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Assessment of General Characteristics

(Note: All the mentioned tables in this course refer to, unless otherwise specified, Low
Voltage Electrical Installation Handbook, by Johnny C.F. Wong, Edition 2004)

Chapter 2

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 Before detailed design and installation work of an
electrical installation commences, considerations
should be given to:
– purpose for which the installation is intended to be used, its
general structure, and its supplies;
– external influences
– compatibility of its equipment
– maintainability of the installation

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General Assessment
 Purpose of installation
 Supplies and structure of an electrical installation
– maximum demand
– diversity of installation
– supply and earthing arrangement
– nature of supply
– circuit arrangement

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Maximum Demand & Diversity
 Definition
– sum of all connected loads multiplied by a percentage of
loads that is likely to be used at the same time. The
percentage is known as diversity factor, i.e.

Maximum Demand = Connected Load x Diversity Factor

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Maximum Demand & Diversity
 There is no standard methods and values for diversity
factor for every type of electrical installations. The
allowance for diversity figures given in Table 2.2 may
need increasing or decreasing as decided by the
registered electrical worker responsible for the design
of the installation.

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Maximum Demand & Diversity
 For current demand under 400A, refer to Tables 2.1
and 2.2
 For current demand over 400A, reference can be made
to Tables 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5

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Supply Characteristics
– Type of earthing arrangement
• TT, TN-S, or combination of both
– Nominal voltage, nature of current and frequency
– Prospective short-circuit current at the origin of the
– Earth fault loop impedance external to the installation
– Supply suitability for installation, including maximum
– Type and rating of the over-current protective device at the
origin of installation
– Supplies for safety services and standby purposes
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Types of earthing arrangements
 EWR and CoP stipulate that the earthing arrangement
in Hong Kong is a TT system
 However in order to minimize the rise of potential
difference between the supply company’s exposed
conductive parts and the consumer’s exposed and
extraneous conductive parts, there is a bonding
conductor connecting the electricity company’s
transformer earth point to the consumer’s main
earthing terminal.

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Types of earthing arrangements
 Technically, this is a combination of TT and TN-S
earthing system.
 However, the CoP further requires that the installation
earthing be effective even if the bonding conductor is

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Nominal voltage, current and
 The declared limits of the supply voltage and
frequency are:
– Low voltage: 220V+6%, 220/380V+6%
– High voltage: 11kV and 132kV – plus 10% or minus 2.5%
– Frequency: 50Hz ±2%.

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Prospective short-circuit current
at the origin of the installation
 It is not possible for the electricity supply companies
to give an accurate value of prospective short-circuit
current as its magnitude varies with changes in infeed
cable network.
 The max. prospective short-circuit current is declared
to be 40kA at low voltage side for the following
supply arrangements:
i) Feeding from a transformer provided and installed
by CLP Power or HEC
ii) Feeding from LV underground cables when
supplied by HEC
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Earth fault loop impedance
external to the installation
 To be covered in Chapter 7

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External Influences
 External influences
– Environmental conditions
– Utilisation of premises
– Type of building construction

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The following need to be considered carefully:
 To minimised harmful effects to the supply
 Transient overvoltages
 Fluctuating loads
 Starting currents
 Harmonic currents
 Additional connections to earth - Clean Earth

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