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KINEMATICS OF PARTICLES

Road Map

Kinematics of particles

Rectilinear motion Curvilinear motion

x-y coord. n-t coord. r- coord.


APPLICATIONS

The cylindrical coordinate


system is used in cases
where the particle moves
along a 3-D curve.

In the figure shown, the boy


slides down the slide at a
constant speed of 2 m/s.
How fast is his elevation
from the ground. changing
(i.e., what is z )?
APPLICATIONS (continued)

A polar coordinate system is a 2-D representation of the


cylindrical coordinate system.
When the particle moves in a plane (2-D), and the radial
distance, r, is not constant, the polar coordinate system can
be used to express the path of motion of the particle.
POSITION (POLAR COORDINATES)

We can express the location of P in polar coordinates as r = rur.


Note that the radial direction, r, extends outward from the fixed
origin, O, and the transverse coordinate, , is measured counter-
clockwise (CCW) from the horizontal.
VELOCITY (POLAR COORDINATES)
The instantaneous velocity is defined as:
v = dr/dt = d(rur)/dt
. dur
v = rur + r dt

Using the chain rule:


dur/dt = (dur/d)(d/dt)
.
We can prove that dur/d = uθ thus dur/dt = uθ
. .
Therefore: v = rur + ruθ
..
Thus, the velocity vector has two components: r, called
the radial component and is a measure of the rate
. of
change in the length of the radial coordinate. r is called
the transverse component and is a measure of the rate of
motion along the circumference. The speed of the particle
at any given instant is the sum of the squares of both
components and the direction of v is tangent to the path.
. .. 2
v = (r  ) + ( r )
2
ACCELERATION (POLAR COORDINATES)
The instantaneous acceleration is defined as:
u θ  u r .
.
a = dv/dt = (d/dt)(rur + ruθ)
After manipulation, the acceleration can be
expressed as
.. . 2 .. ..
a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ
.. . 2
The term (r – r ) is the radial acceleration
or ar.
.. ..
The term (r + 2r) is the transverse
acceleration or a
.. . 2 2 .. .. 2
The magnitude of acceleration is a = (r – r ) + (r + 2r)
ACCELERATION (POLAR COORDINATES)
The instantaneous acceleration is defined as:
. .
a = dv/dt = (d/dt)(rur + ruθ)

v  ru r + ru θ
a  v  ru r + ru r + ru θ + ru θ + ru θ

u θ  u r
u  u
r 

After manipulation, the acceleration can be


expressed as
.. . 2 .. ..
a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ
Given: At the instant shown, the water sprinkler is rotating with an angular
speed of 2 rad/s and an angular acceleration of 3 rad/s2. If the nozzle
lies in the vertical plane and water is flowing through it at a constant
rate of 3m/s.
Find: Determine the magnitude of the velocity and acceleration of a water
particle as it exits the open end, r = 0.2m.
r=0.2m, r’=3m/s, θ’=2rad/s, θ’’=3rad/s2 .
Solution:  
r  0.2 r  3 r  0
 
  2   3 vr  3
v  0.2(2)  0.4
v  (3) 2 + (0.4) 2  3.03 m s
ar  0  0.2(2) 2  0.8 m s 2
a  0.2(3) + 2(3)( 2)  12.6 m s 2
a  (0.8) 2 + (12.6) 2  12.63 m s 2
. . .. . 2 .. ..
v = rur + ruθ a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ
Given: The rod OA rotates counterclockwise with a constant angular
velocity of 5rad/s. Two pin connected slider blocks, located at B,
move freely on OA and the curved rod whose shape is described by
the equation r =100(2- cosθ) mm.
Find: Determine the speed of slider blocks at θ=120o.

Solution: 
 5 r  100( 2  cos  )
 
r  100 sin  ( )  500 sin 
At θ=120o

vr  r  500 sin 120  433.013

v  r   100(2  cos120)(5)  1250
v  (433.013) 2 + (1250) 2  1322.9 mm s  1.32 m s
. . .. . 2 .. ..
v = rur + ruθ a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ
Given: In the above problem.
Find: Determine the magnitude of the acceleration of the slider blocks
when θ=120o.
b=100mm, c=2, θ’=5rad/s, θ1=120o .
Solution: 
 5  0
r  100( 2  cos  )
 
r  100 sin  ( )  500 sin 
 
r  500 cos  ( )  2500 cos 
 2
ar  r  r 
 2500 cos  100(2  cos )(5) 2
 5000(cos 120  1)  7500 mm s 2
  
a  r  + 2 r   0 + 2(500 sin  )(5)
 5000 sin 120  4330.1mm s 2
a  (7500) 2 + (4330.1) 2  8660.3 mm s 2  8.66 m s 2
. . .. . 2 .. ..
v = rur + ruθ a = (r – r )u + (r + 2r)u
EXAMPLE
Given: r. = 5 cos(2) (m)
 = 3t2 (rad/s)
o = 0

Find: Velocity and acceleration at   30.

t t
.
Solution:     dt =  3t2 dt = t3
t o 0 0
p
At   30,  = = t3. Therefore: t = 0.806 s.
6
.
 = 3t2 = 3(0.806)2 = 1.95 rad/s
. . .. . 2 .. ..
v = rur + ruθ a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ
EXAMPLE (continued)
..
 = 6t = 6(0.806) = 4.836 rad/s2

r = 5 cos(2) = 5 cos(60) = 2.5m


. .
r = -10 sin(2) = -10 sin(60)(1.95) = -16.88 m/s
.. . ..
r = -20 cos(2)2 – 10 sin(2)

= -20 cos(60)(1.95)2 – 10 sin(60)(4.836) = -80 m/s2


Substitute in the equation
. for velocity
.
v = rur + ruθ
v = -16.88ur + 2.5(1.95)uθ

v = (16.88)2 + (4.87)2 = 17.57 m/s


. . .. . 2 .. ..
v = rur + ruθ a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ
EXAMPLE (continued)

Substitute in the equation for acceleration:


.. . 2 .. ..
a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ

a = [-80 – 2.5(1.95)2]ur + [2.5(4.836) + 2(-16.88)(1.95)]uθ

a = -89.5ur – 53.7uθ m/s2

a = (89.5)2 + (53.7)2 = 104.4 m/s2

. . .. . 2 .. ..
v = rur + ruθ a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ
Given: A truck is travelling along the horizontal circular curve of radius
r=60m with a constant speed v =20m/s.
Find: Determine the angular rate of rotation of the radial line and the
magnitude of the truck’s acceleration.
r=60m, v=20m/s.
Solution:  
r  60 r  0 r  0

v  20 vr  r  0
 
v  r   60 

v  (vr ) 2 + (v ) 2
20  60     0.333 rad s
 
ar  r  r ( ) 2 ar  0  60(0.333) 2  6.67 m s 2
   

. . a  r  + 2 r   60  .. . 2 .. ..
v = rur + ruθ a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ

Since,
v  r
  
dv / dt  r  + r 

0  0 + 60

 0
Thus,
a  0
a  ar  6.67 m s 2

. . .. . 2 .. ..
v = rur + ruθ a = (r – r )ur + (r + 2r)uθ
Rectilinear Motion

Variable acceleration

v = ds/dt a = dv/dt a ds = v dv

Constant acceleration

s = vt v = vo + act s = so + vot + (1/2) act2


v2 = (vo)2 + 2ac (s - so)
Curvilinear Motion

NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COMPONENTS


POLAR COORDINATES

RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS
Curvilinear Motion
– Rectangular Components
• Position vector r = x i + y j + z k
• Velocity v = vx i + vy j + vz k (tangent to path)
• Acceleration a = ax i + ay j +az k
Recommended for Projectile motion.

– Normal and Tangential Components


r

1 + (dy / dx) 2  3 / 2
• Radius of curvature (r) d 2 y / dx 2
• Velocity v   ut
2
• Acceleration a   u t + u n
r
Recommended for circular motion where ‘r’ is constant

– Polar & Cylindrical Components


• Position r = r ur
• Velocity v  r u r + r  u  ar  r  r 2
• Acceleration a  ar u r + a u  a  r  + 2 r 
Recommended for general curve motion where you have a fixed coordinate
system and ‘r’ is changing
Assignment
Consider the motion of a particle in a circular trajectory having angular velocity   
and angular acceleration    . In this problem, the circumferential and radial
directions are very similar to the tangential and normal directions. The only difference
is that in polar coordinates, the radial direction points outwards, whereas, in n-t
coordinates, the normal direction always points towards the center of curvature O.

Find the velocity and acceleration


components in Polar, n-t and
Cartesian coordinates

Submit by Monday 7th March, 4:30pm


Engineering Dynamics
Problem Sheet 5
Chapter 12
Solve maximum Problems 12-69 to 12-194

Engineering Dynamics Dr Riaz Mufti


Displacement Velocity

∆θ
∆ur
u ur v = dr/dt = d(rur)/dt
ur
∆r
. dur
v = rur + r
u dt
ur
r’ p

r
θ
o
Displacement Velocity Acceleration

ut1
dut
ut1 ds
ut2 ut 2  v v  vut
ds dt
dut = dθun dθ ut1
un 2 ‘v’ direction tangent to
the path

un1 dv
ρ a
dθ dt
ds = ρdθ
o dv dυ
a υt + v t
dt dt
s v
u t  un  un Rate of change of direction
r r a  at υt + anυn
v2
an  at 
dv
or at ds  vdv
a  at + an r
2 2
dt
Magnitude always positive