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Fuel Depletion

N ~ 10 cm ,  ~ 10 cm s
22 3 14 2 1
Time scale:
Days and months.
• More depletion  change steady state flux by means
of control rods. 
N f (r , t )  
• For a given fuel isotope   N f (r , t ) a  (r , t )
f

t
• For constant flux 0 the solution is
  
 af 0 ( r ) t  
 af  ( r ,t )
N f (r , t )  N f (r ,0)e  N f (r ,0)e
• For time varying flux t

Neutron fluence
   af   ( r ,t \ ) dt \
 
 af  ( r ,t )
N f (r , t )  N f (r ,0)e 0
 N f (r ,0)e
Solve numerically.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 1
Dababneh).
Fuel Depletion
• Constant power.
    
P(r , t )  wN f (r , t ) a  (r , t )  P(r ,0)  P0 (r )
f

   
N f (r , t ) (r , t )  N f (r ,0) (r ,0)
Energy    
released per
Fission rate  f (r , t ) (r , t )   f (r ,0) (r ,0)
fission
• Power ~ flux only over short time periods during which Nf is constant.
 
N f (r , t )   P0 (r ) Linear
  N f (r , t ) a  (r , t )  
f

t w depletion!
• The solution is obviously
 

  P0 (r )
N f (r , t )  N f (r ,0)  t
w
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 2
Dababneh).
Fuel Depletion

HW 31

Do the
calculations
for different
flux and
power
levels.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 3


Dababneh).
Poisoning and Fuel Depletion
Infinite, critical homogeneous reactor.

 af (t )
k  f   f
 a (t )   clad
a   mod erator
a (t )   poison
a (t )   control
a (t )
  
  P0 (r )
Constant power N f (r , t )  N f (r ,0)  t
w
  
  
 N f (r ,0)  N f (r , t ) a  (r , t )t
f

 N (r ,0) (r ,0)  (r ,0)


 (r , t ) 
f
   
1    (r ,0)t  N f ( r ,0)  N f ( r ,0) a  ( r ,0)t
 f  f
N (r , t )
f a


 
 N f (r ,0) 1   a  (r ,0)t
f

f  f 
 
 a (r , t )   a (r ,0) 1   a  (r ,0)t
f

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 4
Dababneh).
Poisoning and Fuel Depletion
Xe()
Constant
( I   Xe )  f 0  (  Xe  aXe0 ) t
Xe(t )  (1  e )
 Xe   Xe
a 0

 I  f 0 (  Xe  a 0 ) t
 e  I t )
Xe
 ( e
 Xe  I   aXe0 Constant
 
Xe 
( I   Xe )  f (r ,0) (r ,0)
 a (r , t )   a Xe() 
Xe
 Xe 
  (r , t )
Xe
a
  
 (r , t )   a  Sm  f (r ,0) (r ,0)t
Sm
a
Sm

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 5


Dababneh).
Poisoning and Fuel Depletion
• Now we know all macroscopic cross sections.

 af (t )
k  f   f
 a (t )   clad
a   mod erator
a (t )   poison
a (t )   control
a (t )
 

• When there are no absorbers left to


Until = 0.
remove, we need to refuel. Solve for t to get
• Absorbers are not only control rods. upper limit for
• All fuel nuclei should be considered. “core loading
• For each species, all sources and lifetime”
sinks should be taken into account.

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 6


Dababneh).
Poisoning and Fuel Depletion
• Some poisons are intentionally introduced into
the reactor.
• Fixed burnable poisons.
B, Gd.
More uniform distribution than rods, more
intentionally localized than shim.
• Soluble poisons (chemical shim).
Boric acid (soluble boron, solbor) in coolant.
Boration and dilution.
Emergency shutdown (sodium polyborate or
gadolinium nitrate).
• Non-burnable poisons.
Chain of absorbers or self shielding.
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 7
Dababneh).
Delayed Precursors

1   G
  G
 
 g (r , t )   g  g \  fg \ (r ) g \ (r , t )    sg \ g (r ) g \ (r , t )  S gext
v g t g \ 1 g \ 1
       
  ag (r ) g (r , t )   sg (r ) g (r , t )    Dg (r ) g (r , t )
• For one-group
1    
 (r , t )    f (r ) (r , t )  S ext
v t
     
  a (r ) (r , t )    D( r ) (r , t )
• What about delayed neutrons?

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 8


Dababneh).
Delayed Precursors
(s)

< 0.7%
1     6
 (r , t )  (1   )  f (r ) (r , t )   i Ci  S ext
v t i 1
     
  a (r ) (r , t )    D(r ) (r , t )

Ci (r , t )   
 i Ci (r , t )   i  f (r ) (r , t )
t
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 9
Dababneh).
Delayed Precursors
• The multi-group equation now becomes
Different energy spectra

1   G
  6

 g (r , t )   g (1   )  g \  fg \ (r ) g \ (r , t )  g  i Ci (r , t )
p C

v g t g \ 1 i 1
G
 
   sg \ g (r ) g \ (r , t )  S gext
g \ 1
       
  ag (r ) g (r , t )   sg (r ) g (r , t )    Dg (r ) g (r , t )

Ci (r , t )  G
 
 i Ci (r , t )   i  g \  fg \ (r ) g \ (r , t )
t g \ 1

Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 10


Dababneh).
Delayed Precursors
• In steady state
 G
 
i Ci (r , t )   i  g \  fg \ (r )g \ (r , t )
g \ 1
G
  G
 
0   (1   )  g \
p
g  fg \ (r ) g \ (r )  g   g \  fg \ (r ) g \ (r )
C

g \ 1 g \ 1
G
         
   sg \ g (r ) g \ (r )  S g   ag (r ) g (r )   sg (r ) g (r )    Dg (r ) g (r )
ext

g \ 1

Appearance of     
C G

ggg
g 0    (    )
p
g
C
g
p
g g\
 fg \ (r ) g \ (r )
g \ 1
depends on whether G
   
we have fine or    sg g (r ) g (r )  S g   ag (r ) g (r )
ext
\ \

course energy groups. g 1 


\

    
  sg (r ) g (r )    Dg (r ) g (r )
Nuclear Reactors, BAU, 1st Semester, 2007-2008 (Saed 11
Dababneh).