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# Functions

CS/APMA 202
Rosen section 1.8
Aaron Bloomfield

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Definition of a function
A function takes an element from a set and
maps it to a UNIQUE element in another
set

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Function terminology
f maps R to Z

R f Z
Domain Co-domain

f(4.3)

4.3 4

## Pre-image of 4 Image of 4.3

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More functions
A pre-image The image
Domain Co-domain of 1 of A

Alice A “a” 1
Bob B “bb“ 2
Chris C “cccc” 3
Dave D “dd” 4
Emma F “e” 5

## A class grade function A string length function

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Even more functions

Range

a 1 “a” 1
e 2 “bb“ 2
i 3 “cccc” 3
o 4 “dd” 4
u 5 “e” 5

## Some function… Not a valid function!

Also not a valid function!

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Function arithmetic
Let f1(x) = 2x
Let f2(x) = x2

## f1*f2 = (f1*f2)(x) = f1(x)*f2(x) = 2x*x2 = 2x3

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One-to-one functions
A function is one-to-one if each element in
the co-domain has a unique pre-image

a 1 a 1
e 2 e 2
i 3 i 3
o 4 o 4
5 5

## A one-to-one function A function that is

not one-to-one

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More on one-to-one
Injective is synonymous with one-to-one
 “A function is injective”
A function is an injection if it is one-to-one
a 1
Note that there can e 2

be un-used elements i 3
o 4
in the co-domain 5

A one-to-one function

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Onto functions
A function is onto if each element in the
co-domain is an image of some pre-image

a 1 a 1
e 2 e 2
i 3 i 3
o 4 o 4
u 5

## An onto function A function that

is not onto

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More on onto
Surjective is synonymous with onto
 “A function is surjective”
A function is an surjection if it is onto
a 1
Note that there can e 2

be multiply used i 3
o 4
elements in the u
co-domain
An onto function

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Onto vs. one-to-one
Are the following functions onto, one-to-
one, both, or neither?
a 1 a 1
a 1
b 2 b 2
b 2
c 3 c 3
c 3
4 d 4
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1-to-1, not onto Both 1-to-1 and onto Not a valid function

a 1 a 1
b 2 b 2
c 3 c 3
d d 4
Onto, not 1-to-1 Neither 1-to-1 nor onto 11
Bijections
a 1
Consider a function that is b 2
both one-to-one and onto: c 3
d 4

## Such a function is a one-to-one

correspondence, or a bijection

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Identity functions
A function such that the image and the
pre-image are ALWAYS equal

f(x) = 1*x
f(x) = x + 0

## The domain and the co-domain must be

the same set
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Inverse functions
Let f(x) = 2*x

R f R

f-1

f(4.3)
4.3 8.6
f-1(8.6)

## Then f-1(x) = x/2

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More on inverse functions
Can we define the inverse of the following
functions?
a 1 a 1
b 2 b 2
c 3 c 3
4 d

## What is f-1(2)? What is f-1(2)?

Not onto! Not 1-to-1!

## An inverse function can ONLY be done defined

on a bijection
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Compositions of functions
Let (f ○ g)(x) = f(g(x))

## Let f(x) = 2x+3 Let g(x) = 3x+2

g(1) = 5, f(5) = 13

## Thus, (f ○ g)(1) = f(g(1)) = 13

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Compositions of functions
f○g

A B C
g f

g(a) f(a)

a f(g(a))
g(a)

(f ○ g)(a)

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Compositions of functions
Let f(x) = 2x+3 f○g
Let g(x) = 3x+2
R R R
g f

g(1) f(5)
f(g(1))=13
1
g(1)=5

(f ○ g)(1)

## f(g(x)) = 2(3x+2)+3 = 6x+7

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Compositions of functions
Does f(g(x)) = g(f(x))?

## f(g(x)) = 2(3x+2)+3 = 6x+7

Not equal!
g(f(x)) = 3(2x+3)+2 = 6x+11

## Function composition is not commutative!

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Graphs of functions f(x)=3
x=1

Let f(x)=2x+1

## Plot (x, f(x)) f(x)=5

x=2

This is a plot
of f(x)

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Useful functions
Floor: x means take the greatest integer
less than or equal to the number

## Ceiling: x means take the lowest integer

greater than or equal to the number

round(x) = floor(x+0.5)

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Rosen, question 8 (§1.8)
Find these values

1.1 1
1.1 2
-0.1 -1
-0.1 0
2.99 3
-2.99 -2
½+½ ½+1 = 3/2 = 1
½ + ½ + ½ 0 + 1 + ½ = 3/2 = 2
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Ceiling and floor properties
Let n be an integer
(1a) x = n if and only if n ≤ x < n+1
(1b) x = n if and only if n-1 < x ≤ n
(1c) x = n if and only if x-1 < n ≤ x
(1d) x = n if and only if x ≤ n < x+1
(2) x-1 < x ≤ x ≤ = x < x+1
(3a) -x = - x
(3b) -x = - x
(4a) x+n = x+n
(4b) x+n = x+n
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Ceiling property proof
Prove rule 4a: x+n = x+n
 Where n is an integer
 Will use rule 1a: x = n if and only if n ≤ x <
n+1
Direct proof!
 Let m = x
 Thus, m ≤ x < m+1 (by rule 1a)
 Add n to both sides: m+n ≤ x+n < m+n+1
 By rule 4a, m+n = x+n
 Since m = x, m+n also equals x+n
 Thus, x+n = m+n = x+n 25
Factorial
Factorial is denoted by n!

n! = n * (n-1) * (n-2) * … * 2 * 1

Thus, 6! = 6 * 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 = 720

## Note that 0! is defined to equal 1

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Proving function problems
Rosen, question 32, §1.8
Let f be a function from A to B, and let S
and T be subsets of A. Show that
a) f ( S  T )  f ( S )  f (T )
b) f ( S  T )  f ( S )  f (T )

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Proving function problems
Rosen, question 32 (a): f(SUT) = f(S) U f(T)
Will show that each side is a subset of the other
Two cases!
Show that f(SUT)  f(S) U f(T)
 Let b  f(SUT). Thus, b=f(a) for some aS U T
 Either aS, in which case bf(S)
 Or aT, in which case bf(T)
 Thus, bf(S) U f(T)
Show that f(S) U f(T)  f(S U T)
 Let b  f(S) U f(T)
 Either b  f(S) or b  f(T) (or both!)
 Thus, b = f(a) for some a  S or some a  T
 In either case, b = f(a) for some a  S U T
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Proving function problems
Rosen, question 32 (b): f(S∩T)  f(S) ∩ f(T)

## Let b  f(S∩T). Then b = f(a) for some a  S∩T

This implies that a  S and a  T
Thus, b  f(S) and b  f(T)
Therefore, b  f(S) ∩ f(T)

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Proving function problems
Rosen, question 62, §1.8
Let f be an invertible function from Y to Z
Let g be an invertible function from X to Y
Show that the inverse of f○g is:
 (f○g)-1 = g-1 ○ f-1

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Proving function problems
Rosen, question 62, §1.8
Thus, we want to show,  f  g   g 1  f 1 ( z)  z
for all zZ and xX g 1  f 1   f  g ( x)  x
 f  g   g 1
   
 f 1 ( z )   f  g  g 1  f 1 ( z )
  f  g g  f ( z ) 
1 1

 f g g  f ( z ) 
1 1

 f  f ( z)
1

z
The second equality is similar
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Quick survey
 I felt I understood the material in this slide set…
a) Very well
b) With some review, I’ll be good
c) Not really
d) Not at all

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Quick survey
 The pace of the lecture for this slide set was…
a) Fast