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ERT 320

Product Formulation
and Finishing
“Ability to evaluate process and
important parameters involved in
purification and polishing steps
of bio-products for selected
bio-separation units”

Product Formulation and Finishing Operations

Product Finishing
• Surface finishing is a broad range of industrial processes that
alter the surface of a manufactured item to achieve a certain
• Finishing processes may be employed to: improve appearance,
adhesion or wettability, solderability, corrosion resistance,
tarnish resistance, chemical resistance, wear resistance,
hardness, modify electrical conductivity, remove burrs and other
surface flaws, and control the surface friction.
• In bio-separation principle, product finishing is the polishing
process (normally the last stage in bio-separation scheme) to
obtain a great surface structure of final product, for example in
crystalline or powder form.

• A process of producing
crystals from
homogeneous phase,
Crystallization i.e. homogeneous
phase is always a
Crystallization Precipitation

Solid particles are

Solid particles are
formed from a solution,
formed from a solution,
has poor defined
highly structured in 3-D
arrays (space lattices)

Occur at low level of Occur at high level of

supersaturation and supersaturation and
nucleation rates nucleation rates

Wide range, medium

to high solubility Low solubility
- Crystallization is capable of producing
bioproducts at very high purity (say, 99.9%),
and is considered to be both a polishing step
and purification step.
- Polishing: a process needed to put the
bioproduct in its final form for use.
- Ex: Antibiotics; normally the final form must
be in crystalline.
- May replace other more expensive
purification steps such as chromatography.
Crystallization Principle
1) Crystals
- When allowed to form freely, crystals appear as
polyhedrons, or solid formed by plane faces,.
- Although the relative sizes of the faces differ, the
angles made by the corresponding faces of the same
material do not vary  determine the characteristics
of the substance.
- Difference on crystal relatives sizes, results in a
variety of crystal shapes called modification of habit.
Crystallization Principle
2) Nucleation
- The generation of ultramicroscopic particles in
the process of nucleation is the sum of
contributions by primary nucleation and
secondary nucleation.
- Primary nucleation: occurs in the absence of
- Secondary nucleation: is attributed to the
influence of existing crystals.