Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

CLIMATE CHANGE &

ITS IMPACTS
HISTORY OF EARTH’S CLIMATE
 Earth formed ~4.6 billion years ago
 Originally very hot
 Sun’s energy output only 70% of present
 Liquid water present ~4.3 billion years
 Life appeared ~3.8 billion years ago
 Photosynthesis began 3.5-2.5 billion years ago
 Produced oxygen and removed carbon dioxide and methane
(greenhouse gases)
 Earth went through periods of cooling (“Snowball Earth”) and
warming
 Earth began cycles of glacial and interglacial periods ~3 million
years ago
DEFINITIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE?
 “Changes in the earth's weather, including
changes in temperature, wind patterns and
rainfall, especially the increase in the
temperature of the earth's atmosphere that
is caused by the increase of particular gases,
especially carbon dioxide” Oxford Dictionary
 “Climate change is the change that can be
attributed “directly or indirectly to human
activity that alters the composition of the
global atmosphere and which is in addition to
natural climate variability observed over
comparable time periods” United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate
Change(UNFCCC)
CLIMATE CHANGE
 Climate change refers to a set of
environmental concerns that are
related to human activity,
resulting in
 Global Warming

 The “Ozone depletion”

 The retention of heat by the


atmosphere is called the
Greenhouse Effect. It occurs
naturally but can be enhanced by
human activity.
CLIMATE CHANGE:
Is all about Fitting the Pieces together
 Is the world getting warmer?
 If so, are the actions of mankind to
blame for earth’s temperature
increases?
 What can/should be done about
these issues?
Occurrence of Disasters Triggered by
Natural Hazards is Rising in the World
120

100

80

60

40

20

0
1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
GREEN HOUSE
EFFECT
WHAT IS GREEN HOUSE
GLOBAL WARMING IS ALSO KNOWN AS
THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT
The greenhouse effect is
NATURAL! It is supposed to
happen! It would happen
even if there was not a
human being on the planet!
In fact if there was no
greenhouse effect then
humans could not live here
as the planet would be 33c
colder and would look like
and be as cold as Mars!
Rise in Earth’s
temperature

By certain atmospheric
gases

That trap the Sun’s


energy
• Deforestation and agriculture
• Burning of fossil fuels,
gasoline, oil
• Burning of wood and coal
• Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)
• Population Growth
GREENHOUSE GASES

Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse


gases
Examples of Heat Trapping Gases
 Water vapor (H2O)
 Carbon dioxide (CO2)
 Nitrous oxide (N2O)
 Methane (CH4)
CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS (CFC’S)

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), any of several organic compounds composed of


carbon, fluorine, and chlorine. When CFCs also contain hydrogen in place of
one or more chlorines, they are called hydrochlorofluorocarbons, or HCFCs.
GREEN HOUSE GASES

Nitrous oxide Water Methane Sulfur


Carbon dioxide hexafluoride

And chlorofluorocarbons CFCs

While there are many substances that act as greenhouse


gases, two of the most important are water and carbon
dioxide, or CO2.
EMISSIONS OF FLUORINATED GASES
 Unlike many other greenhouse gases, fluorinated gases have no
natural sources and only come from human-related activities.
 They are emitted through a variety of industrial processes such as
aluminum and semiconductor manufacturing
 Many fluorinated gases have very high global warming potentials
(GWPs) relative to other greenhouse gases, so small atmospheric
concentrations can have large effects on global temperatures
 They can also have long atmospheric lifetimes--in some cases, lasting
thousands of years. Like other long-lived greenhouse gases,
fluorinated gases are well-mixed in the atmosphere, spreading around
the world after they're emitted
 Fluorinated gases are removed from the atmosphere only when they
are destroyed by sunlight in the far upper atmosphere
 In general, fluorinated gases are the most potent and longest lasting
type of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities.
 There are three main categories of fluorinated gases--
hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur
hexafluoride (SF6). The largest sources of fluorinated gas emissions
are described below
SUBSTITUTION FOR OZONE-DEPLETING
SUBSTANCES.
Hydrofluorocarbons are used as refrigerants, aerosol
propellants, solvents, and fire retardants. The major emissions
source of these compounds is their use as refrigerants—for
example, in air conditioning systems in both vehicles and
buildings. These chemicals were developed as a replacement
for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons
(HCFCs) because they do not deplete the stratospheric ozone
layer. Chlorofluorocarbons and HCFCs are being phased out
under an international agreement, called the Montreal Protocol
“GREENHOUSE
Increasing greenhouse EFFECT”
gases trap more heat
• Heat would escape back
into space
• Earth’s temperature
would be 60ºF colder
• Makes Earth suitable for
life
• Trap heat from sun
• Glass lets in light
• Glass keeps heat from escaping
• Causes greenhouse to heat up

•Glass lets in light


•Glass keeps heat from escaping
•Causes the car to heat up
• Sun’s energy passes through atmosphere
• 26% is reflected or scattered
• 19% absorbed by clouds, gases, and particles
• 4% reflected to space by surface
• 51% reaches the surface
• Heating of the ground
• Melting of ice and snow
• Evaporation of water
• Plant photosynthesis
Facts about GHG 6.4 billion metric
tons CO2/yr
The U.S. emits about 6.4 billion metric tons of
greenhouse gases annually, 25% of the world’s
total.

These greenhouse gases last a long time


Carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere
for approximately 100 years, methane
lasts about 12 years. Other greenhouse
gases last even longer.
Warming begets more warming…
As these gases continue to raise surface
temperatures, they trigger the release of
even greater quantities of carbon dioxide and
methane that are currently trapped in frozen
Arctic permafrost and tundra soils, further
increasing temperatures.
WHAT IS OZONE LAYER
 Ozone is a relatively unstable molecule made
up of three oxygen atoms.
 The majority of this compound exists in the
stratosphere (15 miles up)
 It shields the Earth from harmful UV radiation of
the sun
• Ozone protects living organisms by absorbing
harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVB) from the sun.

• The ozone layer is being destroyed by CFCs and


other substances.
OZONE LAYER
CAUSES OF OZONE DEPLETION
 Emission of a set of chemicals (mainly chloride
and bromide CFCs) that trigger a reaction in the
atmosphere, causing ozone to be converted to
oxygen.
 Pollutants that make their way to the
stratosphere tend to stay there
 These chemicals serve as a catalyst in a
chemical reaction that converts ozone to
oxygen.
 CFCs remain in the stratosphere and continue
the destruction of the ozone
 Ozone blocks ultraviolet radiation, oxygen does
not.
CONSEQUENCES OF OZONE DEPLETION
 Acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye,
and immune system of human beings.
 The life cycles of plants will change, disrupting the

27
food chain.
 Reduction in Agricultural yields
 Many marine species are coming to an end.
Phytoplankton, which form the foundation of the
oceanic food web, undergo several metamorphoses
before achieving adult form and are very vulnerable
to increased ultraviolet radiation.
 Change in Wind patterns resulting in climatic
changes throughout the world.
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
 Temperature rise
 Precipitation varies
 Soil Moisture
 Rising Sea Levels
 Changing Habitats (Plants and Animals)
 Extreme Weather
 Food and Water Insecurity
 Changes in wildlife adaptations and cycles
 Melting of polar ice caps
 Increase in sea level
 Flooding in coastal areas
 Ocean Acidification
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

A WARM FUTURE

Temperature change in
degree Celsius
CONCLUSION
• WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE:
• Efficient vehicles: Double car fuel efficiency in 2055
from 30 miles per gallon (mpg) to 60 mpg
• Reduced vehicle use: Halve the miles traveled by the
world’s cars in 2055
• Efficient buildings: Cut emissions by 25% in all
buildings
• CCS electricity: Capture and store carbon from
800 large coal power plants or 1600 large
natural gas power plants
CONCLUSION

• Triple the world’s current nuclear capacity


• Solar electricity: Increase solar capacity 700
times
• Forest storage: Halve global deforestation and
double forest planting in 50 years
THANK YOU