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TOPIC

Engine types and


their operation
Cylinder Geometry

Intake manifold Exhaust manifold


and Valve and Valve

Vc
TDC
Bore, B
Vt
Vd Stroke, L

BDC
l

Connecting Rod
 Length

Crank Radius, a
2
Cylinder Geometry

Intake manifold Exhaust manifold


and Valve and Valve

Compression ratio
Vc
Vd + Vc
TDC
rc =
Bore, B Vc
Vt
Vd Stroke, L Displaced (swept) volume
p B2
Vd = L
BDC 4
l

Connecting Rod
 Length

Crank Radius, a
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Operating Cycles

• 4-stroke cycle: Requires two complete revolutions


to complete a cycle
• 2-stroke cycle: Requires one complete revolution
to complete a cycle

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Four-stroke operating cycle

5
Four-stroke operating cycle

Exhaust Inlet

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Two-stroke operating cycle

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Two-stroke operating cycle

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Chrysler 2.2-liter displacement
four-cylinder spark-ignition engine.
B/S=87.5/92 mm, rc=8.9, maximum
power 65 kW at 5000 rpm
Reading assignment
Chapter 1. Engine types an their operation
1.1 Introduction and Historical perspective
1.2 Engine classifications
1.3 Engine operating cycles
1.4 Engine components
1.5 Spark-ignition engine operation
1.6 Examples of spark-ignition engines
1.5 Compression-ignition engine operation
1.6 Examples of compression-ignition engines

Video Heat engine lab


Engine Classifications
• Application (road, railroad, airborne, utility, stationary)
• Design (reciprocating, rotary)
• Cycle (four-stroke, two-stroke, naturally aspirated, supercharged)
• Valve Design and Location (overhead, underhead )
• Fuel (gasoline, diesel, CNG, LPG, biofuels, hydrogen, dual-fuel,)
• Fuel/Air Mixing (carburetor, fuel injection SI, Diesel fuel injection)
• Ignition (spark, compression)
• Combustion Chamber design (open, divided)
• Load Control (fuel control, fuel/air mixture control)
• Cooling (water, air, uncooled)
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•Application
•Design
•Cycle
•Valve Location
•Fuel
•Fuel/Air Mixing
•Ignition
•Combustion chamber
•Load Control
•Cooling
Spark Ignition Engines

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Compression
Ignition
Engines

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Reading assignment
Chapter 1. Engine types an their operation
1.1 Introduction and Historical perspective
1.2 Engine classifications
1.3 Engine operating cycles
1.4 Engine components
1.5 Spark-ignition engine operation
1.6 Examples of spark-ignition engines
1.5 Compression-ignition engine operation
1.6 Examples of compression-ignition engines
Heat Engine Lab
Engine specification
Working cycle Four-stroke
Method of cooling Air-cooled
Rated power, kW 5.0
Rated speed, rpm 3600
Maximum torque, Nm 15.6 at 2650
rpm
Minimum stable idling, 1000
rpm
Combustion system Direct injection
Bore/stroke, mm 76.20/66.67
Engine displacement, l 0.304
Compression ratio 18.5

AC1 Lister-Petter diesel engine Injection timing, ºBTDC 24º


Fuel injector setting, bar 200
Transducers

Injector needle lift transducer

In-cylinder pressure
AVL quartz pressure
transducer QC34D

Fuel line pressure


AVL SL31D-3000 Line
pressure transducer
Transducers
AVL IndiModul 621 and amplifiers
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AVL DiCom 4000 NOx Gas analyzer

AVL DiCom 4000


NOx, CO, CO2, O2, HC

AVL Smokemeter
Dynamometer

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Load monitoring

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Load monitoring

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Control unit

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End of Topic
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Major components of the Wankel rotary engine
Wankel four-stroke cycle engine operation
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Two-rotor Wankel spark-ignition engine. Displacement of each working chamber
573 cm3, compression ratio 9.4, maximum power 55 kW at 7000 rpm.
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Elementary carburetor
1. Inlet section
2. Venturi throat
3. Float chamber
4. Pressure equalizing passage
5. Calibrated orifice
6. Fuel discharge tube
7. Throttle plate
Spark Ignition Engines
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Single point fuel injection
Multipoint port fuel injection
Direct injection in SI engines
Spark Ignition Engines

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Compression
Ignition
Engines

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Compression Ignition Engines

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Compression
Ignition Engines

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Diesel fuel system with distributor-type fuel injection pump with mechanical governor

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C
o
m
m
o
n

R
a
i
l
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Direct-Injection systems

(a) quiescent chamber with multihole nozzle; (b) bowl-in-piston chamber with swirl
and multihole nozzle; (c) bowl-in-piston chamber with swirl and single-hole nozzle
Indirect-Injection systems

(a) swirl prechamber; (b) turbulent prechamber


Combustion
chamber
shapes

a) wedge

b) hemispherical

c) bowl-in-piston

d) bathtub

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Engine Classifications
Engine Classifications
Schedule of assignment
sessions and quizzes

Wednesday 12:30 – 13:25


FME examination hall
Assignment session No 1 – 1st February

Quiz No 1 – Unannounced