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STEAM TURBINES

An Over View

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Content

• Classification of Turbines
• Rankine Cycle
• Construction features & Design Philosophy at BHEL
• Thermal efficiency & Losses in Turbine
• Turbine Integral System
• Advance Design Tools

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Classification of Steam Turbines
1. Based on Blading Design
a) Impulse turbine
b) Reaction turbine
c) Combination of Impulse & Reaction turbine
2. Based on Application
a) Utility turbines
b) Industrial turbines
c) Nuclear turbines
d) Marine turbines
a) Utility Turbines
- Regenerative feed heating
- Regenerative feed heating with Reheat
- Combined cycle plants
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Classification of Steam Turbines (contd…)
b) Industrial Turbines
• Captive Power plant
- Straight Condensing
- Straight Condensing with Injection
• Co-generation Power Plant (Power + Steam to process)
- Straight Back Pressure
- Extraction Condensing
- Extraction Back Pressure
- Double Extraction Back Pressure/ Condensing
- Extraction / Injection
• Drive Turbines
- Compressor drive
- Blowers drive
- Boiler feed pump drive, etc.)
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HP GOV. VALVES

HP GOV. VALVES

BACK PRESSURE TURBINE STRAIGHT CONDENSING TURBINE

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LP GOV. VALVES IP GOV. VALVES

HP GOV. VALVES LP GOV. VALVES

HP GOV. VALVES

EXTRACTION
EXTRACTION-1

EXTRACTION-2

EXTRACTION CONDENSING TURBINE DOUBLE EXTRACTION CONDENSING TURBINE

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RANKINE CYCLE

D'

C D

TEMPERATURE, T
WORK DONE
B

A E E'
HEAT REJECTED

ENTROPY, S
PROCESS A-B: ISENTROPIC/ADIABATIC COMPRESSION PROCESS
FEED WATER TO BOILER IS PRESSURIED TO BOILER

PROCESS B-C: CONSTANT PRESSURE PROCESS


FEED WATER HEATED UPTO SATURATION TEMP T1 CALLED
SENSIBLE HEATING POINT C IS INTERMEDIATE POINT OF
STEAM GENERATION

PROCESS C-D: CONSTANT PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE PROCESS


FEED WATER IS VAPOURISED CALLED LANTENT HEAT OF
VAPOURISATION POINT D IS STEAM IS DRY & SATURATED.

PROCESS D-E: ISENTROPIC/ADIABATIC EXPANSION PROCESS


EXPANSION OF STEAM TO VACCUM

PROCESS E-A: CONSTANT PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE PROCESS


REJECTION OF HEAT TO CONDENSOR TO CONDENSE THE STEAM.
AT POINT D, STEAM IS DRY & SATURATED. 9
RANKINE CYCLE
(Reheat Cycle)
E F

TEMPERATURE, T C D

WORK DONE
B

A G
HEAT REJECTED

ENTROPY, S

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Thermal Efficiencies and Heat Rates

Work done at Turbine coupling


Thermal Efficiency of Steam Turbine =
Net Heat supplied to Turbine

Net Heat input to Turbine


Heat Rate of Turbine =
Electrical output from Generator

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Losses in Turbine
• External Losses
- ESV & strainer losses
- Governing losses (throttling losses)
- Leaving Energy Losses (Latent heat of exhaust steam in condenser)
- Radiation Loss to the surroundings
• Internal Losses
1. Blade losses
i) Primary Losses:
a) Shape loss due to mechanical strength
b) Friction loss due to profile surface finish
ii) Secondary Losses:
a) Incidence loss (Blade twist is required to minimize this loss)
b) Impingement loss
c) Boundary Layer loss ( between profiles and end walls)
d) Trailing edge loss 12
Losses in Turbine (contd.)
2. Disc Friction Losses:
Moving disc surface exerts a drag as steam which sets it in motion
and produces a definite circulation.
3. Partial Admission Losses:
a) Flow will be disturbed in partial filled blades.
b) Eddies will be produced in inactive blades
c) Energy is required to flush the steam in inactive blades when
they come to active.
4. Inter stage Tip Leakages:
Steam throttles in the inter stage seals without doing work
5. Residual velocity Losses:
Kinetic energy of the leaving steam of one stage will be carried
over to the next stage. As the axial clearances increase between
the stages (or stage groups) part of the kinetic energy will be lost.
6. Wetness Loss
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FUEL+AIR
AIR

CC

COMPRESSOR TURBINE STACK

GAS TURBINE
STEAM TURBINE
HRSG

TURBINE

COMBINED CYCLE PLANT CONDENSER

PUMP

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Blade Profiles A A SECTION A-A
(SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM)

• Impulse

SECTION A-B A18 A18


SECTION A16-A16
U
A B
( SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM )
• Reaction A A

SECTION A13-A13
A13 A13

A A

A10 A10

SECTION A7-A7

A7 A7 A A

A4 A4
SECTION A3-A3

• Twisted Blade A1 A1 A

A
Y
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INTER STAGE SEALING

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Blade Profiles A A SECTION A-A
(SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM)

• Impulse

SECTION A-B A18 A18


SECTION A16-A16
U
A B
( SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM )
• Reaction A A

SECTION A13-A13
A13 A13

A A

A10 A10

SECTION A7-A7

A7 A7 A A

A4 A4
SECTION A3-A3

• Twisted Blade A1 A1 A

A
Y
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TO
GLAND STEAM
CONDENSER
(0.98 ata)

TURBINE

CONDENSER

1.04 to 1.10 ata


TO BFP

FROM SEAL STEAM


AUX. STEAM VALVE
HEADER

LEAK OFF VALVE TO


CONDENSER

TURBINE GLAND STEAM SYSTEM 21


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Types of Turbines

• -2 Series
• -3 Series
• -4 Series
• HMN Series
• KN Series
• Low Cost Turbines

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- 2 Series Turbine

•Maximum Inlet Parameters: 80ata/510 deg.C


•Power Range: Upto 20 MW
•Fixed Frame sizes
•Back pressure, condensing with/without extractions
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-2 CONDENSING STEAM TURBINE

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- 3 Series Turbine

•Inlet Parameters upto 140bar/540deg.C


•Power Range upto 40MW
•Building block principle
•Two inlet sections “N” and “H”
•Back pressure, condensing with/without extractions
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INDUSTRIAL TURBINES ON BUILDING BLOCK
SYSTEM
•Front section in two patterns
N - for normal steam inlet conditions upto 100 bar/500°C
(5 geometrically graded sizes)
H - for higher inlet steam conditions upto 140 bar/540°C
(4 geometrically graded sizes)

•Rear section (Exhaust) & Versions


- for normal back pressure upto 20 bar(in 7 sizes)
- for higher back pressure upto 45 bar (in 4 sizes)
- for condenser Turbines ( in 8 sizes)
•Centre section
- Blading system can be extended by extensive section
- matching of front section with larger flow sections & transition
section
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Turbine Assembly

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-3 Series Straight Condensing Turbine

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GOVERNING VALVE ASSEMBLY WITH ACTUATOR 30
EMERGENCY STOP VALVE 31
COUPLING

POLE WHEEL

THRUST
COLLAR

H.P.BLADES

L.P BLADES
CROSS-SECTIONAL DRAWING OF BLADED ROTOR

HAND BARRING
WHEEL

MOVING WHEEL
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FOR OIL TURBINE

DISCONNECT
COUPLING
Assembled Turbine Rotor

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3DS Blade
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3DV Blade
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Stationary Banana Blade 37
OUTER CASING

GLAND CASING

ROTOR

LABYRINTH GLAND 38
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OIL GLAND
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- 4 Series Turbine

•Supplement to -3 series and larger capacities


•Inlet parameters upto 140 ata/540 deg. C
•Building block principle, centre admission, reverse flow
•Upto 80 to 100 MW, Non reheat
•Back pressure, condensing with/without extractions
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-4 Series Turbine

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Turbine Integral Systems
• Protection system Control & Instrumentation
• Oil system
• Gland sealing system
• Turbine Drains

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Protection Requirements
• Over speed
• Low Lube oil pressure
• Low vacuum
• Axial shift
• High Vibration
• Bearing temperature
• Differential expansion
• High/low extraction pressure
• Exhaust temperature
• Generator / Compressor protections
• Manual / Remote trip
• Special protections

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Automatic Turbine Run-up system (ATRS)
• Cooling water system
• Lube Oil system & Barring gear
• HP Control oil system (if applicable)
• Turbine drains
• Seal steam system
• Condensate & evacuation system
• LP Bypass control (if applicable)
• Warm up
• Turbine rolling & synchronization

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Automatic Turbine Tester (ATT)
• Over speed protection
• Turbine Emergency Stop Valve
• Turbine control Valve
• Lube Oil Protection
• Vacuum protection

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Turbovisory
• Relative shaft vibration
• Bearing housing vibration
• Axial shift
• Eccentricity
• Casing expansion
• Rotor differential expansion
• Casing / Rotor temperature
• Bearing temperature
• Steam parameters

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Oil system
• Alternative-I
- 2x100% AC Motor driven oil pumps
- DC Emergency oil pump
- Overhead oil tank
- AC/DC Jacking oil pump
- Accumulators
• Alternative-II
- Shaft driven Mail Oil Pump
- 1x100% Motor driven Auxiliary Oil Pump
- DC Emergency Oil Pump
- AC/DC Jacking Oil Pump
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STEPS INVOLVED IN DESIGN OF STEAM TURBINE

• PERFORM THERMODYNAMIC AND AXIAL THRUST CALCULATION


TO DECIDE DIAMETERS AND AXIAL LENGTH OF BALDING.
• PERFORM ROTOR DYNAMIC CALCULATION AND SUGGEST ANY
CHANGE OF LENGTHS OR DIAMETERTO REPEAT ABOVE STEP.
• SELECT SUITABLE TURBINE EXTENSIONS AND CARRIERS TO MEET
ABOVE BLADING GEOMETRY.
• SELECT SUITABLE MATERIALS TO MEET STEAM PARAMETERS
• SELECT SUITABLE GOVERNING SYSTEM AND PROTECTION
SYSTEM
• PREPARE ORDERING/MANUFACTURING DOCUMENTS
INCORPORATING ABOVE SELECTIONS
• PREPARE OPERATING AND MAINTAINANCE PROCEDURE FOR THE
TURBINE.

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Advance Design Tools
• Thermal cycle optimization
• Solid modeling & FEM Analysis
• Computational Fluid Dynamics
• Rotor Dynamics
• Aero-thermodynamics
• Piping flexibility Analysis
• Plant Design software

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COUPLING

POLE WHEEL

THRUST
COLLAR

H.P.BLADES

L.P BLADES
CROSS-SECTIONAL DRAWING OF BLADED ROTOR

HAND BARRING
WHEEL

MOVING WHEEL
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FOR OIL TURBINE

DISCONNECT
COUPLING
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Casting materials Forging Materials Bolt Materials
Gsc-25 NiCrMoTiAl
Gs22Mo4 26NiCrMoV115
Ti-B
Gs17CrMov55 28CrMoNiV4-9 21CrMoV57V
Gs17CrMov511 24CrMo5V
GG-20
30CrMoNiV5-11
Ck35
GG-25 X22CrMoV121 X10CrNiMoV1222V (Pin)
GGG-40

Blade Materials
X22CrMoV121V (HPMB)
X20Cr13V (LPMB)
X20Cr13 BG (shrouds)
X20CrMo13 KG (GB Pofiles)
X5CrNi134 ( Mill LP blades)
X7CrAl13 (Hollow GB)

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ROTODYNAMICS RESPONSE PLOT 59
Rotor Dynamics Response Plot

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-2 Boiler Feed Pump Drive Turbine

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-2 Boiler Feed Pump Drive Turbine

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-2 Boiler Feed Pump Drive Turbine

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-2 Boiler Feed Pump Drive Turbine

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-2 Boiler Feed Pump Drive Turbine

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-2 Boiler Feed Pump Drive Turbine

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GOVERNING VALVE ASSEMBLY WITH ACTUATOR
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- 4 Series Turbine

•Supplement to -3 series and larger capacities


•Inlet parameters upto 140 ata/540 deg. C
•Building block principle, centre admission, reverse flow
•Upto 80 to 100 MW, Non reheat
•Back pressure, condensing with/without extractions
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Centre Admission
Turbines
•Steam admission through two separate valve blocks

•Steam admitted at the centre of the turbine

•Outer casing does not come in direct contact with


initial steam
•Full admission to control stage is achived by steam
admission from top and bottom without any
complicated castings

•Lower pressure drop across labyriuth glands at the


front end

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Condensing Turbine with Centre
admission

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Centre admission Turbine

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Steam Flow in Centre admission turbines

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-4 Series Turbine

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-2 Boiler Feed Pump Drive Turbine

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D : 011
Design of K30-16 turbine with overload valve -Outer Casing

Element : tetrahedral
No of Elements : 36249
Number of Nodes : 11063
Solid model : IDEAS
Meshing : IDEAS
BCs & Loads : IDEAS
SOLVER : ANSYS
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Design of K30-16 turbine with overload valve
Outer Casing analysis
Steady state Thermal Expansion
Location Axial
exp.
Inner casing fixed point 3.59 mm
Front gland 1.13 mm
Rear gland 15.9 mm

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K30-16 turbine with overload valve - IC Expansion

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3.2 sq.m Exhaust hood for -4 Turbine
Finite Element Model for Stress Analysis

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CFD Analysis of Valve Chest of a Steam Turbine

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