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CPEN 106: PROJECT

MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO
MANAGEMENT
Definition of Management
A few definitions by some of the prominent writers on the subject are given
below:
(1) “Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then
seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way”.
- F.W. Taylor
(2) “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to
coordinate and to control”.
- Henry Fayol
(3) “Management is the coordination of all resources through the process
of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain stated
objectives”.
- Sisk
Nature of Management
The following are the characteristics of management :
1. Management is Universal
The principles and techniques of management have universal
application. They can be applied to all types of organizations business,
social, educational and religious.
2. Management is Social Process
Management is basically a social activity because management is mainly
related with the human activities of an enterprise.
3. Management is Goal-Oriented
The purpose of management is to achieve certain goals. The main
objective of management is to maximize efficiency and economy of
human efforts.
Nature of Management
4. Management is Activity-Based
Management refers to a distinct class of activities which could be learnt
and put into practice.
5. Management is Integrative Process
The essence of management is integration of human and other
resources in a manner that it leads to effective performance.
6. Management is a Group Activity
It is concerned with group efforts because it creates effective
cooperation among persons working together in a group.
Objectives of Management
Objectives of management are as follows:
1. Higher Efficiency
Management seeks to obtain maximum output with minimum resources
and efforts.
2. Satisfaction of Customers
Management attempts to produce products required by the customers.
3. Adequate Return on Capital
Management must achieve a reasonable rate of return for the owners of
the business.
Objectives of Management
Objectives of management are as follows:
4. Satisfied Workforce
Management attempts to build a team of good workers who are happy
and satisfied with the organization.
5. Better Working Conditions
Management seeks to achieve a system to ensure fair wages for the
work, security of employment and better working conditions for the work
force.
Process of Management

Human
Resources

Financial
Resources
Manager Planning→ Organising→Leading→ Controlling Goals
Physical
Resources

Information
Resources
Levels of Management

Top-management: e.g. Board of Directors,


CEO, President, Vice President

Middle-management: e.g. branch


manager, department head

First-line management: e.g. supervisor,


team leader
Top-management
■ Managers at the level are ultimately responsible for the
following:
– Make long-term plans
– Establish policies
– Represent the company
■ Referred to as executives of the company
■ Oversees the overall planning for the company
■ Example: The Board of Directors of the company sets a goal
of increasing company sales by 10% in the next year
Middle-management
■ Managers at middle-level are responsible for the
following:
– Develop detailed plans and procedures to
implement goals
– Make decisions
– Direct first-level managers
■ Example: Sales managers develop a new advertising
campaign for one of the company’s products in order
to achieve 10% sales growth in next year.
First-line management
■ First-line management is directly responsible for the
following:
– Implement plans
– Assist middle-level managers
– Oversee workers
– Oversee the day-to-day operations to ensure the
company is smoothly run
■ Example: a store manager is responsible for making sure
that there are sufficient inventories available for sale.
First-line management
■ First-line management is directly responsible for the
following:
– Implement plans
– Assist middle-level managers
– Oversee workers
– Oversee the day-to-day operations to ensure the
company is smoothly run
■ Example: a store manager is responsible for making sure
that there are sufficient inventories available for sale.
Match the stated task/role of each managerial level.
■ Directly responsible for assigning non-managerial employees
to specific jobs.
Top Level ■ Focus on specific operations, products, or customer groups
Management • within an company.
■ Responsible for developing detailed promotion plans and
Middle Level procedures to implement the firm’s strategic plans, e.g.
Management • enter into a new market.
■ Making decisions such as whether or not to enter new
First-line market of another age group.
Management •
■ Devote most of their time to developing long-range plans for
their company.
■ Working with the employees who produce and sell the firm’s
goods and services such as visit each large customer once
each month to maintain a good relationship and introduce
new product.