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Validity:

1. The medium is infinite. Integration over all space.

e t r after few mean free paths 0

corrections at the surface are still required.

2. The medium is uniform. s not s (r )

s (r ) and are functions of space re-

derivation of Fick’s law? locally larger s extra

J cancelled by e t r e ( a s ) r iff ??? HW 16

Note: assumption 5 is also violated!

3. There are no neutron sources in the medium.

Again, sources are few mean free paths away and

corrections otherwise.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 1

Dababneh).

Fick’s Law

4. Scattering is isotropic in the lab. coordinate system.

2

If cos ( ) 0 reevaluate D. HW 17

3A

1 1 tr • Isotropic tr = t.

D

3( t s ) 3 tr 3 • Weekly absorbing tr = s.

s

For “practical” moderators: tr

1

5. The flux is a slowly varying function of position.

a variation in . (r )

2

r 2 ?

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 2

Dababneh).

Fick’s Law

HW 18

Estimate the diffusion coefficient of graphite at 1 eV.

The scattering cross section of carbon at 1 eV is 4.8 b.

Scattering

Absorption

Dababneh).

Fick’s Law

6. The neutron flux is not a function of time.

Time needed for a thermal neutron to traverse 3

mean free paths 1 x 10-5 s (How?).

If flux changes by 10% per second!

/

t 0.1x1x105 1x106

t

needed for the neutron to travel this “significant”

distance.

J D

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 4

Dababneh).

Back to the Continuity Equation

1

(r , t ) S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) J (r , t )

v t

1

(r , t ) S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) D (r , t )

v t

Dababneh).

The Diffusion Equation

1

(r , t ) S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) D (r , t )

v t

If D is independent on r

Laplacian

1

(r , t ) S (r , t ) a (r ) (r , t ) D (r , t )

2

v t

or scalar Helmholtz equation.

0 S (r ) a (r ) (r ) D (r )

2

0 a (r ) (r ) D (r )

2

Buckling equation.

Dababneh).

Steady State Diffusion Equation

0 S (r ) a (r ) (r ) D (r )

2

D

Define L

2 L Diffusion Length

a L2 Diffusion Area

1 S

2

2

L D

1

2 0

2

L

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 7

Dababneh).

The Diffusion Equation

heterogeneous domains is so complex.

• Simplified approaches.

• Simplified but accurate enough to give an estimate of

the average characteristics of neutron population.

• Numerical solutions.

• Monte Carlo techniques.

Dababneh).

Steady State Diffusion Equation

0 S (r ) a (r ) (r ) D (r )

2

1 S

2

2

L D

Boundary Conditions

• Solve DE get .

• Solution must satisfy BC’s.

• Solution should be real and non-negative.

Dababneh).

Steady State Diffusion Equation

One-speed neutron diffusion in infinite medium

Point source

1

(r ) 2 (r ) 0

2

L

HW 19 2

d 2 d 1

2

(r ) (r ) 2 (r ) 0

dr r dr L

General solution r / L r/L

e e

A C

r r

A, C determined from BC’s.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 10

Dababneh).

Steady State Diffusion Equation

BC r 0 C = 0. HW 19 (continued)

r / L

e

A

r r / L

S S e

Show that A L2

D

4D 4D r a

dr

r

r

Show that r 6L

2 2

Dababneh).

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