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GEOFISIKA DASAR (TKG 231)

Kuliah Pertemuan ke-2

TEKNIK GEOLOGI – UNDIP


2014
GEOFISIKA (Geophysics)
• Is the measurement of contrasts in the physical properties of material
beneath the surface of the earth and the attempt to deduce the nature
and distribution of materials responsible for these observation
• Some Fundamental Consideration

• We treat the earth and subsurface as ideal subject


• Subsurface is constituted by body of constant thickness with
planar contact
• Dipping bed is only with constant inclination
• The body is homogeneous, lateral variation pictured as abrupt
vertical boundary
• Earth surface always horizontal
• The vibration from wind and traffic or induced current by
electric line are never ilustrated

(Suryanto, 2012)
• Defining Objectives

• Understand the fundamentals of various exploration methods


• Before planning the data acquision stage :
• Determine what information already exist (geology, drilling log, etc)
• Acquisition design

(Suryanto, 2012)
• Limitation

• Lack of sufficient contrast in physical properties


• Non-uniqueness of many interpretations
• Resolution
• Noise effect

(Suryanto, 2012)
Often specific survey objectives cannot be met by applying only one geophysical method

(Suryanto, 2012)
Macam-macam Metode Geofisika
AKTIF PASIF
• Seismik Refraksi Gelombang gempabumi
• Seismik Refleksi Mikroseismik (microseismic)
Gayaberat (gravity)
Geolistrik (resistivity)
• Induced Polarization

Pole – dipole
Self Potential
Geomagnet
Elektromagnet
Magnetotelurik (magnetotelluric)
SEISMIK
Sifat-sifat Gelombang Seismik
GELOMBANG PERMUKAAN (SURFACE WAVE) GELOMBANG BADAN (BODY WAVE)
• Merusak • Tidak merusak
• Terdiri dari gelombang Love dan • Terdiri dari gelombang primer (P)
Rayleigh dan Sekunder (S)
P wave : Dan Russell animations –A wave pulse

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University


http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/demos.html
Compressional Wave (P-Wave) Animation

Deformation propagates. Particle motion consists of alternating compression


and dilation. Particle motion is parallel to the direction of propagation
(longitudinal). Material returns to its original shape after wave passes.
S Wave:Dan Russell animations- Transverse wave

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University


http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/demos.html
Shear Wave (S-Wave) Animation

Deformation propagates. Particle motion consists of alternating transverse motion. Particle


motion is perpendicular to the direction of propagation (transverse). Transverse particle motion
shown here is vertical but can be in any direction. However, Earth’s layers tend to cause mostly
vertical (SV; in the vertical plane) or horizontal (SH) shear motions. Material returns to its
original shape after wave passes.
Rayleigh Wave (R-Wave) Animation

Deformation propagates. Particle motion consists of elliptical motions (generally retrograde


elliptical) in the vertical plane and parallel to the direction of propagation. Amplitude
decreases with depth. Material returns to its original shape after wave passes.
Love Wave (L-Wave) Animation

Deformation propagates. Particle motion consists of alternating transverse motions.


Particle motion is horizontal and perpendicular to the direction of propagation
(transverse). To aid in seeing that the particle motion is purely horizontal, focus on the
Y axis (red line) as the wave propagates through it. Amplitude decreases with depth.
Material returns to its original shape after wave passes.
Dan Russell animations – Rayleigh wave

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University


http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/demos.html
Dan Russell animations – The people wave

Animation courtesy of Dr. Dan Russell, Kettering University


http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/demos.html
•Perambatan Gelombang (Wave Propagation)
•Mechanical properties

• Density
• Elastic modulii
• Viscocity
• Plasticity
• Young Modulus (E) • Poisson Ratio ( )
is the stress needed Poisson’s measures
to compress the solid the relativity of the
to shorten in a unit expansion in the
strain lateral directions and
compression in the
direction in which the
uni-axial compression
applies
• Bulk Modulus (K)
Imagine you have a small cube of the
material making up the medium and that
you subject this cube to pressure by
squeezing it on all sides. If the material is
For example, gases have very small not very stiff, you can image that it would be
Bulk Modulus. Solids and liquids possible to squeeze the material in this
have large Bulk Modulus
cube into a smaller cube. The bulk modulus
describes the ratio of the pressure applied
to the cube to the ampunt of volume change
that the cube undergoes. If K is very large,
then the material is very stiff, meaning that
it doesn’t compress very much even under
large pressure. If K is small, then a small
pressure can compress the material by
large amounts.
Shear Modulus
• The shear modulus describes how difficult it is
to deform a cube of the material under an
applied shearing force. For example, imagine
you have a cube of material firmly cemented to
a table top. Now, push on one of the top edges
of the material parallel to the table top. If the
material has a small shear modulus, you will be
able to deform the cube in the direction you are
pushing it so that the cube will take on the
shape of a parallelogram. If the material has a
large shear modulus, it will take a large force
applied in this direction to deform the cube.
Gases and fluids can not support shear forces.,
That is, they have shear modulii of zero. From
the equations given above, notice that this
implies that fluids and gases do not allow the
propagation of S waves
• Seismic Velocities
related to material
properties
•Seismik Refraksi
•Seismik Refleksi
•TERIMAKASIH