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# More on Moderators

HW 14

## Calculate the moderating power and ratio for pure

D2O as well as for D2O contaminated with a) 0.25%
and b) 1% H2O.
Comment on the results.
In CANDU systems there is a need for heavy water

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 1

Dababneh).
More on Moderators
u slowing down in large mass slowing down in hydrogeneous
number material
u
material
 
 continuous slowing-down model

 

 

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 n 0 1 2 3 n

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 2

Dababneh).
More on Moderators
 E ( A  1) 2 A  1
u    ln \   1  ln
 E  av 2 A A 1

## Continuous slowing down model or Fermi model.

• The scattering of neutrons is isotropic in the CM
system, thus  is independent on neutron energy. 
also represents the average increase in lethargy per
collision, i.e. after n collisions the neutron lethargy
will be increased by n units.
• Materials of low mass number   is large  Fermi
model is inapplicable.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 3
Dababneh).
More on Moderators
Moderator-to-fuel ratio  Nm/Nu.
• Ratio  leakage  a of the moderator  f .
• Ratio  slowing down time  p  leakage .
• Water
moderated
reactors, for
example, should
be under
moderated.
• T  ratio  (why).

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 4

Dababneh).
One-Speed Interactions
• Particular  general.
Recall:
• Neutrons don’t have a chance to interact with each
other (review test!)  Simultaneous beams, different
intensities, same energy:
Ft = t (IA + IB + IC + …) = t (nA + nB + nC + …)v
• In a reactor, if neutrons are moving in all directions
n = nA + nB + nC + …

Rt = t nv = t 

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 5

Dababneh).
One-Speed Interactions
 
n( r ,  )d  Neutrons per cm3 at r 

whose velocity vector
  
n(r )   n(r ,  )d d
4

• Same argument as before  r
   
dI (r ,  )  n(r ,  )vd
   
dF (r ,  )   t dI (r ,  )
       
R(r )  F (r )   dF (r ,  )   t  vn(r ,  )d  v  t n(r )   t  (r )
 4
  
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 where  (r )   vn(r ,  )d 6
(Saed Dababneh). 4
Multiple Energy Interactions
• Generalize to include energy
 
n(r , E ,  )dEd  Neutrons per cm3 at r with energy
interval (E, E+dE) whose velocity
vector lies within d about .
     
n(r , E )dE   n(r , E,  )ddE n(r ) 
4
 
n(r , E,  )ddE
  04 
R(r , E )dE  t ( E )n(r , E )v( E )dE  t ( E ) (r , E )dE

 
R(r )   t ( E ) (r , E )dE
0
Scalar
Thus knowing the material properties t and the neutron flux  as a
function of space and energy, we can calculate the interaction rate
throughout the reactor.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 7
(Saed Dababneh).
Neutron Current

 
• Similarly RS (r )    S ( E ) (r , E )dE and so on …
0
Scalar
         
• Redefine dI (r ,  )  n(r ,  )vd as dI (r ,  )  n(r ,  )v d
      
 (r )   vn(r ,  )d J   vn(r ,  )d
4 4
Neutron current density
• From larger flux to smaller flux! 
• Neutrons are not pushed! J
• More scattering in one direction
than in the other. 
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008
J  xˆ  J x 8
(Saed Dababneh).
Equation of Continuity
Net flow of neutrons per second per unit area normal
to the x direction:
  
J  xˆ  J x   n(r ,  )v cos  x d
 4
In general: J  nˆ  J n
Equation of Continuity
      

t 
n(r , t )d   S (r , t )d    a (r ) (r , t )d   J (r , t )  nˆdA
  A

## Rate of change in Production Absorption “Leakage

neutron density rate rate in/out” rate
Source Surface Normal
Volume to A
distribution area
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008
(Saed Dababneh). function bounding  9
Equation of Continuity
    3
Using Gauss’ Divergence Theorem  B  dA     Bd r
S V
    
 J (r , t )  nˆdA    J (r , t )d
A 
      

t 
n(r , t )d   S (r , t )d    a (r ) (r , t )d   J (r , t )  nˆdA
  A

1        
 (r , t )  S (r , t )   a (r ) (r , t )    J (r , t )
v t

Equation of Continuity
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 10
(Saed Dababneh).
Equation of Continuity
     
  J (r )  a (r ) (r )  S (r )  0

## For non-spacial dependence

n(t )  S (t )   a  (t )
t
Delayed sources?
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 11
(Saed Dababneh).
Fick’s Law
Assumptions:
1. The medium is infinite. 
2. The medium is uniform  not (r )
3. There are no neutron sources in the medium.
4. Scattering is isotropic in the lab. coordinate system.
5. The neutron flux is a slowly varying function of
position.
6. The neutron flux is not a function of time.

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 12

(Saed Dababneh).
Fick’s Law
Current J x (x) Negative Flux Gradient
Current Jx
• Diffusion: random walk of
an ensemble of particles High flux
from region dC/dx
of high
“concentration” to region of More collisions
small “concentration”.
Low flux
• Flow is proportional to the
negative gradient of the Less collisions
“concentration”.
x x

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 13

(Saed Dababneh).
Fick’s Law
z Number of neutrons scattered per
second from d at r and going
through dAz
 cos dAz t r
dAz   s  (r ) e d
r 4r 2

y Removed
  (assuming no
 s not  s (r ) buildup)

x Slowly varying
Isotropic

(Saed Dababneh).
Fick’s Law

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 15

(Saed Dababneh).
Fick’s Law
HW 15
2  / 2 
 s dAz  t r
    (r )e cos sin drdd 

J dAz 
4
z
0 0 r 0

J z dAz  ?
  s   
and show that J z  J  J   2 
 

 3t  z 0
z z
1
D
3 s
 s
and generalize J   D D 2 Diffusion
3 t coefficient

## The current density is proportional to the negative of the gradient

of the neutron flux.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 16
Dababneh).