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Fick’s Law

Validity:
1. The medium is infinite. Integration over all space.
e   t r  after few mean free paths  0 
corrections at the surface are still required.

2. The medium is uniform.  s not  s (r )
 s (r )   and  are functions of space  re-
derivation of Fick’s law?  locally larger s  extra
J cancelled by e  t r  e  (  a   s ) r iff ??? HW 16
Note: assumption 5 is also violated!
3. There are no neutron sources in the medium.
Again, sources are few mean free paths away and
corrections otherwise.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 1
Dababneh).
Fick’s Law
4. Scattering is isotropic in the lab. coordinate system.
2
If   cos ( )   0  reevaluate D. HW 17
3A
1 1 tr • Isotropic tr = t.
D  
3( t   s  ) 3  tr 3 • Weekly absorbing tr = s.

s
For “practical” moderators: tr 
1 
5. The flux is a slowly varying function of position.
a   variation in  .  (r )
 2

r 2 ?
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 2
Dababneh).
Fick’s Law
HW 18
Estimate the diffusion coefficient of graphite at 1 eV.
The scattering cross section of carbon at 1 eV is 4.8 b.

Scattering

Absorption

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 3


Dababneh).
Fick’s Law
6. The neutron flux is not a function of time.
Time needed for a thermal neutron to traverse 3
mean free paths  1 x 10-5 s (How?).
If flux changes by 10% per second!
  / 
 t  0.1x1x105  1x106
 t

Very small fractional change during the time


needed for the neutron to travel this “significant”
distance.

J   D
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 4
Dababneh).
Back to the Continuity Equation

1        
 (r , t )  S (r , t )   a (r ) (r , t )    J (r , t )
v t

1        
 (r , t )  S (r , t )   a (r ) (r , t )    D (r , t )
v t

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 5


Dababneh).
The Diffusion Equation
1        
 (r , t )  S (r , t )   a (r ) (r , t )    D (r , t )
v t
If D is independent on r
Laplacian
1      
 (r , t )  S (r , t )   a (r ) (r , t )  D  (r , t )
2

v t
or scalar Helmholtz equation.
   
0  S (r )   a (r ) (r )  D  (r )
2

  
0    a (r ) (r )  D  (r )
2
Buckling equation.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 6


Dababneh).
Steady State Diffusion Equation
   
0  S (r )   a (r ) (r )  D  (r )
2

D
Define L 
2 L  Diffusion Length
a L2  Diffusion Area


1 S
  2 
2

L D

1
  2 0
2

L
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 7
Dababneh).
The Diffusion Equation

• The exact interpretation of neutron transport in


heterogeneous domains is so complex.
• Simplified approaches.
• Simplified but accurate enough to give an estimate of
the average characteristics of neutron population.
• Numerical solutions.
• Monte Carlo techniques.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 8


Dababneh).
Steady State Diffusion Equation
   
0  S (r )   a (r ) (r )  D  (r )
2

1 S
  2 
2

L D
Boundary Conditions
• Solve DE  get .
• Solution must satisfy BC’s.
• Solution should be real and non-negative.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 9


Dababneh).
Steady State Diffusion Equation
One-speed neutron diffusion in infinite medium
Point source
 1 
  (r )  2  (r )  0
2

L

HW 19 2
d 2 d 1
2
 (r )   (r )  2  (r )  0
dr r dr L
General solution r / L r/L
e e
A C
r r
A, C determined from BC’s.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 10
Dababneh).
Steady State Diffusion Equation
BC r      0  C = 0. HW 19 (continued)
r / L
e
A
r r / L
S S e
Show that A    L2 
D
4D 4D r a

4r 2 dr  a  neutrons per second absorbed in the ring.


dr
r

r
Show that r  6L
2 2

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 11


Dababneh).