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WATER

WELLS
GROUP 4
SOIL EROSION
It is a process in which the top fertile layer of
soil is lost. due to soil erosion, the soil
becomes less fertile. the top layer of soil is
very light which is easily carried away by wind
and water. the removal of topsoil by the
natural forces is known as soil erosion.
CAUSES OF
SOIL EROSION
1. WIND
When strong winds blow, the
topsoil along with the organic
matter is carried away by the wind.
This happens more often when the
land is not covered with grass or
plants. Such conditions are very
common in desert and semi-desert
regions where strong winds blow
very frequently.
2. WATER
When it rains in the hilly areas,
the soil gets washed away
towards the plains. The running
water deposits the mineral-rich
soil in the riverbed and over the
years this deposition of soil can
change the course of the river.
This can lead to floods which
cause the destruction of life
and property. Water erosion
leads to loss of agriculture
potential.
3. OVERGRAZING
When cattle are allowed to graze on
the same field repeatedly, all the
available grass, including the roots
are eaten by them. This makes the
topsoil vulnerable to wind and
flowing water, leading to soil
erosion.
4. DEFORESTATION
Humans have taken land from the forest to
cultivate in order to feed the ever-increasing
population and to build houses, industries,
etc. Cutting down of trees on a large scale
for these purposes is deforestation. The
roots of trees hold the soil together, thus
preventing the soil from getting uprooted.
When large areas of the forest are cleared,
the topsoil gets eroded by wind and flowing
water.
SOIL CONSERVATION
Prevention of soil erosion is also
called conservation of soil. The soil
erosion can be prevented by the
following ways:
TYPES OF
SOIL
CONSERVATIO
N
1. AFFORESTATION
Planting new trees and plants
is afforestation.
2. CROP ROTATION
Between harvesting one crop and planting
the next crop, the fields lie bare; there is a
time period when the farmland does not
have any crops. During this period, the
farmer either grows grass or grows other
crops to prevent soil from erosion.
3. SHELTERBELTS
The cover of plants and trees around the field also breaks
the speed of strong winds and protects the soil from being
blown away.
4. EMBANKMENTS
Bib strong structure called embankments along the banks of
the river can protect fields from the floods. These
embankments prevent the fast overflowing rivers and
rainwater from washing away a huge amount of rich fertile
soil.
5. BUILDING DAMS
Dams are built to prevent floods, which not only damage the
crops but also wash away the topsoil.
WATER WELL
DESIGN
A water well is a hole, shaft, or excavation

used for the purpose of extracting ground

water from the subsurface. Water may flow

to the surface naturally after excavation of

the hole or shaft. Such a well is known as

a flowing artesian well. More commonly,

water must be pumped out of the well.


CHOOSING A WELL SITE
These are the following intended to prevent possible contamination of well:

• The well is accessible for cleaning, testing, monitoring, maintenance and


repair

• The ground surrounding the well is sloped away from the well to prevent
any surface run off from collecting or ponding

• The well is up-slope and as far as possible from potential contamination


sources such as septic systems, barnyards or surface water bodies

• The well is not housed in any building other than a bona fide pump house.
TYPES OF WELLS
There are two main types of wells, each
distinguished by the diameter of the bore
hole. The two types are bored wells and
drilled wells.
BORED WELLS
Bored wells are constructed when low yielding
groundwater sources are found relatively close
to the surface, usually under 30 m (100 ft.).
Bored wells are constructed using a rotary
bucket auger. They are usually completed by
perforating the casing (also called cribbing) or
using a sand screen with continuous slot
openings.
ROTARY
BUCKET
AUGER
DRILLED WELLS
Drilled wells are smaller in diameter, usually
ranging from 10-20 cm (4-8 in.), and
completed to much greater depths than
bored wells, up to several hundred meters.
The producing aquifer is generally less
susceptible to pollution from surface sources
because of the depth. Also, the water supply
tends to be more reliable since it is less
affected by seasonal weather patterns.
TWO PRIMARY METHODS OF
DRILLING

• Rotary

• Cable tool
ROTARY DRILLED
Drilling fluid or air is circulated down
through the drill stem in the hole and
back to the surface to remove cuttings.
Rotary drilling rigs operate quickly and
can reach depths of over 300 m (1000 ft.),
with casing diameters of 10-45 cm (4-18
in.).
CABLE TOOL DRILLED
This method, also called percussion drilling,
reaches depths up to 300 m (1000 ft.). Well
diameters can range from 10-45 cm (4-18
in.). The drilling rate is typically much slower
than for a rotary rig, but when aquifers are
low yielding, they may be more easily
identified using this method.
STEPS OF
DESIGNING
WELL
WELL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Well design and construction details are determined after a test hole has been

completed and the geological zones have been logged. There are many

components to well design the driller must take into account. Decisions will be

made about:

O Type of well

O Intended use

O well depth

O casing material, size and wall thickness


WELL COMPLETION
Three types of possible well completions for both drilling method:

• Slotted casing well

• Slotted Liner well

• Sand screen well


WELL
COMPLETION
WELL COMPLETION
Procedures of the water well contractor must complete

before the well is ready to use:

• Developing the well

• Disinfecting the well

• Conducting a yield test.


WELL DEVELOPMENT
Well development is the process of removing fine sediment

and drilling fluid from the area immediately surrounding the

perforations.
DISINFECTING THE WELL
The concentration must be at least 200 milligrams of chlorine per litre of

water present in the well and must be left in the well for at least 12 hours

to ensure any bacteria present are destroyed.

Disinfection is done after the pumping equipment is installed and before

the well is put into production


CONDUCTION YIELD TEST
Things to determine in yield test:

• Rate at which to pump the well.

• Depth at which to place the pump.