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Engineering System Design Laboratory

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

What is the difference between:

methods for mathematical optimization,

and

optimization?

What is Design?

Design:

Latin: "designare"

• To "mark out, devise, choose, designate, appoint," 1540s.

workings of a building, garment, or other object before it is built or

made.

other object), typically by making a detailed drawing of it.

engineering designs?

Analysis

Design

What is the relationship between analysis

and design?

• How can we obtain design intuition?

• Open-ended vs. structured nature?

• How can we support practicing design engineers

create more successful designs?

(especially for increasingly complex, integrated systems)

Engineering Design is the Inverse of Engineering Analysis

Engineering Analysis

Engineering Design

The design process is iterative.

Desired System

Performance Design Specification

The design process is iterative.

Physical

Computer

Analysis

Testing

Simulation

Desired System

Performance Candidate Check Specification

Design Performance

Specification

Manual

Designed

Update

Optimization

Experiments

Design

Tuning

Algorithm

What is engineering design

optimization?

Engineering Design Optimization

Framed engineering Mathematical optimization problem

design problem: formulation:

• Scope • Well-posed, solvable

• Assumptions • Models (approximates) original

• Goals target problem well

practical engineering design problems as optimization

problems

• This requires not only knowledge of optimization theory and

algorithms, but expertise in design thinking and application

knowledge

Approaches to learning design

optimization:

(e.g., PhD students doing research in design optimization

method creation and analysis) – Take SE 413, IE 513, and

other optimization courses

2. Primary purpose: Use design optimization as a tool in other

research domains (e.g., performing numerical experiments

for electro-thermal systems or components) – Take SE 413,

CS 450, other applied relevant courses

3. Primary purpose: Use design optimization in engineering

practice (e.g., engineers working in industry) – Take SE 413

(online sometime in the future?)

How does engineering design

optimization relate to other design

strategies?

Selected Design Strategies

Design by Tinkering: Rigorous Experimentation

• Make design decisions as you build • Support design decisions using systematic

• Trial and error. Art and craftsmanship. physical experiments

• Very helpful for building intuition, learning • Evidence-based decisions

the media of engineering • More objective and efficient design

• Complexity of systems that can be designed exploration

this way is limited • DOE: IE 400

• Resulting performance/efficiency is limited

• Design fixation limitations (physical

emotional)

• Simulate results rapidly (often faster/less • Explore design space efficiently (find best

expensive than physical experiments) design without having to test them all)

• Predict effects of design decisions • Go beyond meeting requirements (RDD)

• Gain intuition through model development • Make new things possible, create and

• Discover what physical mechanisms are understand unprecedented systems

influential with respect to design problem • Automate parts of the design process

• Increased design flexibility and complexity

Selected Design Strategies

Design by Tinkering: Rigorous Experimentation

• Make design decisions as you build • Support design decisions using systematic

• Trial and error. Art and craftsmanship. physical experiments

• Very helpful for building intuition, learning • Evidence-based decisions

• Every design strategy involves significant creativity

the media of engineering • More objective and efficient design

• Complexity of systems that can be designed exploration

• What decisions/innovations

this way is limited • are made by

DOE: IE 400

• Resulting performance/efficiency is limited

• human designers?

Design fixation limitations (physical

• Increased design strategy sophistication:

emotional)

• Enhances design

Model/Simulation-Based Design capabilities (speed,

Design Optimization

performance,

• Simulate results system

rapidly (often faster/less

expensive than physical experiments)

complexity)

• Explore design space efficiently (find best

design without having to test them all)

• effects

• Predict Requires additional investment

of design decisions (time,

• Go beyond meeting expertise,

requirements (RDD)

• Gain intuition through model development • Make new things possible, create and

resources)

• Discover what physical mechanisms are understand unprecedented systems

influential with respect to design problem • Automate parts of the design process

• Increased design flexibility and complexity

Analytical Design (Design With Analysis)

world giving and approximate representation

of more complex functions of physical systems.

(POD p. 4)

Analytical Design (Design With Analysis)

• Physical models: prototypes

• Symbolic models: language, drawings, mental

models, mathematical models

– Mathematical models include: first principles

models, empirical models, computer models.

Design Optimization:

optimization formulation.

• Application of optimization theory and algorithms.

• Development of system models that work with optimization

• Analysis of results, extraction of insights (beyond delivering an

‘optimal’ design)

• Support design of systems where good solutions are non-

obvious (good design not apparent via intuition)

Challenges in Modern Engineering Design

System Knowledge

Design Flexibility

Types of Design Optimization:

- Topology design

- Design tuning

Design Optimization:

Selecting the best design within the best available means

Three questions:

• How can we describe design alternatives?

– Design representation

• How can we quantitatively compare design alternatives?

– Comparative Metrics (objectives and constraints)

• Given a design, how can we predict its performance?

– Predictive mathematical models

– Important for exploring what is physically realizable

always done.

problem.

Design Optimization Conceptual Example

• How can we quantitatively compare design alternatives?

• How can we predict performance?

Concept 1

Attainable Set

f 1 (x )

Concept 2

Attainable Set

Concept 3

Attainable Set

Target Point

Utopia Point

f 2 (x )

Optimization: Beyond Requirements-driven design:

• What is mathematical optimization?

• Not just improvement, as the term is often used.

• Design Optimization: Translate an engineering design problem into a

formal mathematical optimization problem, and then solve it using

numerical optimization algorithms.

subject to stress, fatigue, and cost constraints.

Design Variables:

direct control over them)

• Often interchangeable with parameters

• System design must be defined completely by assigning values to

design variables:

Inequality Design Constraints:

constraints.

Other similar examples of inequality constraints:

• Temperature, voltage, current, velocity (bounds on state)

Optimization: Modeling a Design Problem

(not just an engineering system)

the optimization formulation).

Optimization: Beyond Requirements-driven design:

formal mathematical optimization problem, and then solve it using

numerical optimization algorithms.

optimization problems.

optimization example, and a design optimization problem.)

Analytical Optimization Examples

1D Optimization Example

2D Optimization Example

Engineering Design Optimization

Example

Design Optimization Example

Helical Compression Spring

Design Optimization Example

Helical Compression Spring

• MATLAB implementation of multiple inequality constraints: define a

constraint function with multiple outputs.

Problem Visualization and Abstraction

Optimization Problem Visualization

• Useful abstraction of the original engineering design problem

– Insightful to visualize optimization problem space as a constrained

surface

– Provides useful language for reasoning through design problems

– Design Optimization Paradigm (overview article)

– DO abstraction: breakthrough concept in engineering design research

(1970s)

• Concepts extend to higher-dimensional problems

Optimization Problem Visualization: Minimization

• How can we find what direction is downhill?

– Vision: expensive, what if we can’t see?

– Ankle rotation

– Take some small steps nearby (samples)

What can we learn from optimization problem visualization?

• Conceptual abstraction and language for design optimization

– (design space, response surface, descent, etc.)

• Nature of design problem

– Smooth vs. nonsmooth

– Unimodal vs. multimodal

– Interior vs. boundary optima

– Problem conditioning

– Monotonicity and well-boundedness (are we missing any constraints?)

Optimization Problem Visualization vs. Numerical Optimization

alternatives

– Every point on the objective function surface represents a unique

design alternative

– DOE/sampling is common in industry

• Numerical Optimization: find the optimal solution without

testing all design alternatives

– How might we find the bottom of a valley without sampling/sensing all

points?

When is Design Optimization Useful?

When is design optimization warranted?

effort/design performance)

• Can be important when designing new types of systems without design

heritage

• Large-dimension, nonlinear, non-intuitive problems

– Spring design: small dimension, but nonlinear, coupled formulas

– Electro-thermal system design: Very difficult to get intuition for this coupling

• May be justified when enhanced performance or mass reduction is critical

(aerospace)

• Can enable more flexible design space exploration (e.g., more freeform

design, more comprehensive design problem formulations)

• Perhaps part of a problem can be solved using optimization, and other

parts solved using conventional methods (procedure-based design)

Non-trivial engineering design optimization problems:

• Solution is non-obvious:

– With some trivial problems, we can use intuition to reason through

what the optimal result will be.

– Monotonicity is often present in engineering design. Often one or

more constraints are active. (min mass, st stress)

– Active failure mode constraints are usually fine, but active arbitrary

bounds usually indicate something was overlooked in the formulation

(oversimplified model, improper design representation).

• Competing phenomena or other tradeoffs create design conditions where

a ‘sweet spot’ exists, and optimization helps us find this sweet spot

• Optimization formulation, modeling, and solution provide new design

insights

– Results provide new intuition for how certain types of systems should

be designed

Example: Simple, Non-Trivial Problem

Sweet Spot Example: Simple Structural Design

• Minimize rod mass, avoid buckling and yield failure

• Tradeoff from conflicting phenomena:

• How does increasing x influence axial rod force?

• How would it influence Pcr?

Example: Simple Structural Design

Example: Simple Structural Design

Design optimization formulation:

Example: Simple Structural Design

Analysis required for optimization (find Ns, Nb):

of known quantities

Example: Simple Structural Design

Analysis required for optimization (find Ns, Nb):

of known quantities

Design-Appropriate Model Development:

• Predict performance metrics as a function

Yield stress safety factor

of independent design variables

• Balance accuracy and Critical load for buckling

development/computational effort

Example: Simple Structural Design

For a given arbitrary design (x,r), it is difficult to predict

which failure mode (Ns, Nb) will dominate.

• Whichever mode has a lower safety factor for a design.

• Due to nonlinear relationships, failure mode dominance

will likely change with design.

structural design problem?

Nb > Ns

Yield stress dominant

failure mode Nb < Ns

Buckling dominant

failure mode

Large r non-optimal

designs

designs we care about,

buckling is dominant.

Analyzing the Design Problem:

• We can safely assume that buckling is the dominant

failure mode, and focus on satisfying the buckling

constraint.

• Let’s assume a value for r, and see how Nb and Fr change

with x.

• Is there a design ‘sweet spot’?

Nb initially increases with x Eventually Nb decreases with x

due to reduced axial force due to increased length

force/buckling stability Then this is the

produces this ‘sweet feasible domain

spot’ with maximum Nb. for x

will give us the minimum

mass, feasible rod If we specify Nallow = 1

design? here

Design Optimization Inspired Design Strategy:

For each value of x:

• Assume that buckling is the dominant failure mode,

• Assume that the buckling constraint is active:

at the limit, then mass could be reduced further)

• Solve for r to obtain minimum mass rod for a given x:

the design ‘sweet spot’ where mass is minimized.

Problem Formulation Framework

Design Methodology =

Problem Formulation

+ Solution/Search Method

Design Optimization Problem Formulation Framework

problem are:

2. Comparison Metrics (quantitative ranking,

objectives/constraints)

3. Predictive Model (maps design representation to

metrics)

Design Optimization Problem Formulation Framework

Substantive

rationality

solution

Modeling for Design

Modeling for Design

Requires a deeper understanding of the relationship

between engineering analysis and design.

• Design is the ‘inverse problem’

• Design optimization helps to focus modeling activities,

reveals model shortcomings

• Development of adequate models: perhaps the most

significant barrier to adoption of design optimization in

industry.

• Why might existing models be inadequate?

• Engineers who develop models often are not the ones

using them for design.

Product Concept Systems-Level Detail Testing and Production

Planning Development Design Design Refinement Ramp-up

Steady-state

Lumped-parameter simulations

Error

Distributed-parameter simulations

Computational Expense

Two fundamental types of system interaction/coupling:

• Influence of component or discipline behavior/properties

on another. Physics/energy/information transfer. Structural

Analysis

• Identifiable via analysis of physics models or sensitivity

studies.

• Used often in systems engineering: integration models, Aerodynamic

multiphysics simulation Analysis

• Overlook analysis coupling inaccurate simulation

• The effect that changes in one design domain has on Design

design decisions that should be made in another domain. Turbine

Design

• Identified via model-based optimization studies.

• Design coupling is only starting to be addressed formally in

systems engineering practice. Layout Design

• Overlook design coupling suboptimal system design

Modeling for Design

• A model must be constructed with its end

purpose in mind

• Different from conventional model development

• Start simple, add sophistication as needed

• Requirements for use with optimization:

– Flexibility and accuracy in design domain

– Access to independent design variables

– Reasonable computational expense

– Awareness of assumptions and validity domain

– C1 smooth (if ∇-based optimization used)

Modeling for Design

How to select / create design-appropriate models?

• Consider design process stage • Commercial vs in-house options

• Tradeoff between expense/ accuracy • Data driven vs first principles

• Tradeoff: solution effort vs solution • Unique requirements for design

quality

Resistor 1D ODE

1. 2. Network 3. 2D PDE 4. 3D PDE

Network

Model trade-off

(electro-thermal system example)

Modeling for Design

• Potential issues to consider when choosing whether to use

commercial simulation tools with design optimization:

– May have built-in optimization algorithms. (limited)

– Interface with optimization (PIDO tools: iSIGHT, Optimus, Model Center)

– Limited access to sensitivities

– Less flexible in what can be modeled and what can be changed

– General purpose modeling tools may not be as efficient as a targeted

custom model

• What are the pros/cons to developing your own model for design

optimization? (e.g., MATLAB FEA)

– Highly flexible, easy integration with optimization.

– Potential for very efficient, tailored model implementation.

– May involve significant development effort.

– Often difficult to create accurate models from scratch.

Modeling for Design

Model Types:

• Data-Driven Models:

– Accurate within bounds of available data

– Often easier to construct (e.g., response surfaces)

– May not maintain predictive accuracy when changing

design (requires more data if design is to be changed).

• First Principles Models: (e.g., physics-based)

– Often better at predicting the effects of design

changes

– Can require more involved development effort

Modeling for Design

Characteristics of design

appropriate models. Impact on design solution

Low Fidelity

• Inaccuracy has low impact on design Model

solution (robustness)

High Fidelity

• Allows for design flexibility

Model

• Support adjustment of independent

design variables

• Often must include important

physics couplings How far apart are the optima?

How do we measure model suitability for a

design problem?

• Model validation: how closely do predicted

results match actual system behavior?

versus

• Assessing model suitability for design: Will using

the model get us to the right design solution?

solution, which may not be the same as accurate with respect to

predicted behavior.

Integrated Physical and Control System

Design: Co-Design

Integrated Design of Active Dynamic Systems

Mechatronics:

• Engineering discipline that aims for integrated design of actively controlled

electro-mechanical-hydraulic (etc.) systems

• Largely heuristic or procedure-based strategies for addressing design

coupling

• Deals with the design of highly multidisciplinary engineering systems

System-Optimal Design of Mechatronic Systems

• More formal strategies needed to better manage design coupling and

improve system performance

• MDA/MDO methods can be applied with extensions for dynamic systems

Co-Design: Integrated Physical and Control System Design

• Account for synergistic coupling between physical and control design

• Much more than just ‘design for control’

• Can be viewed as a specific subclass of MDO: coupled physical and control

system design subproblems

Design Process Options Co-Design

Integrated physical (plant) and control

system design

Conventional Sequential Design Simultaneous Design

an option

Example: Robotic System Design

• Exhibits coupling between physical and control system design.

• Passive dynamics essential for performance improvement.

• Strength and stiffness • Fixed plant design

• Kinematics • Objective based on

• Mass distribution and trajectories

balance • No plant constraints

mechanical design performance depends on system dynamics and control.

• Single system design objective that applies to both design domains

• Dynamic performance considered during mechanical design

• No longer constrained by rigid link assumption (downsize links, actuators)

Example: design of an energy-efficient

counterbalanced robotic manipulator (rigid links).

Task: move 20 kg payload from p0 to pf in 2 seconds.

Single system objective applied

to both design domains

Sequential Manipulator Design:

plant design followed by trajectory optimization.

(link lengths) (offsets) (masses)

xp = [1.0, 1.0, 0.3, 0.3, 10, 10 ]T

Optimal Co-Design:

simultaneous plant and control optimization.

(link lengths) (offsets) (masses)

xp = [0.838, 0.711, 0.216, 0.885, 3.89, 20.7]T

E(xp, xc) = 5.86 × 10−5 Joules

between passive dynamics and

control system design.

Bose® approach for rethinking system design: assume

nothing about what connects wheel to vehicle, identify the

best possible force trajectory.

F(t)?

design when introducing active control.

deliver fundamentally better performance. Comfort

Example: shifting the suspension/handling tradeoff curve.

Handling

performance

Design under fewer constraining assumptions makes new

things possible.

Utilizing Co-Design in Systems Engineering

Significant potential for

• Enhancing design integration

• Improving system performance, capitalize on passive dynamics in an active system

• Tailor structural/mechanical/control system designs system optimality

• Identifying problems due to interactions early

Howmight co-design be used within systems engineering?

• Especially appropriate for early-stage design (predesign)

• Identify qualitative synergy mechanisms that can guide later design efforts

• Tool for mechanical/structural designers to develop a design they are confident

has accounted for coupling with control system design

we discover something that

was overlooked

Why Learn Design Optimization?

Mastery of both engineering design and mathematical

optimization is a rare and valuable skill.

Value of Engineering Design Optimization

System Knowledge

• Enable bigger design steps and faster innovation

– Go beyond small perturbations

• Reduce energy and resource consumption

• Help engineers focus on creative tasks

– Automate mundane tasks

How can I learn more?

SE 413: Engineering Design Optimization

• 3 or 4 credits (4th credit: intensive project)

• Prerequisites: Calculus III, linear algebra, a course in programming

• Applied optimization course: optimization theory, numerical

methods, practical application to design

SE 413 Course Objectives:

The primary objective of this course is for students to gain the knowledge and creative skill

required to translate practical engineering design problems into mathematical

optimization problems that can be solved using numerical methods for optimization. In

supporting this primary objective, the following objectives should be met by students:

engineering design process.

• Learn how to formulate practical engineering design problems as well-posed

optimization problems.

• Understand continuous optimization theory and its implications for algorithm

development, problem formulation, and system modeling.

• Develop a detailed understanding of numerical methods for optimization through

implementation in MATLAB.

Specific Skills

Formulation

• Translate engineering design problems into mathematical optimization problems

• Know how to formulate well-posed, solvable optimization problems

• Be creative through problem definition

Optimization Algorithms:

• Understand them well enough to choose the right algorithm for a problem

• Know what to do when things go wrong

• Algorithm, formulation, model

• Write your own basic optimization algorithms

• Explore design alternatives efficiently

Modeling:

• Learn how to develop engineering analysis models that work well for design

optimization

• Understand how to use the right model fidelity and complexity for a problem

Other Relevant Courses:

• IE 513: Optimal System Design

• ECE 490: Introduction to Optimization

• AE 498: Topology Optimization

• GE 598: Dynamic System Design

• AE 502: Optimal Control

See: tinyurl.com/esdl-info

Appendix

Integrated System Design

System Design Paradigm:

The whole is greater than the sum of the parts

• Base design decisions on what is best for the overall system, not individual parts

• Problems may arise due to neglected system interactions that are not realized until

physical testing (failure, unexpected behavior, etc.)

• Missed opportunities for performance improvement or cost reduction

relationships between system components.

• Strive for system-optimal designs (optimal with respect to overall system

performance, not individual component optimality)

Sample of ESDL design applications

Energy System Design and Suspension Complex Material

Design Design Design

- +

system-level

3: Inverter 4: Battery

design

2: Generator

1: Engine 5: Motor

material-level

design

6: Gears

7: Vehicle

Design Materials Design System Design Design

“An astutely chosen technology platform can shorten

and improve product development cycles. ...

analyses earlier ... foster improved product quality and

faster development.

product performance, reliability, and overall

development time.”

Optimization: Beyond Requirements-driven design:

• What is optimization?

• Design Optimization: Translate an engineering design problem into a

formal mathematical optimization problem, and then solve it using

numerical optimization algorithms.

subject to stress, fatigue, and cost constraints.

State of Engineering Design Optimization in Industry

• Pioneered in aerospace, now somewhat common in

automotive (at least with structural design)

• Opportunity for impact on how engineering design is done

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