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SKILL GAP ANALYSIS

Persp TRL’s STRATEGY MAP


ective
Customer value proposition- Low total cost supplier of products.
Fin- Long term shareholder value Revenue growth strategy
anci Productivity strategy F1
-al Increase Increase
Maximize use revenue from F4 customers’
Be industry new customers
F2 cost leader F3 a/c share

“Offer products that are consistent, timely, low-cost”.


Cust-
omer C1 Perfect quality, consistency C2
Speedy purchase
C3
Right selection
I
Operations mgt. Customer mgt. Innovation Regulatory, social
N
T Excellent Provide Improve
Build customer desired environment,
supplier relationship
I4 products safety
E I1 I7 I 10
R Efficient, timely Convenient order Innovate
delivery handling process processes Improve
E I5 I8 quality of life
I2 I 11
N
Well-managed Growth through Manage capital
A TRS/TRM, Support
risk projects communities
L I3 I6 channel I9 I 12
Learn “A satisfied, motivated and technologically empowered workforce”
ing L1
and Human capital Information capital Organization capital
grow- Enhance
th Improve human Facilitate info. Strengthen IT culture,leadership,
capital. readiness availability infrastructure Alignment, teamwork
L2 L3 L4 L5
What are skills?
•Skills are capabilities of a person to perform a task or group of

tasks to bring forth an output to certain given norms, standards,

tolerances etc repeatedly, consistently.

• Examples are Lathe operator’s ability to produce a certain product

to given tolerances repeatedly over extended period of time.

•Capability of a pilot to fly a plane safely, efficiently and

economically is another example of skills.


•Normally, a number of skills are required for performing a task or
job.

•All skills may not be required to the same level or degree of


proficiency

• For performing the primary or basic function, higher degree of


skill will be needed;

•whereas for functions needed to support the primary function may


be needed to a lesser degree.

•Many times, skills cannot be viewed in isolation. Knowledge needs


are inbuilt into the skills. As such they should be viewed together.
•All jobs may be classified into a number of families, e.g. press

operators, mixer machine operators etc.

•Skill gap analysis is conducted for a job family.

•For performing this analysis, the skills required for each job family

must be identified.

•The level of each skill should then be defined in ascending or

descending order of complexity/difficulty/accuracy/vital-ness,as

appropriate on a Likert scale.


•For example, in case of a press operator, the primary skill required

is Press operation, whereas supporting skills needed are press

setting, Mould changing, knowledge of moulds, quality assessment,

and trouble shooting.

•First, we need to define the skills on a 5 point-scale as per difficulty.

Again, as an example, for press operation skill’s highest degree may

be knowledge of principle of operation, purpose of all the controls,

parameters to watch, and their limits, emergency and safety

procedures.
•The lowest level may be the bare ability to start and stop the press.

•Likewise, all the skill levels can be defined for each job family.

•The next step is to assess the level of skills possessed by each of the
incumbent, placing him in one of the 5 categories of each skill levels.

•The gap between the desired and actual level of each skill is then

estimated for each person for all the skills, All the incumbents are

thus assessed.
•A summary is then made for that job family, which shows the
number of employees lacking the level of desired levels of each skill.

•This becomes the blue print for future training programs. It shows
how many employees need training in which skill and to which
extent.

•The training programs may then be designed with a clear-cut


objective of raising the skill levels of a given number of employees in
a job family from the existing to the desired levels.

•This also gives the Human Capital Readiness Index for any job
family
Example: Job family of Press operators., No. of men needed - 20

Skill Degree1 Degree2 Degree3 Degree4 Degree 5

Press *Principle of operation


operation *Purpose of controls
*Parameters to watch
*emergency, safety
procedures
Press setting •Set the press independently
•Adjust press to new quality
needs.
•Set the press sequences,
cycle time etc.
•Use of Vernier scale.
Quality
assessment •Warpage checking
•Check laminations, cracks
•Reading drawings.
Trouble Setting electrical,
shooting mechanical, hydraulic
problems
independently

Knowledge of *Check moulds as per


moulds brick drawings
*Can find mould
related problems

Mould changing Change moulds, start


production
independently, within
standard time
No. of men having the skill in the level
Job
Skill(& level) needed Deg.1 Deg.2 Deg. 3 Deg.4 Deg.5
Family

Press Press operation (deg.5) 4 3 13


operators
(20 Press setting (deg.3) 7 13
required
today, 24 Quality assessment 2 3 15
after 3 (deg.4)
years)
(Green Trouble shooting (deg.2) 5 15
depicts
desired
level) Knowledge of moulds 7 13
(deg.2)
Mould changing (deg.3) 2 4 14
HUMAN CAPITAL READINESS MATRIX
From this matrix, we can find out the number of persons to be
trained, and the extent of training to be provided. This also sets the
objectives of the program.
For officers, skill, knowledge and attitude are the three dimensions to be tracked.
A)Skills for the officers: (examples are for officers of production dept.)
• Operation of equipment related to core functions : Grinding,, mixing, Press, kilns etc.
• Quality management of the core functions.
• Human resource management skills.
B) Knowledge requirement of officers:
• Knowledge of the core functions – fundamentals, correlation between the functions,
reasons.
• Knowledge of the peripheral functions: electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and
electronic, moulds, raw materials, testing,
packaging, environment, energy, safety, E.P.P.
• Managerial and behavioral knowledge: Training, counseling, costing, planning, I.T
related, ISO, Optimization techniques (VE,
WS, QC etc)
C) Attitude of the officers:
• Team work: Capability to Cooperate, collaborate, develop others, sharing knowledge.
• Customer Oriented: Capability of maintaining and improving customer relationship
• Result oriented: Knowing of their role in achieving the strategic objectives of the
company, motivated to achieve the targets set.
Example of Master Template – (A) skills, core knowledge for Officers of Production depts.
Area Levels of expertise in skills and core knowledge.
Deg. 1 Deg. 2 Deg. 3 Deg. 4 Degree 5

Grind- Knows operating principle, can set, operate grinding


ing circuit m/c dust filter units; optimize output,, decide
replacing of wearing parts, trouble shooting, silo mgt.
Mixing Knows operating principle, operation, setting of mixers,
skip hoists, additive dozers, silos, balance cars.Adjust
compositions as per silo grading, trouble shooting, testing
mixtures. Quality control (QC)
Press- Knows operating principles of presses, setting &
ing operation of presses, mould design, checking, changing,
trouble shooting, Quality assurance, of bricks, yield
improvement
Kilns Knows operating principles of shaft, tunnel, gas ring,
rotary kilns, gas producers, oil systems, compressed air.
Operation of kilns, gas producers. Sitting patterns and
optimizing kiln loading, temperature control, optimizing
fuel efficiencies & yields. Dryers operation, optimization.

Store Knowledge of specifications of customers, production


yard planning, testing procedures, sampling, dispatch
procedures.
H.R. Excellent motivator, councilor, trainer, controller of
skills manpower.
Example of Master Template – (B) Peripheral knowledge for Officers of Production depts.
Area Levels of expertise in peripheral knowledge
Deg. 1 Deg. 2 Deg. 3 Deg. 4 Degree 5

Engineer Knowledge of FSPs, tamping and hydraulic press,


-ing mixers, grinding, screens, kilns, material handling
equipments operation principles, settings, hydraulics,
PLC operation, moulds, motors and their controls
Materials Properties, testing of raw materials, green and
finished bricks, fuels, packaging materials.
Procedures for drawing & ordering materials,
inventory control. ERP and e-procurement.ERP
systems for materials.

Cost Knowledge of cost build-up, cost reduction


control techniques, efficiency and effectiveness improvement
methods.ERP systems
Planning Production planning- machine booking, moulds, raw
material, manpower requirement, ERP systems for
planning, Cascading strategic plans and AOP into
departmental and individual targets, KRAs. Order
mgt.

Safety Knowledge of safety and environment protection


and rules, statutes, devices and equipment. Knows
environ Emergency Preparedness Plan, can lead teams during
ment emergency. Can identify, mitigate unsafe conditions,
practices.
Example of Master Template – (C) Attitude for Officers (common for all )

Area Levels of various attributes in ATTITUDE of officers.

Deg. 1 Deg. 2 Deg. 3 Deg. 4 Degree 5

Team-work Excellent listener & learner, communicator- verbal


and written, motivator. Shares knowledge and
experience, trains and develops colleagues &
juniors.
Customer Excellent knowledge of his customers’ expectations
focused Evolves MoUs, follows up. Measures &
continuously improves customers’ expectations.
Provides to his suppliers - expectations & feedback
on satisfaction.

Result Sets stretch targets for self and team to meet AOP
oriented and departmental targets, plans for meeting them,
uses tools like PERT, scheduling, balancing,
optimization. Knowledge of Balanced Score Card
and its cascades, relevance to his own performance.

Innovation Well-versed with tools like VE, WS, Quality Circles,


& Improve- Six sigma, Plant layout and design, use of
ment Knowledge Management sites on intranet and
internet.
Example of Master Template – (A) Skills, core knowledge for Officers of MMP dept.
Area Degrees of expertise
1 2 3 4 Degree 5
Presses Thorough knowledge of pressing process, functioning of hydraulic, friction screw,
tamping presses, settings, trouble shooting, condition monitoring, overhauling,
preventive maintenance. Spare parts’ specifications.
Moulds Interpreting drawings, design moulds,through knowledge of mould, liner
materials, machining (CNC machining station, universal milling, lathes, shapers,
grinders etc), knowledge of heat treating equipment , process, trouble shooting.
Grinde Thorough knowledge of functioning, setting, optimizing operations of all types of
rs grinders, feeders, bucket elevators, conveyors, screens, magnetic separators,
cyclone, dust filtration systems.Condition monitoring, trouble shooting,
overhauling, preventive maintenance of m/c, specs of spare parts
Mixers Thorough knowledge of functioning, setting, optimizing operations of all types of
all types of mixer machines, skip hoists, balance cars, cranes, additive dozing
systems( resins, tar, slurry etc.), bagging machines (mono.) Specifications of spare
parts, Knowledge of Condition monitoring, preventive maintenance and
overhauling. Trouble shooting

Kilns Thorough knowledge of construction, operation setting & optimization of rotary,


shaft, tunnel kilns, Gas-ring; dryers; gas producers, laboratory kilns. Trouble
shooting, condition monitoring, overhauling, preventive maintenance.
Compr Thorough knowledge of construction, operation setting and optimization of all
essors types of compressors, C. A. systems. Trouble shooting, condition monitoring,
overhauling, preventive maintenance. Specifications of spare parts.
Example of Master Template – (B) Peripheral knowledge for Officers of MMP dept.
Area Degrees of expertise
1 2 3 4 Degree 5
Elect- Knowledge of power distribution, principle of operation of motors &
rical controls, switch gear, welding machines, instrumentation – indicating,
controlling, integrating and its purpose, use. Capable of minor repairs and
settings. Awareness of various speed control methods, automation systems.
Material Knowledge of metallurgy, rubber, polymers, lubricants, fuels, wood,
s structural engineering, RCC, welding materials & procedures. Stores,
Procurement procedures, e-procurement, ERP,
Producti Properties of raw materials, bricks at various production stages, process
on parameters, quality controls for various production in-process measures –
grinding, mixing, pressing, dying, firing. Correlations between equipment
settings and quality, output parameters. Efficiency of equipment.
Cost Knowledge of cost build-up, cost reduction techniques, efficiency and
effectiveness improvement methods.ERP systems
Planning Production planning- machine booking, moulds, raw material, manpower
requirement, ERP systems for planning, Cascading strategic plans and AOP
into departmental and individual targets, KRAs. Order mgt
Safety, Knowledge of safety and environment protection rules, statutes, devices and
environ equipment. Knows Emergency Preparedness Plan, can lead teams during
ment emergency. Can identify, mitigate unsafe conditions, practices.
H.R. Excellent motivator, councilor, trainer, controller of manpower.
skills
The same procedure to be adopted for skill,
knowledge and attitude for officers as for the
workers-
•Draw master template for a job family.
•Draw template for a designation.
•Find gap – desired vs. actual for each officer.
•Evolve training/ development programs to close gaps
• Evaluate training effectiveness.
•Modify training / development programs.
Measuring training effectiveness
Why measure?

•What can be measured, can be improved.

•What does not get measured, can not be improved.

Measurement of training effectiveness will enable us to train

employees better, point out our strengths, weaknesses, and

Opportunities for improvement will be highlighted.

Hence continuous measurement of training effectiveness is the need

of the hour.
Stages of measurement of training effectiveness.
•First, as soon as the training session is concluded. Through tests of
understanding- verbal interaction, written tests, practical sessions –
hands-on demonstration of skills and knowledge are some of the ways.

•Next, two to three months after the training is over, preparing the
matrix once again, finding the human capital readiness index, comparing
with the one made before the training program.

•Measuring impact on the organization, through indices like


improvements in productivity, yields, processing cycle time etc which
have direct impact on organization’s goals and targets.
Feedback to HRD after 3-4 months
•Should be in the same format as used for finding the skill gap analysis.
•This will help in specific areas where the training needs to be improved.
•Feedback should be given to the course director and this should be
reviewed along with the participants’ feedback.
•The course director may either discuss the course contents with the
faculty and the departmental heads to modify it for improved
effectiveness, or
•May help the faculty to improve delivery of training, or
•May replace the faculty with another more effective one.
THE FEEDBACK FROM THE DTOs IS THEREFORE VITAL
FOR CONTINUOUS EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TRAINING FUNCTION. YOU
ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT LINK IN THE WHOLE CHAIN!!
Example of format of worker appraisal
SCORE for the year ________________(Last year’s score: _____)

Factor 1 2 3 4 5 Raters #
Av.
1 2
Job Needs Needs Sufficient Fully aware Work
detailed instructions knowledge of all phases knowledge
Know- instruction occasionally for normal of his & covers his &
ledge jobs related jobs others’ jobs

Mental Needs Judgment Avg. ability Judgment Accomplish


close not fully enough for usually results even
ability supervision adequate for routine jobs sound, in non-std.
the job reliable conditions

Attitude Quarrel- No- Gets along Well liked by Very


some cooperative, well with all popular,
peers, bosses helpful

Dis- Clumsy Work habits Neat, orderly Good work Exemplary


work habits improvable work habits habits work habits
position.
Effi- Very low Low , Normal effy, High output High output,
acceptable acceptable acceptable high quality
ciency quality quality quality

TOTAL SCORE of Mr._______________-, P. No. __________, Dept.____________:


This can be helpful in rating employees in A,B,C,D,E CATEGORIES.