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An Experimental Analysis Of Strength Properties Of High

Strength Concrete Using Steel Fibers

BACHELORE OF TECHNOLOGY
In
CIVIL ENGINEERING
By
B.CHIRANJEEVI
(16MU5A0105)
P.V.S.KUMAR R.BOBBY
(16MU5A0105) (16MU5A0117)
A.SRINIVAS
(15MU1A0101)

Under The Esteemed Guidance Of


Mr. T. RAMA KRISHNA
Assistant Professor

SRI VENKATESWARA INISTITUTE OF SCIENCE & INFORMATION


TECHNOLOGY
(Approved by AICTE New Delhi and affiliated to JNTUK,KAKINADA)
Thelikicherla road, Venkatramannagudem,Tadepalligudem-534101,A.P
(2015-2019)
LIST OF CONTENTS

 ABSTRACT

 INTRODUCTION & OBJECTS

 LITERATURE REVIEW

 METHODOLOGY

 RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

 CONCLUSION

 REFERENCES
ABSTRACT
Concrete is extensively used as a construction material in various types of structures,
because of its versatility and durability. Concrete being brittle, is weak in tension and is often
subjected to shrinkage and creep. These factors have led to the development of FIBER
REINFORCED CONCRETE., in which small fibers are spread randomly throughout the concrete
matrix. Inclusion of fibers in concrete improves the energy absorption capacity, impact resistance
and gives the concrete a well defined post-cracking behaviour. In recent years High strength
concrete is gaining importance in the fields of pre-stressed concrete bridges, high rise buildings,
machine foundations etc. In this context, an attempt has been made to study the combined effect
of high strength concrete and FRC.
.
INTRODUCTION
NECESSITY OF STUDY
Durability of concrete is very important. Durability is mainly affected due to
cracks developed by creep and shrinkage. This can be avoided by using certain
chemical admixtures. But once a crack develops in the member there are no barriers
to stop the propagation of such cracks. In RCC it leads the corrosion of the
reinforcement slowly and finally it results in the failure of the structure.
In an attempt to control the so formed cracks has led to the development of
FIBER REINCORCED CONCRETE (FRC), obtained by dispersing in concrete,
very small sized reinforcement called fibers. The small closely spaced fibers so used
act like crack arresters, substantially improve the static and dynamic strengths. That
is the properties like toughness, impact resistance and stiffness under different
loading conditions are improved.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

In the present investigation concrete grade having target strength of

40N/mm2 is studied. Steel fibers of circular cross section are used in different
volume fractions. The characteristics like compressive strength, split tensile
strength, modulus of elasticity, load-deflection and flexural strength are investigated.
The test results are analyzed critically and methods for predicting the characteristics
of high strength FRC are discussed
Scope of the present investigation

An extensive application of FRC can be seen in both industrial

structures and civil engineering fields. Therefore, the knowledge of the

properties of FRC is quite essential.

A lot of work has been carried out on FRC using low strength

concrete like M20, M30 etc. A little work has been done on FRC high

strength concrete. Here in this work an attempt has been made to bring

out certain characteristics of high strength FRC using M40 grade of

concrete. The characteristics studied are compressive strength (cube

strength and cylinder strength), flexural strength, modulus of elasticity,

split tensile strength and load-deflection curve.


LITERATURE REVIEW
Romuldi.J.P. and Batson G.B. are the pioneers who stressed the importance
of FRC as a construction material, since then extensive research has been done on
various aspects of FRC. A brief review of the important investigations concerned
with FRC is presented in the following articles.
 Definition of FRC:
ACI committee 544(1, 2) of FRC defined FRC as “FRC is composite material
made of hydraulic cements containing fine or fine and coarse aggregates and
discontinuous discrete fibers.
 Advantages of Fiber Reinforced Concrete:
 Inclusion of fibers delays the occurrence of first tensile crack. This increases tensile
strain capability of the matrix.
 It gives the member a well defined post cracking behavior resulting in an increase of
post-crack ductility.
 It improves the energy absorption capacity of the member by enhancing the crack
resistance.
 It also improves the resistance of the member to the impact forces.
Factors Influencing the Properties of FRC:

Following factors influence the characteristics and the performance of FRC.


 Types of Fibers

 Aspect Ratio

 Fiber volume and spacing

 Orientation of fibers

 Mix and compaction factor

 Size of aggregates

 Water cement ratio

 Grade of Mix
High Strength Concrete:
High strength concrete is basically a concrete with compressive strength
greater than 40Nmm2 or in a concrete which possesses compressive strength
properties which are difficult to obtain using locally available conventional materials
and practices.

Production of HSC:
The high strength can be achieved considering following factors:
 Use of coarse aggregate with a maximum size of 20mm.
 High grade cement with fineness around 3500 cm2/gm
 Low water cement ratio (0.45)
 Water-reducing and plasticizing admixtures.
 Through mixing and vibration
 Excellent Curing
 In hot climates, pre-cooling of aggregates is necessary.
Table 4.4. Mix Designations:

METHODOLOGY
MATERIALS USED:
The materials used in this investigation are:
 Ordinary portland cement
 Sand
 Coarse aggregate
 Superplasticizer
 Steel fibers
 Mix designations
Sl.No Mix Grade Fiber volume Designation
fraction (%)
1 M40 0.0 400

2 M40 0.4 4004

3 M40 0.8 4008

4 M40 1.2 4012


LABORATARY TESTS:

 Test for Compressive Strength (IS:5816-1959)

 Test for Split Tensile Strength (IS:5816-1970)

 Test for Static Elastic Modulus (IS:5816-1959)

 Third-point Flexure test on Beams (IS:5816-1959)

Tests on materials:
 Specific Gravity (IS:4031-1988)

 Standard Consistency

 Fineness (Blaine’s air Permeability)

 Setting time

 Soundness(mm) by Le-chatelier apparatus

 Compressive Strength
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Influence of fibers on Compressive Strength:
With addition of fibers there is an increase in compressive strength for all
the three grades and the increase is in the range of 7% to 15%.
Variation in cube compressive strength of SFRC with fiber content—M40
grade
S.No Mix Specime Compres Average Percenta Percenta
n no sive compress ge ge
strength ive deviation deviation
in strength from
n/mm2 in plain
n/mm2 concrete
1 4000 1 38.6 4.08
2 40.1 40.24 0.35 -----------
3 42.04 4.5
2 4004 1 44.02 0.32
2 44.28 43.16 2.59 7.25
3 4.17 1.22
3 4008 1 43.00 3.43
2 45.16 44.53 1.41 10.67
3 44.16 0.58
4 4012 1 45.16 0.11
2 42.25 45.11 6.34 12.10
3 47.92 6.20
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
46

45

44
compressive strength in N/mm2

43

42

41 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

40

39

38

37
0 0.4 0.8 0.12
vatiation of percetage fiber content
Influence of fibers on split tensile strength

 For M40 grade the increase is 8% at 0.8% fiber content which increases to 23% at
1.2% fiber content.
Variation in Split Tensile strength of SFRC with fiber content—M40 grade
S.NO Mix Specime Tensile Average Percenta Percenta
n no strength tensile ge ge
in strength deviatio deviatio
N/MM2 in n n from
n/mm2 plain
concrete
1 4000 1 2.82
2 2.97 2.87 2.87 -----------
3 2.82
2 4004 1 2.97
2 3.11 3.04 3.04 5.92
3 3.05
3 4008 1 2.97
2 3.04 3.10 3.10 8.01
3 3.25
4 4012 1 3.25
2 3.68 3.53 3.53 22.09
3 3.67
SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH
4

3.5
split tensile strength in N/mm2

2.5

2
Split Tensile strength
1.5

0.5

0
0 0.4 0.8 0.12
variation of percentage fiber content
Influence of fibers on Elastic Modulus:
 The increase may be due to the compact bonding of the matrix and crack arresting
properties of the fibers, which make specimens to experience higher rate of strains at
the same level of stress. This increase in elasticity can be advantageously adopted
for structures in which deflection is the main criteria.
Variation in static modulus of elasticity of SFRF with fiber content –
M40 grade
S.NO Mix Specimen Static Average Percentag
no modulus static e
of modulus deviation
elasticity of from plain
in N/mm2 elasticity concrete
in N/mm2

1 4000 1 44000
2 41000 43300 -----------
3 45000
2 4004 1 51000
2 47500 50330 16015
3 52500
3 4008 1 61000
2 57000 59300 36.85
3 60000
4 4012 1 48700
2 53000 52000 20.0
3 53400
STATIC MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
70000

60000
static modulus of elasticitty in N/mm2

50000

40000

30000 static modulus of elasticity

20000

10000

0
0 0.4 0.8 0.12
variation of percentage fiber content
Influence of fibers on flexural strength and Load-Deflection Curves

 . In general the increase in in the range of 9% to 60%. It is also observed that at


higher fiber content, the flexural strength is not affected by the increase in the
strength of the mix i.e., the flexural strength increases with the increase in fiber
content irrespective of the of the mix.
Variation of First-crack load, Ultimate load and First-crack Flexure
with Fiber Content—M40 grade

S.N Mix First crack First crack Ultimate Percent Ratio of


O load KN flexure in load KN variation split
n/mm2 first tensile
crack flexure
flexure strength
with pcc
1 4000 13.75 5.5 13.75 ------- 0.52
2 4004 15.00 6.0 15.08 9.09 0.50
3 4008 19.00 7.6 19.00 38.2 0.40
4 4012 21.83 8.8 21.83 60.0 0.40
FLEXURAL STRENGTH
0.6

0.5
f;exira; stremgth in N/mm2

0.4

0.3
flexural strength

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.4 0.8 0.12
variation of percentage fiber content
Energy Absorption (Toughness):

 Toughness is defined in absolute terms as the energy required deflecting the FRC
beam to a mid-point deflection of 1/150 of its span. The tjci is sensitive to change in
fiber content but not to the grade of concrete.
Variation in Toughness with fiber content

S.NO Mix Specimen no Toughness Average


in N-M Toughness
in N-M

1 4000 1 21.20
2 20.82 20.59
3 19.27
2 4004 1 33.30
2 29.86 30.63
3 28.74
3 4008 1 40.00
2 35.83 36.92
3 34.93
Toughness
40

35

30
toughness in N - m

25

20
Toughness
15

10

0
0.4 0.8 0.12
variation of prercentage fiber content
CONCLUSION
 The cube and cylinder compressive strength of SFRC have increased with
reference to plain concrete. The range of increase is 7% to 15%, which is
not significant. But the ductility imparted can be advantageous factor.

 An increase of about 30% is achieved in split tensile strength with the


inclusion of fibers to plain concrete, which indicates a better performance of
SFRC in tensile loading.

 Static modulus of elasticity of SFRC specimens have shown a remarkable


increase. At 1.2% fiber content there is a decrease in rate of percentage
increase.
 There is an appreciable increase of about 60% in the modulus of rupture due to the
addition of fibers in plain concrete. The brittle mode of failure of the beam specimen
has changed to ductile mode. Thus fibers have imparted a well defined post-crack
behavior.

 The shape of load-defection curve is mostly dependent on fiber content When the
position of first-crack was not in the centre, the ultimate central deflection is
relatively lesser.
REFERENCES
 ACI Committee 544 report., “State-of-the-art-Report on Fiber Reinforced Concrete,” ACI
Journal, V.70, November,(1973), PP.729-744.

 ACI Committee 544 report., “ Guide for specifying, Mixing, Placing and Finishing of Steel
Fiber Reincorced concrete,” ACI Journal, V.81, Mar-Apr 1984,pp 140-147.

 Anbu, Selvam .t, “ Experimental Study on the toughness characteristics of Steel Fiber Concrete
Beama,” M.Tech Thesis Submitted to Manglore University, April 1994.

 IS: 9103-1979, Specification for Admixtures for Concrete.

 IS: 2386-1963, Part-I and Part-III, Method of Test for Aggregates for Concrete.

 IS :10262-1982, Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design,

 IS: 456-1978, Code of Practice for plain and Reinforced Concrete.

 IS: 516-1959, Method of Test for Strength of Concrete.

 IS: 5816-1970, Mehod of Test for Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete Cylinders.

 AP23-1982, Hand Book on Concrete Mixes.