCEDURES

 The severity of the accident or injuries should


dictate how far the communication process
should go. It also should dictate when the
information is to be communicated; for
example, at any time of the day or night, or
only during working hours. The notification
procedures must be kept up to date; no one
can predict when the thing will be needed.

215
NOTIFICATION PROCEDURES

 Supervisors usually are responsible for initiating


communications on accidents of all kinds.
 Line management with a vested interest may include the
general foreman, the superintendent, the manager of the
establishment, the general manager or vice president of
operations, and in some cases, the organization’s president.
 Staff members who normally would be notified include the
nurse or trained first-aider, safety personnel, public relations
or communication specialists, and industrial relations
personnel. It may be appropriate to notify the employee
representative in the event of a serious accident.

216
NOTIFICATION PROCEDURES

Some organizations provide an internal emergency


telephone number. People who handle such calls ----
- switchboard operators or security personnel -----
should have standing orders on how to respond and
whom to notify to avoid delays or other interference,
a special “hot-line” telephone can be reserved
exclusively for emergency calls.

217
IMMEDIATE ACTION
The safety and health of employees, visitors and the
public must be the primary concerned immediately after
an accident. Activities related to the investigation are
important, but they secondary. The first response must
be to:
 Take all steps necessary to provide emergency rescue
and medical help for the injured.
 Take those actions that will prevent ----- or minimize the
risk of ----- further accidents, injury, or property damage.

218
IMMEDIATE ACTION
These immediate actions are stopgap (pengganti
sementara) measures to prevent further adverse
consequences. Most accidents will require one o or
more of the following actions as soon as possible:
 Secure, barricade, or isolate the scene.
 Collect transient or perishable (barang-barang yang tidak
tahan lama/mudah menjadi busuk) evidence.
 Determine the extent of damage to equipment, material, or
building facilities.
 Restore the operating functions.

219
DETERMINING THE FACTS

 As stated earlier, the level of effort involved in the


investigations largely depends on the seriousness
or complexity of the accident. Investigators should
perform only those task that are pertinent to
identification of the causal factors. For a major
investigation, the accident investigation team
should:
 Visit the accident scene before the physical
evidence is disturbed.
220
DETERMINING THE FACTS

 Take samples of unknown chemical spills, vapors,


residues, dusts, and other substances, noting
conditions that may have affected the samples.
 Make comprehensive visual records. No one can
predict in advance which data will be useful, so
photograph should be taken from many different
angles and accurate and complete sketches or
diagrams should be made before the accident
scene is restored.
221
DETERMINING THE FACTS

 Determine which accident-related items should be


preserved. These may become critical evidence if
there is litigation later. When the investigation
reveals that an item may have failed to operate
properly, or was damaged, arrangement should be
made either to preserve the item as it was found at
the accident scene or to document carefully any
subsequent repairs or modifications.

222
DETERMINING THE FACTS

 Identify the people who were involved in the


accident. Also identify all eyewitnesses, including
those who saw the events leading to the accident,
those who saw the accident happened, and those
who came upon the scene immediately following
the accident. Identify others who may have useful
information.

223
DETERMINING THE FACTS

 These people should be interviewed as soon as


possible. The validity of their statements is highest
immediately after the accident. Immediate
interviews minimize the possibility that witnesses
will subconsciously adjust their stories to fit the
interviewer’s concept of what occurred or to
protect someone involved.
 Witnesses should be interviewed individually and in
private so the comments of one do not influence
the responses of others.
224
DETERMINING THE FACTS

Conduct interviews with everyone who was


involved or can provide information.
 Tactful (bijaksana), skilled investigators usually get
uninhibited cooperation from employees by eliminating any
apprehension they may have about incriminating
(melibatkan) themselves or others.
 Witnesses must be convinced that the investigators want
to find the cause of the accident and do not want to place
blame. If witnesses provide misleading information, the
purpose of the investigation is thwarted (dihalangi/gagal)
and a similar accident may occur again.

225
DETERMINING THE FACTS
Carefully document the sources of information.
 This documentation avoids an unwanted impression that
information actually obtained from third parties is based on
the investigator’s own observations or analysis.
Documentation of information sources can prove valuable if
the accident investigation is expanded at some point or
reopened later.
 Note any contradictory statements or evidence and
attempt to resolve discrepancies. If resolution is not
possible, indicate which statements or evidence are
considered most reliable.
226
DETERMINING THE FACTS

Review all sources of potentially useful information.


 These may include original design; design specifications;
drawings; operating logs; purchasing records; previous
reports; procedures; equipment manuals; verbal
instructions; maintenance, inspection, and test records;
alteration or change of design records; design data; job
safety analysis (JSA); records indicating the previous
training and job performance of the employees and
supervisors involved; computer simulations; and laboratory
tests.
227
ANALYSIS
OF ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS
Analysis of near misses should include:
1. The nature of the activity.
2. The time that the incident occurred.
3. Equipment, materials and persons involved.
4. Jobs and functions of people involved
5. Estimate of potential loss.
LTI = Number of lost-time injuries
Total man-hours worked (in millions)

Analysis of accidents should include those points, plus:


228
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION 229
BEHAVIORAL-BASED SAFETY
Behavioral Safety Process

• A process that creates a safety partnership between


management and the workforce by continually
focusing everyone’s attention and actions on their
own, and other, safety behavior.
• Behavioral safety has been defined as the
application of behavioral research on human
performance to the problems of safety in the
workplace.
What Is Behavioral Safety ?
• The purpose of a behavioral safety process is to reduce
incidents triggered by “unsafe” behaviors.
• To achieve this, behavioral safety processes locate
specific behavioral problems by focusing on incidents
resulting from the interaction between people and their
wider working environment.
• This includes the presence, quality, and functioning of
various management systems (safety and non safety),
the quality of leadership, the resources available
(financial and non financial), and the overall safety
culture.
• Long-term employee participation requires
understanding and belief in the principles
behind the process.
• Employees must also perceive that they “own” the
procedures that make the process work. For this
to happen it is necessary to teach the principles
and rationale first and then work with participants
to develop specific process procedures. This
creates the perception of ownership and leads to
long-term involvement.

23
3
• When people are educated about the principles and
rationale behind a safety process, they can
customize specific procedures for their particular
work areas. Then the relevance of the training
process is obvious, and participation is enhanced.
• People are more likely to accept and follow
procedures they helped to develop. They see such
safe operating procedures as “the best way to do
it” rather than “a policy we must obey because
management says so.”

23
4
• Behavior-based safety is a continuous four-step
process.
• DO IT
• D --- Define the critical target behavior to
increase or decrease
• O --- Observe the target behavior(s) during a pre-
intervention baseline period to set behavior change
goal and, perhaps, to understand the natural
environmental or social factors influencing the
taeget behavior(s).
• I --- Intervene to change the target behavior(s) in
desired directions.
• T --- Test the impact of the intervention
procedure by continuing to observe and record
the target behavior(s) during the intervention
program.
• The DO IT process begins by defining critical
behaviors to work on. These become the targets
of our intervention strategies.
• Some target behaviors might be safe behaviors you
want to see happen more often, like lifting with
knees bent, cleaning a work area, putting on
personal protective equipment, or replacing safety
guards on machinery.
• Other target behaviors may be at-risk behaviors
that need to be decreased in frequency, such as
misusing a tool, overriding a safety switch, placing
obstacles in an area designated for traffic flow,
stacking materials incorrectly, and so on.
• A DO IT process can define desirable behaviors to
be encouraged or undesirable behaviors to be
changed.
• What the process focuses on in your workplace
depends on a review of your safety records, job
hazard analyses, near-hit reports, audit findings,
interviews with employees, and other useful
information.
Compared to at-risk behavior, safe behavior is often
uncomfortable, inconvenient, and less fun.
Critical behaviors to identify and target are :
• At-risk behaviors that have led to a substantial
number of near hits or injuries in the past and safe
behaviors that could have prevented these
incidents.
• At-risk behaviors that could potentially contribute
to an injury (or fatality) and safe behaviors that
could prevent such an incident.
• Deciding which behaviors are critical is the first
step of a DO IT process. A great deal can be
discovered by examining the workplace and
discussing with people how they have been
performing their jobs.
• People already know a lot about the hazards of
their work and the safe behaviors needed to avoid
injury. They even know which safety policies are
sometimes ignored to get the job done on time.
• They often know when a near hit had occurred
because an at-risk behavior or environmental
hazard had been overlooked.
• They also know which at-risk behaviors could lead
to a serious injury (or fatality) and which safe
behaviors could prevent a serious injury (or
fatality).
• In addition to employee discussions, injury records
and near-hit reports can be consulted
to discover critical behaviors (both safe and at risk).
• Job hazard analyses or standard operating
procedures can also provide information relevant to
selecting critical behaviors to target in a DO IT
process.
• Obviously, the plant safety director or the person
responsible for maintaining records for OSHA or
MSHA (Mine Safety and Health Administration) can
provide valuable assistance in selecting critical
behaviors.
• After selecting target behaviors, it is critical to
define them in a way that gets everyone on the
same page.
• All participants in the process need to understand
exactly what behaviors you intend to support,
increase, or decrease.
• Defining target behaviors results in an objective
standard for evaluating an intervention process.
What is Behavior?
• The key is to define behaviors correctly. Let us
begin by stepping back a minute to consider:
What is behavior?
• Behavior refers to acts or actions by individuals that
can be observed by others.
• In other words, behavior is what a person does or
says as opposed to what he or she thinks, feels, or
believes.
• The act of saying words such as “I am tired,” is a
behavior because it can be observed or heard by
others. However, this is not an observation of tired
behavior.
• If the person’s work activity slows down or amount
of time on the job decreases, we might infer that the
person is actually tired.
• On the other hand, a behavioral “slow down” could
result from other internal causes, like worker apathy or
lack of interest.
• The important point here is that feelings, attitudes, or
motives should not be confused with behavior. They
are internal aspects of the person that cannot be
directly observed by others.
• It is risky to infer inner person characteristics from
external behaviors.
• The test of a good behavioral definition is whether
other persons using the definition can accurately
observe if the target behavior is occurring. There are
thousands of words in the English language that can
be used to describe a person.
• From all these possibilities, the words used to
describe behavior should be chosen for clarity to
avoid being misinterpreted; precision to fit the
specific behavior observed; brevity to keep it simple;
and their reference to observable activity—they
describe what was said or done
Outcomes of Behavior

• Often it is easier to define and observe the outcomes


of safe or at-risk behavior rather than
the behavior itself.
• These outcomes can be temporary or permanent, but
they are always observed after the behavior has
occurred.
Outcomes of Behavior
• For example, when observing a worker wearing safety
glasses, a hard hat, or a vehicle safety belt, you are
not actually observing a behavior, but rather you are
observing the outcome of a pattern of safety
behaviors (the behaviors required to put on the
personal protective equipment). Likewise, a locked out
machine and a messy work area are both outcomes of
behavior; one from safe behavior and one from at-risk
behavior.
Outcomes of Behavior
• This distinction between direct observations of
behavior vs. behavioral outcomes is important. You
see, evaluating an outcome cannot always be
directly attributed to a single behavior or to any one
individual, and the intervention to improve a
behavioral outcome might be different than an
intervention to improve behaviors observed directly.
Outcomes of Behavior

• For example, direct guidance through instruction and


demonstration (activators) might be the intervention
of choice to teach the correct use of a respirator;
verbal recognition (a consequence)
would be more suitable to support the outcome of
correctly wearing a respirator at the appropriate time
and place.
Describing Behaviors
• A target behavior needs to be defined in observable
terms so multiple observers can independently watch
one individual and obtain the same results regarding the
occurrence or nonoccurrence of the target behavior.
• There should be no room for interpretation. “Is not
paying attention,” “acting careless,” or “lifting
safely,” for example, are not adequate descriptions
of behavior, because observers would not agree
consistently about whether the behavior occurred.
Describing Behaviors
• In contrast, descriptions like “keeping hand on
handrail,” “moving knife away from body when
cutting,” and “using knees while lifting” are objective
and specific enough to obtain reliable information from
trained observers.
• In other words, if two observers watched for the
occurrence of these behaviors, they would likely agree
whether or not the behavior occurred.
Interobserver Reliability
• The ultimate test for a behavioral description is to
have two observers watch independently for the
occurrence of the target behavior on a number of
occasions, and then calculate the percentage of
agreement between observers.
• More specifically, agreement occurs whenever the
two observers report seeing or not seeing the target
behavior at the same time.
• Disagreement occurs whenever one person reports
seeing the behavior when the other person reports
not seeing the behavior.
Interobserver Reliability
• Percentage of agreement is calculated by adding the
number of agreements and disagreements and dividing
the total into the number of agreements. The quotient
is then multiplied by 100 to give percentage of
agreement.
• If the result is 80 percent or higher, the behavioral
definition is adequate and the observers have been
adequately trained to use the definition in a DO IT
process (Kazdin, 1994).
Metodologi Evidence Gate
Contoh FTA pada Kesalahan Pengeboran

258
Taksonomi Kesalahan Manusia
Basic Errors

Intentional
Slip
Failures

Unintended Action

Memory
Lapse
Failures

Unsafe Acts

Rule-based or
Mistake Knowledge-based
Mistakes

Intended Action

Routines
Violations
Violation Exceptional
Violations
Sabotage
259
Swiss Cheese Model of Human Error
Caustion

260
Kerangka & Susunan HFACS
Latent Failures

Organizational
Influences

Resource Management Organizational Climate Organizational Process

Latent Failures

Unsafe
Supervision

Inadequate Planned Inappropriate Failed to Correct


Supervisory Violations
Supervision Operations Problem

Latent Failures

Preconditions
for Unsafe Acts

Environmental
Condition of Operators Personnel Factors
Factors

Physical Technological Adverse Adverse Physical/Mental Crew Resource Personal


Environment Environment Mental States Physiological States Limitations Management Readiness

Active Failures

Unsafe Acts

Errors Violations

Decision
Errors
Skill-Based
Errors
Perceptual
Errors
Routine Exceptional 261