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Acute Inflammation

Rapid in onset
Short duration (lasting from few minutes to a few
Exudation of fluid and plasma proteins
Accumulation of neutrophilic leukocytes
Causes of acute inflammation
Infections (bacterial, fungal)

Tissue necrosis
Foreign bodies (dirt, splinters)
Immune reactions
Recognition of Microbes, necrotic cells and
foreign substances
 Pattern recognition receptors
Cells like dendritic cells, phagocytes, epithelial cells
have receptors that are designed to sense the
presence of infectious pathogens and substances
released from dead cells.
1. Toll-like receptors (TLR)
2. Inflammasome
Toll-like receptors – microbial sensors
recognize products of bacteria, viruses and other

Recognition of microbes

Transcription factor
Production of membrane proteins
(mediators of inflammation, antiviral cytokines)

Lymphocyte activation
Inflammasome – Multiprotein cytoplasmic
recognizes products of dead cells, such as uric acid, crystals
and some microbial products

Triggering of inflammasome

Activation caspase-1

Cleavage of interleukin-1B

Leukocyte recruitment

Leukocytes phagocytose and destroy dead cells

Reactions of acute inflammation
 Vascular changes
o Vasodilation (erythema and warmth)
o Increased blood flow
o Increased vascular permeability
 protein-rich fluid moves into the extravascular tissues
 RBCs become more concentrated
 Blood viscosity increases (circulation slows down)
 Resolution (Regeneration and repair)
It takes place when injury is limited or short-lived, when there has been
minimal tissue damage and when the injured tissue is capable of
The blood vessels will get neutral again.
Necrotic debris, fluid and plasma proteins are cleared by phagocytes and
lymphatic system – THE BATTLE IS OVER
 Chronicinflammation may follow acute inflammation if the
offending agent is not removed.
It depends on the extent of the initial and continuing tissue
injury and capacity of the affected tissues to regrow.
Scarring is type of repair after substantial tissue
destruction or when inflammation occurs in tissues
that do not regenerate.
The injured tissue is filled in by connective tissue
leading to fibrosis.
Fibrosis is thickening and scaring of connective tissue
and it consequently leads to compromised function
of the organ in which it occurs.
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