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BRIDGE

ENGINEERING
Types of Bridges and Their Functions
BRIDGE ENGINEERING OVERVIEW

OVERVIEW

What is Bridge?

Brief History of Bridge Development

Types of Bridges and Their Functions

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BRIDGE ENGINEERING BRIDGE

BRIDGE IS..

a structure for an arrangement a structure which


carrying the road made to cross an covers a gap,
traffic or other obstacle in the connect two
moving loads over form of a low different places or
a depression or ground or a stream even countries.
obstruction such or a river without
as channel, road closing the way
or railway. beneath

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BRIDGE ENGINEERING BIEF HISTORY OF BRIDGE

BRIEF HISTORY OF BRIDGE DEVELOPMENT

CLAPPER BRIDGE ROMAN ARCH GREAT STONE BIDGE


BRIDGE
• •
an ancient form of bridge
• built in Hopeh Province,
• it is formed by large flat
arch design evenly
China.
slabs of stone, supported
distribute stresses.
• low bridge

on stone piers (across Natural concrete
• shallow arch
rivers), or resting on the made from mud and
banks of streams. straw.
• allow boats and water to

pass through

Sui Dynasty
4
Medieval Times
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100 B.C.
(589-618 A.D.)
BRIDGE ENGINEERING BIEF HISTORY OF BRIDGE

BRIEF HISTORY OF BRIDGE DEVELOPMENT

TRUSS BRIDGES SUSPENSION BRIDGE PRE-STRESSED


CONCRETE BRIDGE
• • Use of steel in
mechanics of design • steel bridge
• woods was used as trusses
suspending cables

5
1900
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1920 2000
BRIDGE ENGINEERING TYPES OF BRIDGES

TYPES OF BRIDGES

• Beam/Girder Bridge

• Arch Bridge

• Suspension Bridge

• Cable Stayed Bridge

• Truss Bridge

• Cantilever Bridge

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BRIDGE ENGINEERING BEAM/GIRDER BRIDGES

BEAM/GIRDER BRIDGES
• a beam or “girder” bridge is the simplest and most
inexpensive type of bridge.

• in its most basic form, a BEAM


beam bridge consists of a
PIER PIER
horizontal beam
• When something that is supported at each end by
pushes down on the piers.
beam, the beam bends.
Its top edge is pushed
together, and its bottom Beam Action
edge is pulled apart.
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Reaction Force Reaction Force
BRIDGE ENGINEERING BEAM/GIRDER BRIDGES

BEAM/GIRDER BRIDGE
• currently, most of the beam bridges are precast (in case
of RC and PC) or prefabricated.
• most beam bridges are simply-
supported.

• cantilever

• some are made continuous on


8
site.
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BRIDGE ENGINEERING BEAM/GIRDER BRIDGES

BEAM/GIRDER BRIDGES

• Single box kinds


various girder bridge (steel), can
of material flyover
beabove
usedeastern approach
to build a beam
of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge
bridge like: – wooden planks, stone slabs or logs.

• often only used for relatively short distances because,


unlike truss bridges, they have no built in supports.
• there are three main types of beams that are used in
construction of beam bridges: – trusses, box girders and
I-beams.

Single box girder bridge in Australia


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BRIDGE ENGINEERING BEAM/GIRDER BRIDGES

SOME OF THE BEAM BRIDGES AROUND THE WORLD

Tianjin
Lake Grand Bridge,
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Manchac Swamp
Pontchartrain113.7 km, People’s
Bridge
Causeway,in 38.38 Republic
Louisiana,
km. USA ofStates
United China
King
Donghai
Fahd Causeway,
Bridge, 32.525
km.
km.People's
Bahrain Republic
and Saudi
ofArabia
China
BRIDGE ENGINEERING
ARCH BRIDGES

ARCH BRIDGES
• it is a semicircular structures with abutments on each end.
• one of the oldest types of
bridges and have great
natural strength.
• the arch naturally brings the
weight (a force) of the load from
the roadway to the abutments.
• it was first used by ancient Mycenaean Arkadiko in Greece

Romans.
• spans can be longer than beam or truss.
• It can be masonry, reinforced concrete or steel.
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BRIDGE ENGINEERING ARCH BRIDGES

SOME OF THE ARCH BRIDGES AROUND THE WORLD

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KOYUNBABA
PONTE
PONT
AQUEDUCT
BRIDGE
du
DEL
CHAOTIANMEN DIABLE
DIABLE
IN
BRIDGE
OFWESTERN
SEGOVIA
YANGTZE(FRANCE)
(SPAIN)
(TURKEY)
SLOVENIA
BRIDGE (CHINA)
XINGUANG BRIDGE (CHINA)
SYDNEY HARBOUR (AUSTRALIA)
BRIDGE ENGINEERING SUSPENSION BRIDGES

SUSPENSION BRIDGES
• is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing
portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical
suspenders.
• it is generally preferred when the span is more than 200 m
for roadway or 300 m for light traffic like motors.
• it is costly, difficult to design, and considered as the
longest spans.
• highly susceptible to wind and swaying.
• cables can be up to three feet in diameter.
• it needs to have very strong main cables and cables are
anchored at the abutment.
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BRIDGE ENGINEERING SUSPENSION BRIDGES

SUSPENSION BRIDGES

• In
theallcars
suspension
push down bridges,
on thethe
roadway,
roadway buthangs
becausefromthe
massive
roadway steel
is suspended,
cables, which
the cables
are draped
transfer
over
thetwo
load
towers
into
and
compression
secured into
in the
solid
twoconcrete
towers. The
blocks,
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twocalled
towersanchorages,
support
on
mostbothof the
endsbridge's
of the bridge.
weight.
BRIDGE ENGINEERING SUSPENSION BRIDGES

SUSPENSION BRIDGES
Advantages of Suspension Bridger over other Bridges
• longer main spans are achievable than with any other
type of bridge.
• less material may be required than other bridge types,
even at spans those can achieve, leading to a reduced
construction cost.
• except for installation of the initial temporary cables, little
access from below is required during construction, for
example allowing a waterway to remain open while the
bridge is build above.
• may be better able to withstand seismic movements than
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heavier and more rigid bridges.


BRIDGE ENGINEERING SUSPENSION BRIDGES

SUSPENSION BRIDGES
Disadvantages of Suspension Bridger over other Bridges
• considerable stiffness or aerodynamic profiling may be
required to prevent the bridge deck vibrating under
high winds.

• the relatively low deck stiffness compared to other types


makes it more difficult to carry heavy rail traffic where high
concentrated live loads occur.

• Some access below may be required during construction,


to lift the initial cables or to lift deck units. This access can
often be avoided in cable-stayed bridge construction.
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BRIDGE ENGINEERING SUSPENSION BRIDGES

SOME OF THE SUSPENSION BRIDGES AROUND THE WORLD

LONDON TOWER BRIDGE (UK)


BROOKLYN BRIDGE (USA)

CLIFTON
THE
The AMBASSADOR
SUSPENSION
VERAZZANO-NARROW
GOLDEN
Akashi-Kaikyō
GATE BRIDGE
BRIDGE BRIDGE
Bridge
BIDGE
(USA)(US)
(Japan)(UK)
(USA)
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BRIDGE ENGINEERING CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES

CABLE STAYED BRIDGES


• cable-stayed bridges may look similar to suspensions
bridges -- both have roadways that hang from cables
and both have towers.
• two bridges support the load of the roadway in very
different ways.
• the difference lies in how the cables are connected to
the towers. In suspension bridges, the cables ride
freely across the towers, transmitting the load to the
anchorages at either end.
• the cables are attached to the towers, which alone bear
the load.
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BRIDGE ENGINEERING CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES

CABLE STAYED BRIDGES


• the cables can be attached to the roadway in a variety of
ways.

• in a radial pattern, cables extend from several points on


the road to a single point at the top of the tower.
• in a parallel pattern, cables are attached at different
heights along the tower, running parallel to one other.

• the tension forces in the cable are transferred to the


towers where the tension forces become compression
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forces.
BRIDGE ENGINEERING CABLE STAYED BRIDGES

SOME OF THE CABLE STAYED BRIDGES AROUND THE WORLD

SUTONG
STONECUTTERS
RUSKY
JIASHAO EDONG
YANGTZE
INCHEONISLAND
BRIDGE,
BRIDGE,
RIVER
BRIDGE,
BRIDGE,
CHINA
(JIAXING-SHAOXING)
TATARA
BRIDGE
BRIDGE,
SOUTHHONGKONG
RUSSIA
JAPAN CHINA
BRIDGE,
KOREA
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CHINA
BRIDGE ENGINEERING CABLE STAYED BRIDGES

CABLE STAYED BRIDGE

Today, cable-stayed bridges are a popular choice


as they offer all the advantages of a suspension
bridge but at a lesser cost for spans of 500 to
2,800 feet (152 to 853 meters). They require less
steel cable, are faster to build and incorporate
more precast concrete sections.

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THANK YOU

ALVIN N. DELIRO
02.09.2019 JANICE I. RACASA