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# Steady State Diffusion Equation

HW 20
Study example 5.3 and solve problem 5.8 in Lamarsh.

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 1

Dababneh).
Steady State Diffusion Equation
One-speed neutron diffusion in a finite medium
• At the interface A B
 A  B
d A dB
J A  J B   DA   DB
dx dx
x
• What if A or B is a vacuum?
• Linear extrapolation distance.
• Bare slab with central infinite planar source (Lamarsh).
• Same but with medium surrounding the slab.
• Maybe we will be back to this after you try it!!
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 2
Dababneh).
More realistic multiplying medium
One-speed neutron diffusion in a multiplying medium
The reactor core is a finite multiplying medium.
• Neutron flux?
• Reaction rates?
• Power distribution in the reactor core?
Recall:
• Critical (or steady-state):
Number of neutrons produced by fission = number
of neutrons lost by:
neutron production rate (S)
(1) absorption k 
neutron absorption rate ( A)
neutron production rate ( S )
(1) leakage keff 
neutron absorption rate ( A)  neutron leakage rate ( LE )
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 3
Dababneh).
More realistic multiplying medium
keff A
  Pnonleak non - leakage probabilit y
k A  LE
LE  SA surface area
For a critical reactor:
S V Volume Keff = 1
LE SA a 2 1 K > 1
  3 
S V a a
Steady state homogeneous reactor
  
0   a k (r )   a  (r )  D  (r )
2

  k  1
  (r )  B  (r )  0
2 2
B  2
2

L
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed
Dababneh).
Material buckling 4
More on One-Speed Diffusion
HW 21
Show that for a critical homogeneous reactor
1 a  a 
Pnonleak  2 2  
B L  1  a   D   a   B D
2 2

## Infinite Slab Reactor (one-speed diffusion) z

• Vacuum beyond. 
• Return current = 0.
Reactor x
d = linear extrapolation distance
= 0.71 tr (for plane surfaces) a/2
a
= 2.13 D. a0/2
d d
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 5
Dababneh).
More on One-Speed Diffusion
HW 22
d 2
For the infinite slab 2  B 2  0 . Show that the
dx
general solution
 ( x)  A cos Bx  C sin Bx
With BC’s a0
 ( )0
2 Flux is symmetric about
d ( x) the origin.
0
dx x 0

 ( x)  A cos Bx A  0
a0 a0 a0  3 5
 ( )  A cos B( )  0  B( )  , , ,...
2 2 2 2 2 2
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 6
Dababneh).
More on One-Speed Diffusion
HW 22 (continued) a0  3 5
B( )  , , ,...
2 2 2 2
 3 5
a0  , , ,...
B B B
Fundamental mode, the only mode significant in
critical reactors.
 
 ( x)  0 cos x B  Geometrica l Buckling
a0 a0
For a critical reactor, the geometrical buckling is equal
to the material buckling. 2
To achieve criticality   k  1
   a   L2
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed
Dababneh).
 0 7
More on One-Speed Diffusion
Spherical Bare Reactor (one-speed diffusion)
6a 2
4a 2
 4 3
3 a
3
a
Minimum leakage  minimum fuel to achieve criticality.
HW 23 d 2
 2 d
  B 2
 0

2
dr r dr
A C
  cos Br  sin Br
r r Reactor x
 r
C r 
  sin , r0  Continue!
r r0 B r0
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 8
Dababneh).
More on One-Speed Diffusion
HW 24
Infinite planer source in an infinite 
medium.
d 2 ( x) 1 S ( x) SL  x / L
2
 2    ( x)  e
dx L D 2D

HW 25
Infinite planer source in a finite
medium. x
SL sinh a0  2 x  / 2 L a/2
 a
2 D cosh( a0 / 2 L) a0/2

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed

Dababneh).
Source 9
More on One-Speed Diffusion
Infinite planer source in a multi-region medium.
1 ( a / 2)  2 ( a / 2)
d1 d2
D1  D2 Infinite Finite Infinite
dx dx
x a / 2 x a / 2

 more BC

Project 2

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 10

Dababneh).
Back to Multiplication Factor
k = fp,
k
P  keff  fPnonleak
eff
nonleak
k
1
• Fast from thermal,  
a i
  (i ) f (i )
• Fast from fast, .
• Thermal from fast, p.
 afuel
• Thermal available for fission f   fuel   clad   mod erator   poison
a a a a

Thinking QUIZ
• For each thermal neutron absorbed, how many fast
neutrons are produced?

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 11

Dababneh).
Two-Group Neutron Diffusion
• Introductory to multi-group.
• All neutrons are either in a fast or in a thermal energy
group.
• Boundary between two groups is set to 1 eV.
• Thermal neutrons diffuse in a medium and cause
fission (or are captured) or leak out from the system.
• Source for thermal neutrons is provided by the slowing
down of fast neutrons (born in fission).
• Fast neutrons are lost by slowing down due to elastic
scattering in the medium or leak out from the system (or
fission or capture).
• Source for fast neutrons is thermal neutron fission.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 12
Dababneh).
Two-Group Neutron Diffusion

10 MeV
 
1 (r )    ( E , r )dE
1eV
Fast

1eV
 
2 (r )    ( E , r )dE Thermal
0

 1  f 1 1  2  f 2 2
keff 
 D1 1  D2 2   a1 1   a 2 2
2 2

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 13

Dababneh).
Two-Group Neutron Diffusion
  
0  S1 (r )   a1 1 (r )  D1 1 (r )
2

Fast diffusion
Depends on Removal cross section coefficient
thermal flux. = fission + capture +
scattering to group 2
   
0    f 1 1 (r )   f 2 2 (r )  a1 1 (r )  D1 1 (r )
2

or
k   
0  a 2 2 (r )   a1 1 (r )  D1 1 (r )
2

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 14
Dababneh).
Two-Group Neutron Diffusion
  
0  S 2 (r )   a 2 2 (r )  D2 2 (r )
2

## Thermal absorption Thermal diffusion

Depends on fast cross section = fission coefficient
flux. + capture.
  
0   s12 1 (r )   a 2 2 (r )  D2 2 (r )
2

or
  
0    a1 1 (r )   a 2 2 (r )  D2 2 (r )
2

## Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 15

Dababneh).
Two-Group Neutron Diffusion
k   
0  a 2 2 (r )   a1 1 (r )  D1 1 (r )
2

  
0    a1 1 (r )   a 2 2 (r )  D2 2 (r )
2

## • A coupled system of equations; both depend on

both fluxes.
• For a critical, steady state system:
 
 1 (r )  B 1 (r )  0
2 2
Review
Cramer’s
 
 2 (r )  B 2 (r )  0
2 2 rule!

Dababneh).
Geometrical 16