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GROUP THREE REPORT

PHILIPPINE
WATERSHED
01 INTRODUCTION OF A WATERSHED

02 DELINEATION OF DRAINAGE AREA

03 SUB-BASING/PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

04 DETERMINATION (APPLICATION IN THE TERM PROJECT)


WATERSHED
- is a land area that channels rainfall and snowmelt to creeks, streams, and rivers, and eventually to outflow points such as
.
reservoirs, bays, and the ocean.
- It is a geographical unit in which the hydrological cycle and its components can be analyzed.

CATCHMENT BASIN DRAINAGE AREA


WATERSHED AS A FUNNEL
PARTS OF A WATERSHED
TRIBUTARY - a smaller river or stream that flows into a main or parent river.

RIDGELINE/WATERSHED DIVIDE – higher ground separating two


adjacent streams or watersheds.

FLOOD PLAIN - flat,border areas on each side of a river which allows water to
spill out / overflow at times of high flow.

DISTRIBUTARIES - a stream or river that branches off of the main or parent


river.

ESTUARY - a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more body of water
flowing into it and an open connection to the sea.

HEADWATER/ GROUNDWATER -water that is located beneath the


surface of the earth in pores in the soil.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF A WATERSHED
SIZE

Micro watersheds- are smallest land area wherein the water flow into a tributaries.
Small watersheds – are those where the overland flow is the main contributor to peak run-
off / flow and channel characteristic do not affect the overland flow.
Large watersheds- are those give peak flows are greatly influenced by channel
characterisitics and basin storage.

AREA

6 types off watershed according to area:


1.Micro watershed 0 - 10 ha
2.Small watershed 10 - 40 ha
3.Mini watershed 40 - 200 ha
4. Sub-watershed 200 – 400 ha
5. Macro watershed 400 – 1000 ha
6. River basin above 1000 ha
SHAPE
1. SQUARE
2. TRIANGULAR
3. RECTANGULAR
4. OVAL
5. FERN LEAF SHAPE
6. PALM SHAPE
7. POLYGON SHAPE
8. CIRCULAR
9. SECATOR SHAPE
COMPONENTS OF A WATERSHED

Upland areas – are areas where there is not usually standing water and would typically be
either forested or agricultural land.

Wetlands – is an area of land that is saturated with water for all or part of the year. A
wetland can be marsh,pound,or vogue.

Riparian zones/vegetation – the plants that grow along or near the riverbanks,lakes, and
wetlands.

Surfacewater (part we CAN see) - is just a water that collects on the surface of the earth.
This category is composed of rivers,lakes,streams,oceans and wetlands.

Groundwater (we CAN'T see) - all water under the surfce of the ground. It is stored in the
soil
and it can be found far under the ground in deep aquifers or very near the ground surface.
Why watersheds are
important?
FUNCTIONS OF A WATERSHED

The main function of a watershed is to receive the incoming precipitation


and then disposed it off. The production of a continuous water supply that
would maintain the lifeforms within it and in the area fed by its stream.

OTHER FUNCTIONS:
-Rivers and streams nourish and connect ecosystems throughout the watershed
-Wetlands and lakes help to store and filter water, and provide habitat for fish and wildlife.
-Upland forests and meadows provide wildlife habitat, nutrients for aquatic ecosystems, and
encourage infiltration
of rainwater into the ground.
-The various components of watersheds provide people with oppurtunities for
recreation,tourism,education and aesthetic appreciation
-watersheds supply as with clean water for drinking and irrigation, from sources such as
reservoirs and groundwater.
-watersheds provide habitat for fish,birds,mammals, as well as insects and other invertibrates.
WATERSHEDS IN
THE PHILIPPINES
BUAYA RIVER
Ilocos Sur
LA MESA WATERSHED
Metro Manila
MOUNT APO
Davao
PANTABANGAN DAM
Pampanga
ANGAT DAM
Bulacan
DELINEATION OF A DRAINAGE AREA
WATERSHED DELINEATION is the process of identifying the drainage area of
a point or set of points.

For many years, Civil Engineers


have been using USGS paper
maps for watershed delineation.
Watershed Delineation and Drainage Area
Measurement

Watersheds or drainage basins are comprised of a network of stream


channels that link from smaller to larger, providing conduits for surface
water run-off and sediment transport on the earth surface.

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP – a map characterized by large scale detail and


quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines.
STEPS IN DELINEATING A DRAINAGE AREA

Step 1: Use a topographic maps to locate


the river, lake, stream, wetland, or other water
bodies of interest.

Step 2: Trace the watercourse from its source to its


mouth including the tributaries. This step determines
the general beginning and ending boundaries.
STEP 3: Examine the brown lines in the
topographic map that are near the watercourse.
This referred to as contour lines.

STEP 4:Contour lines spaced far apart indicate


that the landscape is more level and gently
sloping .
STEP 5:Check the slope of the landscape by
locating two adjacent contour lines and
determine their respective elevations. The slope
is calculated as the change in elevation, along a
straight line, divided by the distance between
the endpoints of that line.

STEP 6: Determine the direction of drainage in the area of


the waterbody by drawing arrows perpendicular to a series of
contour lines that decrease in elevation. Stormwater runoff
seeks the path of least resistance as it travels downslope. The
“path” is the shortest distance between contours, hence a
perpendicular route.
STEP 7: Mark the break points surrounding the waterbody. The “break points” are the highest
elevations where half of the runoff would drain towards one body of water, and the other half would
drain towards another body of water (Figure D-8).

STEP 8: IDENTIFY BREAK POINTS


Connect the break points with a line following the highest elevations in the area. The completed line
represents the boundary of the watershed

STEP 9: Once you’ve outlined the


watershed boundaries on your map,
imagine a drop of rain falling on the
surface of the map. Imagine the water
flowing down the slopes as it crosses
contour lines at right angles. Follow its
path to the nearest stream that flows to
the water body you are studying. Imagine
this water drop starting at different
points on the watershed boundaries to
verify that the boundaries are correct.
STEP 10: Distribute copies of your watershed map to your group.

STEP 11: Watersheds sometimes have what are termed subwatersheds within them. Rivers, large
streams, lake, and wetland watershed often have more than one subwatershed (usually smaller tributary
watersheds) within them. Generally, the larger the waterbody you are examining, the more
subwatersheds you will find. Your watershed map can be further divided into smaller sections or
subwatersheds if it helps organize your study better.

STEP 12: Once the watershed and subwatershed (optional) boundaries have been delineated on the map,
your team can verify them in the field, if necessary.
SUB-BASING / PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
A WATERSHED
size (area)
- size of a watershed determines the quantity of rainfall received, retained, and disposed
off (run off). The larger the watershed, the larger be the channel and storage of water in
basin.

Sub-components:

1. Stream areas
2. Inter-basin areas

Shape
Watersheds differ in their shape based on morphometric parameters. Its either
square,rectangle,triangle ,oval etc..
Topography
Slope, length, degree and and uniformity of slope affect both disposal of water and soil loss.
Drinage: topogrphy regulates drainage. Drainage density,,length,width,depth of main and
subsudiary channel, main outlet and its size depend on photogrphy.

Geological rock and soil


Geoogical formation and rock types affect extent of water erosion, erodibility of channels and hill
faces, sediment production

Climate
1. Rain provides incoming precipitation along with its various characteristic like intensity, frequency
and amount of rainfall.

2.Parameters like rainfall, temperatcive, humidity, wind velocity, etc. regulates factors like soil and
vegetation.

Vegetation
Depending upon the type of vegetation and its extent, this factor regulates the functioning of
watershed.
Land use

Type of land use, its extent and management are the key factors which affect watershed
behavior. Judicious land use by users [human beings] is of vital importance to watershed
management and functioning.
THANK YOU!