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ERT 320

Bio-Separation
Engineering
Product Formulation
and Finishing
Operations
“Ability to evaluate process and
important parameters involved in
purification and polishing steps
of bio-products for selected
bio-separation units”

Product Formulation and Finishing Operations


Introduction
Product Finishing
• Surface finishing is a broad range of industrial processes that
alter the surface of a manufactured item to achieve a certain
property.
• Finishing processes may be employed to: improve appearance,
adhesion or wettability, solderability, corrosion resistance,
tarnish resistance, chemical resistance, wear resistance,
hardness, modify electrical conductivity, remove burrs and other
surface flaws, and control the surface friction.
• In bio-separation principle, product finishing is the polishing
process (normally the last stage in bio-separation scheme) to
obtain a great surface structure of final product, for example in
crystalline or powder form.
CRYSTALLIZATION
CRYSTALLIZATION

• A process of producing
crystals from
homogeneous phase,
Crystallization i.e. homogeneous
phase is always a
solution
Crystallization Precipitation

Solid particles are


Solid particles are
formed from a solution,
formed from a solution,
has poor defined
highly structured in 3-D
morphology
arrays (space lattices)
(amorphous)

Occur at low level of Occur at high level of


supersaturation and supersaturation and
nucleation rates nucleation rates

Wide range, medium


to high solubility Low solubility
CRYSTALLIZATION
CRYSTALLIZATION
- Crystallization is capable of producing
bioproducts at very high purity (say, 99.9%),
and is considered to be both a polishing step
and purification step.
- Polishing: a process needed to put the
bioproduct in its final form for use.
- Ex: Antibiotics; normally the final form must
be in crystalline.
- May replace other more expensive
purification steps such as chromatography.
Crystallization Principle
1) Crystals
- When allowed to form freely, crystals appear as
polyhedrons, or solid formed by plane faces,.
- Although the relative sizes of the faces differ, the
angles made by the corresponding faces of the same
material do not vary  determine the characteristics
of the substance.
- Difference on crystal relatives sizes, results in a
variety of crystal shapes called modification of habit.
Crystallization Principle
2) Nucleation
- The generation of ultramicroscopic particles in
the process of nucleation is the sum of
contributions by primary nucleation and
secondary nucleation.
- Primary nucleation: occurs in the absence of
crystals.
- Secondary nucleation: is attributed to the
influence of existing crystals.