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HW 20

Study example 5.3 and solve problem 5.8 in Lamarsh.

Dababneh).

Steady State Diffusion Equation

One-speed neutron diffusion in a finite medium

• At the interface A B

A B

d A dB

J A J B DA DB

dx dx

x

• What if A or B is a vacuum?

• Linear extrapolation distance.

• Bare slab with central infinite planar source (Lamarsh).

• Same but with medium surrounding the slab.

• Maybe we will be back to this after you try it!!

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 2

Dababneh).

More realistic multiplying medium

One-speed neutron diffusion in a multiplying medium

The reactor core is a finite multiplying medium.

• Neutron flux?

• Reaction rates?

• Power distribution in the reactor core?

Recall:

• Critical (or steady-state):

Number of neutrons produced by fission = number

of neutrons lost by:

neutron production rate (S)

(1) absorption k

neutron absorption rate ( A)

neutron production rate ( S )

(1) leakage keff

neutron absorption rate ( A) neutron leakage rate ( LE )

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 3

Dababneh).

More realistic multiplying medium

keff A

Pnonleak non - leakage probabilit y

k A LE

LE SA surface area

For a critical reactor:

S V Volume Keff = 1

LE SA a 2 1 K > 1

3

S V a a

Steady state homogeneous reactor

0 a k (r ) a (r ) D (r )

2

k 1

(r ) B (r ) 0

2 2

B 2

2

L

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed

Dababneh).

Material buckling 4

More on One-Speed Diffusion

HW 21

Show that for a critical homogeneous reactor

1 a a

Pnonleak 2 2

B L 1 a D a B D

2 2

• Vacuum beyond.

• Return current = 0.

Reactor x

d = linear extrapolation distance

= 0.71 tr (for plane surfaces) a/2

a

= 2.13 D. a0/2

d d

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 5

Dababneh).

More on One-Speed Diffusion

HW 22

d 2

For the infinite slab 2 B 2 0 . Show that the

dx

general solution

( x) A cos Bx C sin Bx

With BC’s a0

( )0

2 Flux is symmetric about

d ( x) the origin.

0

dx x 0

( x) A cos Bx A 0

a0 a0 a0 3 5

( ) A cos B( ) 0 B( ) , , ,...

2 2 2 2 2 2

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 6

Dababneh).

More on One-Speed Diffusion

HW 22 (continued) a0 3 5

B( ) , , ,...

2 2 2 2

3 5

a0 , , ,...

B B B

Fundamental mode, the only mode significant in

critical reactors.

( x) 0 cos x B Geometrica l Buckling

a0 a0

For a critical reactor, the geometrical buckling is equal

to the material buckling. 2

To achieve criticality k 1

a L2

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed

Dababneh).

0 7

More on One-Speed Diffusion

Spherical Bare Reactor (one-speed diffusion)

6a 2

4a 2

4 3

3 a

3

a

Minimum leakage minimum fuel to achieve criticality.

HW 23 d 2

2 d

B 2

0

2

dr r dr

A C

cos Br sin Br

r r Reactor x

r

C r

sin , r0 Continue!

r r0 B r0

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 8

Dababneh).

More on One-Speed Diffusion

HW 24

Infinite planer source in an infinite

medium.

d 2 ( x) 1 S ( x) SL x / L

2

2 ( x) e

dx L D 2D

HW 25

Infinite planer source in a finite

medium. x

SL sinh a0 2 x / 2 L a/2

a

2 D cosh( a0 / 2 L) a0/2

Dababneh).

Source 9

More on One-Speed Diffusion

Infinite planer source in a multi-region medium.

1 ( a / 2) 2 ( a / 2)

d1 d2

D1 D2 Infinite Finite Infinite

dx dx

x a / 2 x a / 2

more BC

Project 2

Dababneh).

Back to Multiplication Factor

k = fp,

k

P keff fPnonleak

eff

nonleak

k

1

• Fast from thermal,

a i

(i ) f (i )

• Fast from fast, .

• Thermal from fast, p.

afuel

• Thermal available for fission f fuel clad mod erator poison

a a a a

Thinking QUIZ

• For each thermal neutron absorbed, how many fast

neutrons are produced?

Dababneh).

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion

• Introductory to multi-group.

• All neutrons are either in a fast or in a thermal energy

group.

• Boundary between two groups is set to 1 eV.

• Thermal neutrons diffuse in a medium and cause

fission (or are captured) or leak out from the system.

• Source for thermal neutrons is provided by the slowing

down of fast neutrons (born in fission).

• Fast neutrons are lost by slowing down due to elastic

scattering in the medium or leak out from the system (or

fission or capture).

• Source for fast neutrons is thermal neutron fission.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 12

Dababneh).

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion

10 MeV

1 (r ) ( E , r )dE

1eV

Fast

1eV

2 (r ) ( E , r )dE Thermal

0

1 f 1 1 2 f 2 2

keff

D1 1 D2 2 a1 1 a 2 2

2 2

Dababneh).

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion

0 S1 (r ) a1 1 (r ) D1 1 (r )

2

Fast diffusion

Depends on Removal cross section coefficient

thermal flux. = fission + capture +

scattering to group 2

0 f 1 1 (r ) f 2 2 (r ) a1 1 (r ) D1 1 (r )

2

or

k

0 a 2 2 (r ) a1 1 (r ) D1 1 (r )

2

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 14

Dababneh).

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion

0 S 2 (r ) a 2 2 (r ) D2 2 (r )

2

Depends on fast cross section = fission coefficient

flux. + capture.

0 s12 1 (r ) a 2 2 (r ) D2 2 (r )

2

or

0 a1 1 (r ) a 2 2 (r ) D2 2 (r )

2

Dababneh).

Two-Group Neutron Diffusion

k

0 a 2 2 (r ) a1 1 (r ) D1 1 (r )

2

0 a1 1 (r ) a 2 2 (r ) D2 2 (r )

2

both fluxes.

• For a critical, steady state system:

1 (r ) B 1 (r ) 0

2 2

Review

Cramer’s

2 (r ) B 2 (r ) 0

2 2 rule!

Dababneh).

Geometrical 16

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