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• Program that provides logic for computing
• Read/write operations on storage
• Categories
• Business applications
• Infrastructure management
• Data protection
• Security
• Examples
• Email
• Enterprise resource planning
• Backup, authentication and antivirus application
• computers on which the applications run
• Consists of:
• Storage
• Disk device and internal memory
• I/O device
• Host to host communications(Network Interface Card (NIC))
• Host to storage device communications(Host Bus Adapter (HBA))

• Essential parts of Host:

1) Operating systems
2) Device driver
3) Volume manager
4) File systems
5) Compute virtualization
1.Operating systems
• Service is to provide data access
• Monitor and respond to user actions and environment
• Organize, manage and control h/w
• Storage management-file system, volume manager and drivers
• Virtual environments
• Virtualization layer lies between OS and H/W
• Memory virtualization
• Virtualize physical memory(RAM)
• Virtual Memory Manager(VMM) uses swap space
• Paging
2.Device driver
• Software permits OS to interact with devices
• Helps to recognize, access and control
• H/W dependent and OS specific
3.Volume manger
• Logical Volume Manager(LVM)
• Helps in dynamic extension of file system capacity
• Intermediate layer b/w file system and physical disk
• Partitioning
• Concatenation
• LVM components:
• Physical volumes, volume groups and logical volumes
• Physical volume-physical disk connected to host
• Volume group-grouping one or more physical volumes
• Physical volume identifier(PVID)
• No sharing of PV among VG
• Logical Volumes created in VG

4.File System
• File –collection of related records stored as a unit with name
• File system-hierarchical structure of files
• File system maintains pointers to directories, subdirectories and files
• Common file systems:
• FAT 32 for Microsoft Windows
• New Tech File System (NTFS) for Microsoft Windows
• UNIX File Systems(UFS) for Unix
• Extended File System(EXT2/3) for Linux

• Process of mapping user files to disk storage

1) Files are created and managed by users and applications
2) Files resided in file system
3) File systems are mapped to file system blocks
4) File system blocks are mapped to logical volume
5) Logical extends are mapped to disk physical extends by OS or LVM
6) Physical extends are mapped to disk sectors in storage subsystem
Mapping user files to disk storage
File System
Teacher (User)
Course File(s) File System Files

1 2 3

Configures/ Reside in Mapped by a file

Manages system to

Disk Physical
Disk Sectors Extents LVM Logical Extents

6 5 4

Managed by Consisting of Mapped by Residing in

disk storage LVM to
Non Journaling file system
• Cause potential loss of files
• Use separate write to update data and metadata

Journaling file system

• Uses a separate area called log or journal
• Journal contains physical journal and logical journal
• Before changing file system journal should be written
Compute Virtualization
• Process of masking physical h/w from OS
• Virtual machines(VM)
• Achieved by virtualization layer that lies b/w H/W and VM
• Hypervisor
• Cuts down cost
• Physical components
• H/w that connects host to storage
• Interface device, port and cable
• Host interface device –connects a host to another host and storage devices
• Eg: Host Bus Adaptor(HBA) and Network Interface Card(NIC)
• Port- special outlet enables connectivity between host and other devices
• Cables- connects hosts to internal or external devices



Interface Protocols
IDE/ATA and Serial ATA
• Integrated Device Electronics/Advanced Technology Attachment
• Supports parallel transmissions known as PATA
• In master slave configuration it supports 2 storage devices per connector
• Serial version is called SATA

SCSI and Serial SCSI

• Small Computer System Interface(SCSI)
• Support parallel transmission and high performance, scalability and
• Serial Attached SCSI(SAS)-Serial version of SCSI

Fibre Channel
• High speed communication and serial transmission
Internet Protocol(IP)
• Used for Host to Host communication
Magnetic Tape
• Low cost solution for long term data storage
• Limitations
• Sequential data access, Single application access at a time, Physical wear and tear and
Storage/retrieval overheads

Optical Disks
• Popularly used as distribution medium in small, single-user computing
• Write once and read many (WORM): CD-ROM, DVD-ROM
• Limited in capacity and speed

Disk Drive
• Most popular storage medium with large storage capacity
• Random read/write access
• Ideal for performance intensive online application
RAID implementation methods

1)Software RAID
• Uses host based S/W to provide RAID
• Implemented in OS level and no dedicated H/W controller
• Limitations:
• Performance: affects overall performance due to additional CPU cycles for
RAID calculation
• Supported Features: No support for all RAID levels
• OS compatibility: Tied to host OS; upgradation cause inflexibility
2)Hardware RAID

• Specialized H/W controller is implemented in Host or array

• Controller card RAID -Host based h/w RAID
• Integrate into mother boards
• External RAID controller -Array based h/w RAID
• Acts as an interface b/w
• Host and disks
• Functions:
• Management and control of disk aggregations
• Translation of I/O requests between logical and physical disks
• Data regeneration during failures