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PEA216–Lecture#

LOGICAL REASONING-II
(VT & Cause and Effect)
VERIFICATION OF TRUTH
 Directions : In each question, One statement
is followed by four possible answers. One of
these four possible answers verifies the
truth of the statement.
Q1. The Taj Mahal takes on different coloring at
different times of the day

A. Sometimes
B. Always
C. Never
D. Often

ANSWER: B. Always
 Q2. Rose forms a group of Plants

A. Sometimes
B. Always
C. Never
D. Often

 ANSWER: B. Always
 Q3. Movie always has

A. Actor
B. Producer
C. Theme
D. Script

ANSWER: C. Theme
 Q4. Website always has

A. Information
B. Images
C. Attachments
D. Address.

ANSWER: D. Address.
 Q5. Painting always has a

A. Attraction
B. Colors
C. Design
D. All of above

 ANSWER: B. Colors
 Q6. If Ramesh is going early in the morning
towards the south the sun will be visible at
his opposite side to right side:

A. Never
B. Sometimes
C. Often
D. Always

ANSWER: D. Always
 Q7. Scale always has

A. Length
B. Measurement
C. Sections
D. Limits

 ANSWER: B. Measurement
 Q8. What is always found in Apprehension?

A. Easiness
B. Chaos
C. Cooperation
D. Poignancy

 ANSWER: B. Chaos
 Q9. A Room always has

A. Bed
B. Chair
C. Light
D. Wall

 ANSWER: D. Wall
 Q10. A Country always has

A. Prime Minister
B. President
C. King
D. Capital

 ANSWER: D. Capital
 Q11. Depression always has a

A. Cause
B. Purpose
C. Solution
D. Happiness

ANSWER: A. Cause
 Q12. Nature always has

A. Rules
B. Difficulty
C. Effect
D. Happiness

 ANSWER: A. Rules
 Q13. A Book always has

A. Page
B. Preface
C. Index
D. Text

 ANSWER: A. Page
 Q15. Sound always

A. Travels
B. Whisper
C. Noisy
D. Alarming

 ANSWER: A. Travels
 Q16. Men always has

A. Heart
B. Emotions
C. Anger
D. None of these

ANSWER: A. Heart
 Q17. What is found necessarily in a
Competition?

A. Merit
B. Panel
C. Competitor
D. Score

 ANSWER: C. Competitor
 Q18. What is found in an Office ?

A. Departments
B. Peon
C. Security Cameras
D. Staff

ANSWER: D. Staff
 Q20. Debate always has

A. Quiet
B. Harmony
C. Peace
D. Deliberation

 ANSWER: D. Deliberation
Cause & Effect
 Cause & Effect is a major area of logical
reasoning topic.
 Usually in such questions the students are asked
to determine whether a given event is the cause
or the effect of some other event.
 The idea behind putting these questions is to
ascertain the analytical and logical reasoning
ability of the students.
An event does not happen automatically but there
is a definite cause behind it. The causes are
conditions under which these events happen. The
scientific view of cause is one where:

1. It must be a scientifically proven fact that the


cause leads to the said effect.
2. The said effect should be a logical consequence
of the said cause.

There may be several necessary conditions for the


occurrence of an event and that they must all be
included in the sufficient condition.
Immediate Cause: An immediate cause means a
cause that immediately precedes the effect.
Immediate cause are the most proximate in time,
to the effect.

Principal Cause: The principal cause is the main


and the most important reason behind the effect.

Independent Cause: An independent cause


means a cause that does not have any relationship
with the given statement.
Rule:

 Cause is always antecedent.

 Naturally the cause will occur before the effect.

 Hence, if two events are given then the effect


that is chronologically antecedent to the other
one can only be regarded as a possible cause.
Format of the problem:

Statements:

1. Indian Economy is observing remarkable growth.

2. Standard of living among the middle class society


is constantly going up since part of few years.
Directions:
A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its
effect.
B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its
effect.
C. Both the statements I and II are independent
causes.
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of
independent causes.
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some
common cause.

Ans (B) Since the standard of living among the


middle class society is constantly going up so
Indian Economy is observing remarkable growth.
Statements:

1. The government has decided to make all the


information related to primary education available
to the general public.
2. In the past, the general public did not have
access to all these information related to primary
education.
Directions:
A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its
effect.
B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its
effect.
C. Both the statements I and II are independent
causes.
D. Both the statements I and II are effects of
independent causes.
E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some
common cause.
Ans (B): The government must have seen the
unawareness of the people as a strong factor in the
primary education programme being not successful.
The steps indicated in I must, thus have been
sought for as a remedy for the same.
Practice Questions:

Directions:

A. Statement A is the cause and statement B is its


effect.
B. Statement B is the cause and statement A is its
effect.
C. Both the statements A and B are independent
causes.
D. Both the statements A and B are effects of
independent causes.
E. Both the statements A and B are effects of
some common cause.
1. Statement (A): Indonesia suffered a major
earth quake today.
Statement (B): The term of the Indonesian prime
Minister ends by December.

Ans: C

2. Statement (A): Bank perceive huge business


opportunities in the insurance segment.
Statement (B): As many as 11 nationalized banks
are entering into the lucrative insurance market.

Ans: A
3. Statement (A): The shortage of employable
talent has become severe.
Statement (B): There are more job opportunities
than there are qualified professionals.

Ans: A

4. Statement (A): Recently, an Air India Airbus


was grounded in Delhi because of a technical snag.
Statement (B): Air India faces a severe shortage
of maintenance engineers.

Ans: B
5. Statement (A): Police authority has recently
increased vigil during the evening hours in the
locality.
Statement (B): There has been considerable
reduction in the incidents of petty crimes in the
locality.

Ans: A
6. Statement (A): The committee appointed by the
Government on the fee structure of the
professional courses has drastically reduced the
fees of various courses in comparison to those
charged in the last year.
Statement (B): The parents of aspiring students
seeking admission to professional courses had
launched a severe agitation protesting against the
high fees charged by the professional institutes
and the admission process was delayed
considerably.

Ans: B
7. Statement (A): Large numbers of people have
fallen sick after consuming sweets from a
particular shop in the locality.
Statement (B): Major part of the locality is flooded
and has become inaccessible to outsides.

Ans: D
8. Statement (A): The life today is too fast,
demanding all full of variety in all aspects which at
times leads to stressful situation.
Statement (B): Number of suicide cases among
teenagers is on increase.

Ans: E
9. Statement (A): The university authority has
instructed all the colleges under its jurisdiction to
ban use of cell phones inside the college premises.
Statement (B): Majority of the teachers of the
college signed a joint petition to the university
complaining the disturbances caused by cell phone
ring tones inside the classrooms.

Ans: B
10. Statement (A): Majority of people residing in
the locality have decided to protest against the
municipality authority's decision to allow
construction of a shopping mall in the locality.
Statement (B): Many shopping malls have been
opened all over the city in the recent time.

Ans: B
11. Statement (A): The Government has reduced
the prices of petroleum products by five percent a
week after increasing the prices by ten percent.
Statement (B): The rate of inflation dropped
marginally during the last week.

Ans: D
12. Statement (A): There was a huge rush of
people to the temple last Sunday the 15th of the
month.
Statement (B): The temple authority had decided
to close down the temple for repairs from 17th of
the month.

Ans: B
13. Statement (A): Large number of people living
in the low lying areas has been evacuated during
the last few days to safer places.
Statement (B): The Government has rushed in
relief supplies to the people living in the affected
areas.

Ans: E
14. Statement (A): The Reserve Bank of India has
recently put restrictions on few small banks in the
country.
Statement (B): The small banks in the private and
co-operative sector in India are not in a position to
withstand the competitions of the bigger banks in
the public sector.

Ans: B
15. Statement (A): The prices of petrol and diesel
in the domestic market have remained unchanged
for the past few months.
Statement (B): The crude oil prices in the
International market have gone up substantially in
the last few months.

Ans: C
16. Statement (A): The performance of Indian
sports persons in the recently held Olympics could
not reach the level of expectation the country had
on them.
Statement (B): The performance of Indian sports
person in the last Asian games was far better than
any previous games.

Ans: E
17. Statement (A): Rural and semi-urban areas in
the country have been suffering due to load-
shedding for quite some time.
Statement (B): If the Government is not able to
overcome the power crisis, load-shedding will be
extended even to the urban areas.

Ans: E
18. Statement (A): The Government has increased
rates of petrol and diesel by 10% from the
immediate effect.
Statement (B): Oil producing countries have
decided to increase 10% of production on crude oil
from the last quarter.

Ans: D
19. Statement (A): The vegetable prices in the
local market have increases manifold during the
past few days.
Statement (B): Incessant rains have created flood
like situation in most rural parts of the State.

Ans: D
20. Statement (A): Police had resorted to lathi-
charge to disperse the unruly mob from the civic
headquarters.
Statement (B): The civic administration has
recently hiked the property tax of the residential
buildings by about 30 percent.

Ans: D
Next Class:Calendar