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N ~ 10 cm , ~ 10 cm s

22 3 14 2 1

Time scale:

Days and months.

• More depletion change steady state flux by means

of control rods.

N f (r , t )

• For a given fuel isotope N f (r , t ) a (r , t )

f

t

• For constant flux 0 the solution is

af 0 ( r ) t

af ( r ,t )

N f (r , t ) N f (r ,0)e N f (r ,0)e

• For time varying flux t

Neutron fluence

af ( r ,t \ ) dt \

af ( r ,t )

N f (r , t ) N f (r ,0)e 0

N f (r ,0)e

Solve numerically.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 1

Dababneh).

Fuel Depletion

• Constant power.

P(r , t ) wN f (r , t ) a (r , t ) P(r ,0) P0 (r )

f

N f (r , t ) (r , t ) N f (r ,0) (r ,0)

Energy

released per

Fission rate f (r , t ) (r , t ) f (r ,0) (r ,0)

fission

• Power ~ flux only over short time periods during which Nf is constant.

N f (r , t ) P0 (r ) Linear

N f (r , t ) a (r , t )

f

t w depletion!

• The solution is obviously

P0 (r )

N f (r , t ) N f (r ,0) t

w

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 2

Dababneh).

Fuel Depletion

HW 31

Do the

calculations

for different

flux and

power

levels.

Dababneh).

Poisoning and Fuel Depletion

Infinite, critical homogeneous reactor.

af (t )

k f f

a (t ) clad

a mod erator

a (t ) poison

a (t ) control

a (t )

P0 (r )

Constant power N f (r , t ) N f (r ,0) t

w

N f (r ,0) N f (r , t ) a (r , t )t

f

(r , t )

f

1 (r ,0)t N f ( r ,0) N f ( r ,0) a ( r ,0)t

f f

N (r , t )

f a

N f (r ,0) 1 a (r ,0)t

f

f f

a (r , t ) a (r ,0) 1 a (r ,0)t

f

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 4

Dababneh).

Poisoning and Fuel Depletion

Xe()

Constant

( I Xe ) f 0 ( Xe aXe0 ) t

Xe(t ) (1 e )

Xe Xe

a 0

I f 0 ( Xe a 0 ) t

e I t )

Xe

( e

Xe I aXe0 Constant

Xe

( I Xe ) f (r ,0) (r ,0)

a (r , t ) a Xe()

Xe

Xe

(r , t )

Xe

a

(r , t ) a Sm f (r ,0) (r ,0)t

Sm

a

Sm

Dababneh).

Poisoning and Fuel Depletion

• Now we know all macroscopic cross sections.

af (t )

k f f

a (t ) clad

a mod erator

a (t ) poison

a (t ) control

a (t )

Until = 0.

remove, we need to refuel. Solve for t to get

• Absorbers are not only control rods. upper limit for

• All fuel nuclei should be considered. “core loading

• For each species, all sources and lifetime”

sinks should be taken into account.

Dababneh).

Poisoning and Fuel Depletion

• Some poisons are intentionally introduced into

the reactor.

• Fixed burnable poisons.

B, Gd.

More uniform distribution than rods, more

intentionally localized than shim.

• Soluble poisons (chemical shim).

Boric acid (soluble boron, solbor) in coolant.

Boration and dilution.

Emergency shutdown (sodium polyborate or

gadolinium nitrate).

• Non-burnable poisons.

Chain of absorbers or self shielding.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 7

Dababneh).

Delayed Precursors

1 G

G

g (r , t ) g g \ fg \ (r ) g \ (r , t ) sg \ g (r ) g \ (r , t ) S gext

v g t g \ 1 g \ 1

ag (r ) g (r , t ) sg (r ) g (r , t ) Dg (r ) g (r , t )

• For one-group

1

(r , t ) f (r ) (r , t ) S ext

v t

a (r ) (r , t ) D( r ) (r , t )

• What about delayed neutrons?

Dababneh).

Delayed Precursors

(s)

< 0.7%

1 6

(r , t ) (1 ) f (r ) (r , t ) i Ci S ext

v t i 1

a (r ) (r , t ) D(r ) (r , t )

Ci (r , t )

i Ci (r , t ) i f (r ) (r , t )

t

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 9

Dababneh).

Delayed Precursors

• The multi-group equation now becomes

Different energy spectra

1 G

6

g (r , t ) g (1 ) g \ fg \ (r ) g \ (r , t ) g i Ci (r , t )

p C

v g t g \ 1 i 1

G

sg \ g (r ) g \ (r , t ) S gext

g \ 1

ag (r ) g (r , t ) sg (r ) g (r , t ) Dg (r ) g (r , t )

Ci (r , t ) G

i Ci (r , t ) i g \ fg \ (r ) g \ (r , t )

t g \ 1

Dababneh).

Delayed Precursors

• In steady state

G

i Ci (r , t ) i g \ fg \ (r )g \ (r , t )

g \ 1

G

G

0 (1 ) g \

p

g fg \ (r ) g \ (r ) g g \ fg \ (r ) g \ (r )

C

g \ 1 g \ 1

G

sg \ g (r ) g \ (r ) S g ag (r ) g (r ) sg (r ) g (r ) Dg (r ) g (r )

ext

g \ 1

Appearance of

C G

ggg

g 0 ( )

p

g

C

g

p

g g\

fg \ (r ) g \ (r )

g \ 1

depends on whether G

we have fine or sg g (r ) g (r ) S g ag (r ) g (r )

ext

\ \

\

sg (r ) g (r ) Dg (r ) g (r )

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 11

Dababneh).

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