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You are on page 1of 33

CS/APMA 202

Rosen section 1.8

Aaron Bloomfield

1

Definition of a function

A function takes an element from a set and

maps it to a UNIQUE element in another

set

2

Function terminology

f maps R to Z

R f Z

Domain Co-domain

f(4.3)

4.3 4

3

More functions

A pre-image The image

Domain Co-domain of 1 of A

Alice A “a” 1

Bob B “bb“ 2

Chris C “cccc” 3

Dave D “dd” 4

Emma F “e” 5

4

Even more functions

Range

a 1 “a” 1

e 2 “bb“ 2

i 3 “cccc” 3

o 4 “dd” 4

u 5 “e” 5

Also not a valid function!

5

Function arithmetic

Let f1(x) = 2x

Let f2(x) = x2

6

One-to-one functions

A function is one-to-one if each element in

the co-domain has a unique pre-image

a 1 a 1

e 2 e 2

i 3 i 3

o 4 o 4

5 5

not one-to-one

7

More on one-to-one

Injective is synonymous with one-to-one

“A function is injective”

A function is an injection if it is one-to-one

a 1

Note that there can e 2

be un-used elements i 3

o 4

in the co-domain 5

A one-to-one function

8

Onto functions

A function is onto if each element in the

co-domain is an image of some pre-image

a 1 a 1

e 2 e 2

i 3 i 3

o 4 o 4

u 5

is not onto

9

More on onto

Surjective is synonymous with onto

“A function is surjective”

A function is an surjection if it is onto

a 1

Note that there can e 2

be multiply used i 3

o 4

elements in the u

co-domain

An onto function

10

Onto vs. one-to-one

Are the following functions onto, one-to-

one, both, or neither?

a 1 a 1

a 1

b 2 b 2

b 2

c 3 c 3

c 3

4 d 4

4

1-to-1, not onto Both 1-to-1 and onto Not a valid function

a 1 a 1

b 2 b 2

c 3 c 3

d d 4

Onto, not 1-to-1 Neither 1-to-1 nor onto 11

Bijections

a 1

Consider a function that is b 2

both one-to-one and onto: c 3

d 4

correspondence, or a bijection

13

Identity functions

A function such that the image and the

pre-image are ALWAYS equal

f(x) = 1*x

f(x) = x + 0

the same set

14

Inverse functions

Let f(x) = 2*x

R f R

f-1

f(4.3)

4.3 8.6

f-1(8.6)

15

More on inverse functions

Can we define the inverse of the following

functions?

a 1 a 1

b 2 b 2

c 3 c 3

4 d

Not onto! Not 1-to-1!

on a bijection

16

Compositions of functions

Let (f ○ g)(x) = f(g(x))

g(1) = 5, f(5) = 13

17

Compositions of functions

f○g

A B C

g f

g(a) f(a)

a f(g(a))

g(a)

(f ○ g)(a)

18

Compositions of functions

Let f(x) = 2x+3 f○g

Let g(x) = 3x+2

R R R

g f

g(1) f(5)

f(g(1))=13

1

g(1)=5

(f ○ g)(1)

19

Compositions of functions

Does f(g(x)) = g(f(x))?

Not equal!

g(f(x)) = 3(2x+3)+2 = 6x+11

20

Graphs of functions f(x)=3

x=1

Let f(x)=2x+1

x=2

This is a plot

of f(x)

21

Useful functions

Floor: x means take the greatest integer

less than or equal to the number

greater than or equal to the number

round(x) = floor(x+0.5)

22

Rosen, question 8 (§1.8)

Find these values

1.1 1

1.1 2

-0.1 -1

-0.1 0

2.99 3

-2.99 -2

½+½ ½+1 = 3/2 = 1

½ + ½ + ½ 0 + 1 + ½ = 3/2 = 2

23

Ceiling and floor properties

Let n be an integer

(1a) x = n if and only if n ≤ x < n+1

(1b) x = n if and only if n-1 < x ≤ n

(1c) x = n if and only if x-1 < n ≤ x

(1d) x = n if and only if x ≤ n < x+1

(2) x-1 < x ≤ x ≤ = x < x+1

(3a) -x = - x

(3b) -x = - x

(4a) x+n = x+n

(4b) x+n = x+n

24

Ceiling property proof

Prove rule 4a: x+n = x+n

Where n is an integer

Will use rule 1a: x = n if and only if n ≤ x <

n+1

Direct proof!

Let m = x

Thus, m ≤ x < m+1 (by rule 1a)

Add n to both sides: m+n ≤ x+n < m+n+1

By rule 4a, m+n = x+n

Since m = x, m+n also equals x+n

Thus, x+n = m+n = x+n 25

Factorial

Factorial is denoted by n!

n! = n * (n-1) * (n-2) * … * 2 * 1

Thus, 6! = 6 * 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 = 720

26

Proving function problems

Rosen, question 32, §1.8

Let f be a function from A to B, and let S

and T be subsets of A. Show that

a) f ( S T ) f ( S ) f (T )

b) f ( S T ) f ( S ) f (T )

27

Proving function problems

Rosen, question 32 (a): f(SUT) = f(S) U f(T)

Will show that each side is a subset of the other

Two cases!

Show that f(SUT) f(S) U f(T)

Let b f(SUT). Thus, b=f(a) for some aS U T

Either aS, in which case bf(S)

Or aT, in which case bf(T)

Thus, bf(S) U f(T)

Show that f(S) U f(T) f(S U T)

Let b f(S) U f(T)

Either b f(S) or b f(T) (or both!)

Thus, b = f(a) for some a S or some a T

In either case, b = f(a) for some a S U T

28

Proving function problems

Rosen, question 32 (b): f(S∩T) f(S) ∩ f(T)

This implies that a S and a T

Thus, b f(S) and b f(T)

Therefore, b f(S) ∩ f(T)

29

Proving function problems

Rosen, question 62, §1.8

Let f be an invertible function from Y to Z

Let g be an invertible function from X to Y

Show that the inverse of f○g is:

(f○g)-1 = g-1 ○ f-1

30

Proving function problems

Rosen, question 62, §1.8

Thus, we want to show, f g g 1 f 1 ( z) z

for all zZ and xX g 1 f 1 f g ( x) x

f g g 1

f 1 ( z ) f g g 1 f 1 ( z )

f g g f ( z )

1 1

f g g f ( z )

1 1

f f ( z)

1

z

The second equality is similar

31

Quick survey

I felt I understood the material in this slide set…

a) Very well

b) With some review, I’ll be good

c) Not really

d) Not at all

32

Quick survey

The pace of the lecture for this slide set was…

a) Fast

b) About right

c) A little slow

d) Too slow

33

Quick survey

How interesting was the material in this slide

set? Be honest!

a) Wow! That was SOOOOOO cool!

b) Somewhat interesting

c) Rather borting

d) Zzzzzzzzzzz

34

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