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Today’s Do Now 8/19/14

A chemist classifies set of 3 laboratory


observations in his lab notebook, but he forgot
to label the observations as physical or
chemical changes. Which of the data set(s)
include two chemical changes and one physical
change? Write a sentence defending your
answer choice(s).
Data Set A
Observation 1 Powder is added to an unknown liquid in a beaker. The solution
begins to bubble and smoke rises.
Observation 2 A ball of wax is melted into a liquid mixture.
Observation 3 Liquid wax is poured into a mold and cools to take the shape of a
beaker.
Data Set B
Observation 1 To replicate an ocean environment for a new specimen, salt is
mixed into the water in the fish tank.
Observation 2 Four droplets of a buffer are added to the fish tank. The recorded
pH after the droplets are added is higher than the original pH.
Observation 3 The water level in the tank has dropped when measured the
following morning. There appear to be no leaks or mechanical
issues with the tank.
Data Set C
Observation 1 A lab rodent got its foot caught in the cage. The ulna and radius
bones appear to be broken.
Observation 2 The side of the wire cage has a layer of rust.
Observation 3 The lab rodent eats a pellet of food and the food is reduced to
waste.
By the end of the class period
today I will be able to…
Differentiate between pure
substances and mixtures
Today’s Game Plan
Do Now 10 minutes
Is Ink a Pure Substance or 3 minutes
Mixture?
Pure Substances and 12 minutes
Mixtures
Raise ‘em up!! 8 minutes
Go with the Flow…Chart and 20 minutes
How to Separate Mixtures
Independent Practice 20 minutes
Closing/Exit Ticket 15 minutes
Make a Hypothesis…Is ink a pure
substance or mixture?
 Ask yourself, based on what you already know:
 What is a pure substance? What is a mixture?
 What do you think the difference between the two is?
 How do you think we can use science to figure out
whether ink is a pure substance or mixture?

 Place your piece of filter paper in the cup of water. Be


sure that the water does not directly touch the ink!
Today’s Game Plan
Do Now 10 minutes
Is Ink a Pure Substance or 3 minutes
Mixture?
Pure Substances and 12 minutes
Mixtures
Raise ‘em up!! 8 minutes
Go with the Flow…Chart and 20 minutes
How to Separate Mixtures
Independent Practice 20 minutes
Closing/Exit Ticket 15 minutes
Pure Substances
 Composition is the same throughout and
does not vary from sample to sample.

 CANNOT be broken down by physical


changes

 Can be an element or compound.


Element
Definition: substances in their
simplest forms
Cannot be broken down by a
physical or chemical change
Found on the periodic table
Made up of one type of atom
Examples of Elements:
 Hydrogen
 Carbon
 Lithium
 Gold

What are two other examples of elements not listed above?


What do all elements have in common?
Compound
 Definition: substance formed by the
chemical combination of two or more
elements
 can be broken into simpler substances by
a chemical change

+ = Compound
Law of Definite Proportions

 A compound is always composed of the


same elements in the same proportions.

In other words, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is always


composed of 1 atom of C and 2 atoms of O.
If there are different amounts of carbon or oxygen,
it is no longer carbon dioxide.
More Examples of Compounds
Mixture
 Definition: two or more pure
substances (elements or compounds)
that are mixed together but NOT
joined chemically
 NOT a pure substance
 Examples: The air we breath,
gasoline for cars, the sidewalk on
which we walk
Homogeneous Mixtures
 Uniform in composition and appearance

 Same proportion of components


throughout

 Consists of two or more substances in the


same phase

 Also called solutions


Heterogeneous Mixtures
 variable appearance and composition
Today’s Game Plan
Do Now 10 minutes
Is Ink a Pure Substance or 3 minutes
Mixture?
Pure Substances and 12 minutes
Mixtures
Raise ‘em up!! 8 minutes
Go with the Flow…Chart and 20 minutes
How to Separate Mixtures
Independent Practice 20 minutes
Closing/Exit Ticket 15 minutes
Raise ‘em Up!
Look at the following example
and with your partner
determine if it is a
heterogeneous mixture,
homogeneous mixture,
element, or compound
Chicken Noodle Soup
Pure Water
Tap Water
Pure Gold
Coca-Cola
Helium
Today’s Game Plan
Do Now 10 minutes
Is Ink a Pure Substance or 3 minutes
Mixture?
Pure Substances and 12 minutes
Mixtures
Raise ‘em up!! 8 minutes
Go with the Flow…Chart and 20 minutes
How to Separate Mixtures
Independent Practice 20 minutes
Closing/Exit Ticket 15 minutes
Kool Aid has mass
and takes up space
Can be
separated by
allowing
water to
evaporate
Same
composition
throughout
Your turn! With your groups,
you will have 3 minutes to
choose an example and use
the flow chart to classify it.
Beware – I will be choosing
groups at the end of class to
present their examples!
So…how do we know if a mixture
can be “broken down physically”?

What are some examples of


breaking a substance down
physically?
Separation of Mixtures
 Decantation
 Evaporation
 Filtration
 Chromatography
 Magnetism
Chromatography Demo
 Chromatography = a way to separate a mixture based
on polarity
 mobile phase – substance that is moving/facilitating
the separation
 stationary phase – substance that is NOT moving,
fluid moves through it
 The various parts of the mixture travel at different
speeds, causing them to separate!
Polarity and Chromatography
 Polarity – the separation of charge in a molecule
 Causes attraction between molecules
 Different molecules exert different forces of attraction
on each other resulting in different solubilities
CHROMATOGRAPHY
DIFFERENT POLARITY

DIFFERENT SOLUBILITY

DIFFERENT DISTANCES TRAVELED

=
SEPARATION
Revisiting your hypothesis…
 Is ink a pure substance or mixture? Defend your
answer using DATA from the demonstration.
Remember – data can be quantitative or qualitative

Is ink a homogeneous or
heterogeneous mixture?
How do you know?
Today’s Game Plan
Do Now 10 minutes
Is Ink a Pure Substance or 3 minutes
Mixture?
Pure Substances and 12 minutes
Mixtures
Raise ‘em up!! 8 minutes
Go with the Flow…Chart and 20 minutes
How to Separate Mixtures
Independent Practice 20 minutes
Closing/Exit Ticket 15 minutes
Today’s Game Plan
Do Now 10 minutes
Is Ink a Pure Substance or 3 minutes
Mixture?
Pure Substances and 12 minutes
Mixtures
Raise ‘em up!! 8 minutes
Go with the Flow…Chart and 20 minutes
How to Separate Mixtures
Independent Practice 20 minutes
Closing/Exit Ticket 15 minutes
Closing
 “Volunteers” to share their example with the class
 Why is it important for us to understand how to
classify matter?
 Our first formal lab report!
Lab Procedure
You are responsible for
coming up with a procedure
as a lab group.
I must sign off on this
procedure before you can
begin your lab.
Homework
 Complete Pure Substances and Mixtures Worksheet
(due next class)
 Read the lab packet before next class. You will have
some class time with your group to write your
procedure (prelab) but it must be completed and
approved (by the teacher) before you can begin the lab
 Begin working on Unit 1 Review Packet
Exit Ticket
1. Compare and contrast the terms element and compound.
Label these substance as an element or a compound.
2. Distilled Water
3. Magnesium
4. Iron
5. Oxygen
6. A student wants to analyze a substance as either a pure substance or a mixture. Describe in a
complete sentence the way this student can distinguish between pure substances and mixtures.
7. Two grams of potassium chloride are completely dissolved in a sample of water in a beaker.
This solution is classified as
a. An element
b. A compound
c. A homogeneous mixture
d. A heterogeneous mixture
8. In the lab, Salma had an unknown liquid that had the same composition throughout the whole
sample. She heated the liquid over a Bunsen burner and collected the gas that was given off.
She analyzed that sample of gas and found it had the same chemical composition as the
original liquid. What type of substance was she working with? How do you know?