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• United Nations World
Commission on
Environment and
Development defines
“sustainability” as
“meeting the needs of the
present without
compromising the ability
of future generations to
meet their own needs.”


Principles of Sustainable
• Economy of Resources : reduction, reuse,
and recycling of the natural resources that
are input to a building.
• Life Cycle Design :methodology for
analyzing the building process and its impact
on the environment.
• Humane Design focuses on the
interactions between humans and the
natural world.
Economy of Resources
• Energy Conservation

• Water Conservation

• Material Conservation
Energy Conservation
input-reduction method
Energy Conservation
• Passive Heating and Cooling
• Insulation
• Alternate Sources of Energy
• Day lighting
• Energy-Efficient Equipment & Appliances
• Choose Materials with Low Embodied
Passive Heating and Cooling

• Situating Buildings (rooms, doors and

windows) in a way that makes
maximum use of sun-paths and wind
patterns is called Passive Design
• allows the building to function
without active mechanical heating
and cooling
Some guidelines for Passive
Heating and Cooling
• In cold climate
– deflect the wind
over and around the
– turn the broadest
side of your home
toward the sun
• In warm climate
– capture the breeze
for cross ventilation
– turn the broadest
face away
• insulation can range
from plain fiberglass to
high-tech aerogel based
• there are essentially
three forms of
– rigid boards
– flexible sheets
– spray or blow-in
• High-performance windows and wall insulation
prevent both heat gain and loss.
• Reduced heat transfer building’s heating
and cooling loads smaller HVAC equipment
• Aside from these tangible benefits, high-
performance windows and wall insulation create
more comfortable thermal environments.
• Due to the insulating properties of the materials,
the surface temperatures of windows and walls
will be higher in the winter and lower in the
Alternate Sources of Energy

Solar Energy Wind Energy

Day lighting
• Building and window design
that utilizes natural light
– will lead to conserving electrical
lighting energy,
– increases the luminous quality
of indoor environments,
enhancing the psychological
wellbeing and productivity of
indoor occupants
Day lighting
Energy-Efficient Equipment &
• Lighting systems (
– T-5 fluorescent
– LEDs
– CFLs
Energy-Efficient Equipment
& Appliances
• The U. S.
Protection Agency
has developed the
“Energy Star”
program to assist
consumers in
identifying energy
efficient electronic
Choose Materials with Low
Embodied Energy
• Building materials vary with respect to how much
energy is needed to produce them.
• The embodied energy of a material attempts to
measure the energy that goes into the entire life
cycle of building material.
– For instance, aluminium has a very high embodied
energy because of the large amount of
electricity that must be used to manufacture it
from mined bauxite
Choose Materials with Low
Embodied Energy
• The common building material with least embodied energy is
wood, (most of it consumed by the industrial drying process).
Brick is the material with the next lowest amount of
embodied energy, (4 times that of wood).
• By choosing materials with low embodied energy, the overall
environmental impact of a building is reduced.
• Using local materials over imported materials of the same
type will save transportation energy.
Water Conservation
• A building requires a large quantity
of water for the purposes of drinking,
cooking, washing and cleaning,
flushing toilets, irrigating plants, etc
• All of this water requires treatments
at delivery, which consume energy.
• The water that exits the building as
sewage must also be treated
Water Conservation
• Reuse Water Onsite

• Reduce Consumption
Reuse Water Onsite
• Water consumed in buildings can be
classified as two types: graywater and
• Graywater is produced by activities
such as handwashing.
• While it is not of drinking-water quality,
it does not need to be treated as nearly
as intensively as sewage.
• In fact, it can be recycled within a building,
perhaps to irrigate ornamental plants or
flush toilets
• rainwater falling on buildings can be
considered as a useful resource
• roofs can become rainwater collecting
devices, in combination with cisterns to hold
collected water. This water can be used for
irrigation or toilet-flushing.
Reduce Consumption

• Water supply systems and fixtures can

be selected to reduce consumption
and waste.
• Vacuum-assisted and biocomposting
toilets reduce water consumption
• Indigenous landscaping — using plants
native to the local ecosystem — will
also reduce water consumption.
Material Conservation
• The influx of building materials occurs
primarily during the construction stage.
• The waste generated by the construction
and installation process is significant.
• After construction, a low-level flow of
materials continues in for maintenance,
replacement, and renovation activities
• these materials are eventually output,
either to be recycled or dumped in a landfill
Material Conservation
• Adapt Existing Buildings to New Uses
• Incorporate Reclaimed or Recycled
• Use Materials That Can Be Recycled
• Size Buildings and Systems Properly
Adapt Existing Buildings to
New Uses
• most straightforward and effective
methods for material conservation
• Most buildings outlive the purpose for
which they were designed
• Many, if not all, of these buildings can
be converted to new uses at a lower
cost than brand-new construction.
Incorporate Reclaimed or
Recycled Materials
• Buildings that have to be demolished
should become the resources for new
• Many building materials, such as wood,
steel, and glass, are easily recycled into
new materials.
• Some, like brick or windows, can be
used as such in the new structure.  
• Use Materials That • Size Buildings and
Can Be Recycled Systems Properly
– This preserves the – Oversized building
energy embodied in &oversized systems
their manufacture. excessively
  consume materials.
– its heating, cooling,
and ventilation
systems will be
inadequate or
Life Cycle Design
• Life cycle of a • Life cycle of a
conventional sustainable
building building
Pre-Building Phase

• the design of a • Methods

building and – Use Materials Made From
Renewable Resources
materials selected – Use Materials Harvested
for it are examined or Extracted Without
Causing Ecological
for their Damage
environmental – Use Recycled Materials
impact. – Use Materials with Long
Life and Low Maintenance
Building Phase

• Methods
• The methods – Minimize Site
associated with the Impact
Building Phase are – Employ Nontoxic
concerned with the Materials
impact of actual
construction and
operation processes.
Post-Building Phase

• During this phase, the • Reuse the Building

architect examines the
• Recycle Materials
consequences of
structures that have
outlived their
– reuse
– recycling of
– disposal
Humane design
• humane design is concerned with the
livability of all constituents of the
global ecosystem, including plants
and wildlife.
• This principle arises from the
humanitarian goal of respecting the
life and dignity of fellow living
Human Comfort

• sustainable design need not preclude human

• Design should enhance the work and home
• This can improve productivity, reduce stress,
and positively affect health and well-being.
the methods are the following