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CEE- 483, 383 717 307A

Steel beam design

Presented by
Dr. H.M.A. Mahzuz
Associate Professor, CEE, SUST
Room No.: 111E (“C” building)
E-mail: mahuz_211@yahoo.com
Cell No: 01929-983057

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Steel Beam Design

• Steel beam design is about selecting the lightest


steel beam that will support the load without
exceeding the bending strength or shear strength
of the material, and without exceeding the
maximum allowable deflection for the beam.
• We want the lightest beam because it is generally
the cheapest.
• We can solve these problems with a 6-step
process.
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Step 1
Identify all loads and design constraints (yield
strength, maximum allowable deflection,
beam length L, etc.).
Step 2
Draw the load diagram and calculate all
reactions.

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Step 3
Draw the shear and moment diagrams, and
calculate V max and M max .
Step 4
Calculate the section modulus Zx required to
support the applied moment. Select the
lightest steel beam from the Appendix/Table
that supports M max and has enough stiffness
to the maximum deflection.

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• Step 5
Include the beam weight in new drawings of the
load, shear, and moment diagrams. Check that
the beam can support the applied loads and
its own weight, and that it still meets the
maximum deflection constraint.
Step 6
Calculate the shear strength of the selected
beam, and check that the beam will support
more shear load than is applied.

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Propped cantilever

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Buckling related to beam:
(Buckling is the large deflection within elastic limit)

• Lateral Buckling: Caused by compressive


stress. It affects the whole member.
• Local Buckling: Caused by compressive stress
at any specific location. It affects a particular
location, can also affect the whole member.

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Steel Joists
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Girt
Purlin

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lintel

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Go to chart and
select a section

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There are two methods of design:
1) Load Resistance factored design (LRFD):

-Fy is kept as it is

2) Allowable stress design (ASD):

-Loads are kept as they are


-Fy is multiplied by a reducing
factor.
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LRFD design

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From table select W21X44 (Z (or S)=81.6)

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Therefore selection of W21X44 (Z (or S)=81.6) is ok!!!!!!

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Other factors to be considered in LRFD
• Deflection

• Lateral support

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Other factors to be considered in ASD
• Ultimate Load = DL+LL+ un-factored other loads
• Allowable stress, Fb= 0.66Fy
• Deflection check

• Lateral support

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See the Examples of the book Design
of steel structure by Gaylord-

• 5/8/1
• 5/9/1

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Design for continuous steel beam
• AISC (ASD/ LRFD) specifies the process of
calculating maximum moment:
• Take the 90% of Negative moment
• Increase the maximum Positive moment by
adding the 10% of the average negative
moment of the ends of a span.

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LL=1.4 Kip/ft
DL=0.4 Kip/ft

20 ft

w=0.4x1.2+1.6x1.4=2.72 Kip/ft (LRFD)


M (+ve) =wL*L/8
=2.72*20*20/8
=136 kip-ft

Maximum moment= 136 kip-ft


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LL=1.4 Kip/ft, DL=0.4 Kip/ft

20 ft 20 ft

M (-ve)

M (+ve)
w=0.4x1.2+1.6x1.4=2.72 Kip/ft
M (+ve) =9wL2/128 Negative moment = 136*0.9=122.4 kip-ft
=9*2.72*20*20/128 Positive moment = 76.5 + 0.1*(136+0)/2=83.3 kip-ft
=76.5 kip-ft
M (-ve) =wL2/8
=2.72*20*20/8
=136 kip-ft Therefore design moment
= 122.4 kip-ft
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See the Examples of the book Design
of steel structure by Gaylord-

• 5/11/1
• 5/11/2

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Shear Design of steel beam
AISC/ASD specification
Flange
Web
h
t

Where k=5.34
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Shear Design of steel beam
Aw= d x t
AISC/LRFD specification
Flange
Web
h d
t

Where k=5
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LL=1.5 Kip/ft
DL=0.5 Kip/ft
Select and check
a steel section In
30 ft
ASD
for shear
considering
Let’s select a section- W21x44 Fy=65 ksi

Shear force V=15x(1.5+0.5+0.044)=30.7 kip

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Aw=20.66x0.35=7.23 in2
Sectional area, A=13 in2
tf=0.45 in
Flange

Web

d=20.66 in

tw=0.35 in

W21x44

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See the Examples of the book Design
of steel structure by Gaylord-

• 5/14/1
• 5/14/2

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Composite beams
• If the steel section is encased in concrete slab
• If a mechanical bond between steel section
and concrete slab is established by means of
shear connectors

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I I
Shear Stud

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0.85fc’ 0.85fc’
a C C1
C2
e

d T T

Fy Fy

d= depth of steel section


t= slab thickness 42
• Live load = 200 psf
• fc’=3000 psi, Fy = 36ksi, n=9
• Slab thickness= 4”
• Determine the steel section in ASD

7.5’

7.5’

7.5’

Design the
7.5’ beam

30’
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• Allowable bending stress= 0.66x36= 24 ksi
• fc= 0.45x3= 1.35 ksi
• Load Identification-
Load type Item Calculation In Klf Moment, Kip-
in
Dead load Slab load 150x4/12x7.5 0.375
Beam self load ----- 0.05
Total Dead 0.425x302/8x12 575
load
Total Live load Live load 7.5x200 1.5 x302/8x12 2025
Total 1.925 2600

Assuming a depth=18”

Select a section W18x46, (Area, A= 13.5 in2)

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Check
• Effective flange width=
• a) L/8=30/8=3.75 ft
• b) 2xhalf beam spacing/n=
• 2x(7.5/2)/9x12=10”
• Take the minimum = 10”

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10”

4”

4.78”

18.06”
17.28”

Transformed section
Moment of inertia of the transformed section
Section Area in2 Ix I total
W18x46 13.5 X(17.28-18.06/2)2 =919
Io 712 =712
4x10 40 40x(18.06+4-17.28-2)2 =309
10x43/12 =53
=1993

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• Section modulus of W18x46, Sx=78.8 in3
• Section modulus of transformed section=I/y=
1993/17.28=115 in3
So check for steel stress =

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• So check for concrete stress =

Deflection check

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a
t

Lever arm=11.97”

Assuming the Na is located within the slab d

So

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Shear check
• Shear stress of the transformed section
= Fv X Aw+1.1sqrt(fc’)bd>the applied load

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What we did?
• We selected a steel section
• Then checked that for
• 1) Fy
• 2) fc’
• 3) Deflection
• 4) Moment
• 5) Shear

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See the Examples of the book Design
of steel structure by Gaylord-

• 5/23/1
• 5/23/2

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Built-up beam design

Used when available rolled-sections


fail to fulfill the demand

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d D

tp

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A simple supported beam has to carry a total load of 3 Kip/ft,
as shown below. The overall depth should not be more than 20
inch. Design a suitable section. Consider, ASD and Fy=36 Ksi

Answer:

3 Kip/ft

32 ft

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T
B

B </= 16T

0.75”

12”
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0.75”

12”

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The end

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