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PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

HISTORY IN MUMBAI
Submitted by :- SAKSHAM DIXIT (2018H1300061H)
&
KSHITIJA VIJAY GHOGARE(2018H1300056H)
ABOUT MUMBAI

• Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay) is the capital city of the Indian


state of Maharashtra.

• It is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper


population of 12.4 million as of 2011.

• Along with the neighbouring regions of the Mumbai Metropolitan


Region, it is the second most populous metropolitan city in India, with
a population of 21.3 million as of 2016.

• Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has
a deep natural harbour

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HISTORY OF MUMBAI

• The city of Bombay originally consisted of seven islands, namely


Colaba, Mazagaon, Old Womans Island, Wadala, Mahim, Parel, and
Matunga-Sion.

• This group of islands, which have since been joined together by a series
of reclamations, formed part of the kingdom of Ashoka, the famous
Emperor of India
• 1534 - Bombay islands were captured by the Portuguese.
• 1661 - The islands were gifted in the dowry to Charles II of England
• 1668 - Charles II gave the islands to the East Indian Company on lease.
• 1708 - Bombay became the H.Q. of the East India Company.
• 1862 - The islands were merged to shape one stretch.

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• 1869 - Suez Canal was opened and
Bombay developed as an international port.

• 1947 - Bombay was declared the capital of


Bombay state.

• 1960 - Bombay was made the capital of


Maharashtra.

• 1995 - The name was changed to Mumbai


after the goddess Mumbadevi.

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MUMBAI LAND USE PATTERN

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TYPES OF PUBLIC
TRANSPORT IN MUMBAI
ROAD
bus, taxi, rickshaw

RAIL
Mumbai suburban railway, metro,
Monorails, tamps .

FERRY (water transport in mumbai)

AIR

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MAJOR DEVELOPMENT BY
GOVERNMENT
1)Mumbai metro project-:
Phase I (2006–2016)
• Versova - Andheri – Ghatkopar - 11.07 km (Construction started by Simplex
Infrastractures Ltd.
• Dahisar (E) - Charkop - Bandra - Mankhurd - 39.2 km

Phase II (2012–2017)
• Colaba - Bandra - Airport - 30 km
• Carnac Bunder-Wadala-Ghatkopar-Mulund-Teen Haath Naka - 40 km Phase
III ( 2016–2021)• Airport - Kanjur Marg - 9.5 km
• Andheri(E) - Dahisar(E) - 18 km

Phase III ( 2016–2021)


• Airport - Kanjur Marg - 9.5 km
• Andheri(E) - Dahisar(E) - 18 km

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2) Monorail:-
• Phase 1
• Chembur to Jacob Circle (Ghadge Maharaj Chowk via Mahul)
.• Thane- Mira Bhayandar-Dahisar- 24.25 km
.• Lokhandwala Complex to Kanjurmarg via SEEPZ - 13.14 km
• Mulund – Borivili - 30 km.
• Virar to Chikhaldongr - 4.60 km.
• Phase 2
• Kalyan to Dombivli via Ulhasnagar - 26.40 km.
• Chembur to KoperKhairane via Ghatkopar- 16.72 km
• Kalyan to Mahape - 21.10 km

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3)Bandra – Worli Sealink:-
• Additional connectivity from city to
suburbs.

• Reduces travel time from 1 hour+ to only


7 minutes.

• Around 1,25,000 vehicles travels through


bandra – worli sealink

• Avoids 29 traffic lights

• Save Rs 100 crore a year in vehicle


operating costs
IMPACT OF MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS
Impact on Population

Mumbai's urban population is estimated to be over 22 million,and the


densely populated city is the largest in India in terms of population,
trade activity and business. The metropolitan area has experienced
an explosion in growth over the past 20 years, a common occurrence
with metropolitan areas in India. The rapid population growth is
attributed to migration from other regions in the country, with migrants
seeking business and employment opportunities. The population of
Mumbai has more than doubled since 1991, when the census
showed that there were 9.9 million people living in the area.

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CITY SIZE
•The total surface area that the city of Mumbai covers comes to 603
kilometers squared (233 square miles) in the megacity itself. The major
metropolitan area has a total surface area of 4,355 kilometers squared
(1,681.5 square miles).

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VEHICULAR TRAFFIC

• The share of public transit (both buses and trains) is as high as 88% in Mumbai
• Per capita motor vehicle ownership in Mumbai is significantly lower
compared to Delhi, precisely because of a high degree of public transit
(specifically, urban rail transit) provision, despite a comparable per capita
income.
• In 2005-06, BEST’s fleet of 3,400 buses carried approximately 4.1 million
passengers per day over 354 separate routes.5 BEST buses run every 5 to 30
minutes
• The Mumbai locals carry almost 4 times the number of passengers as their
design capacity.

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HISTORY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT
IN MUMBAI

• 1853-The Mumbai Suburban Railway is an offshoot of the first passenger railway to be


built by the British in India, and is also the oldest railway system in Asia. The first train
ran between Bori Bunder (now Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus) and Thane, a
distance of 34 km, on 16 April 1853 at 15:35. The 14-coach train took 1.25 h to complete
the 34 km journey, with a halt at Sion to refill the train's water tanks.

• 1865 - The idea of a mass public transport system for Bombay was first put forward in
1865 by an American company, which applied for a licence to operate a horse-
drawn tramway system.

• 1873 - The Brihanmumbai Electricity Supply and Transport (BEST) Undertaking is the
civic transport and electricity provider public body based in Mumbai. It was originally set
up in 1873 as a tramway company called "Bombay Tramway Company Limited".
BEST operates one of India's largest fleets of buses. The bus transport service covers
the entire city and also extends its operations outside city limits into neighbouring urban
areas. In addition to buses, it also operates a ferry service in the northern reaches of the
city.

• 1874 - On 9 May 1874, the first horse-drawn tram made its début in the city, plying on
the ColabaPydhone via CrawfordMarket,and BoriBunder to Pydhonie via Kalbadevi route
s. The initial fare was three annas (15 paise) , and no tickets were issued. As the service
became increasingly popular, the fare was reduced to two annas (10 paise).

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• 1905- In 1905, "Bombay Electric Supply & Tramway Company Limited" (B.E.S.T.)
was formed. The B.E.S.T. Company was granted the monopoly for electric supply
and the running of an electric tram service in the city. It bought the assets of the
Bombay Tramway Company for Rs.9,850,000.
• 1907- the first electric tram debuted in the city.
• 1911- Taxis arrived in 1911 to complement horse cars. Black and yellow Fiat taxis
are an integral part of the city's heritage and have been depicted in
numerous Bollywood movies.
• 2004- In January 2004, a master transit plan was unveiled by the Mumbai
Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). The plan integrated a 146
kilometer-long metro system, of which 32 km would be underground.
• 2014-The Mumbai Metro ridership started from 8 June 2014.
• 2014-The Mumbai Monorail is a monorail system for the city of Mumbai.
Construction began in January 2009 and the first operational line was inaugurated
on 1 February 2014. It is being contracted by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region
Development Authority and is the first monorail in India.

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FERRY TRANSPORT

Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercrafts and catamarans.


Proposals to start more water services were initially mooted in the 1990s but
were held up due to legal issues.Services are provided by both government
agencies as well as private partners.

1981- The Brihanmumbai Electricity Supply and Transport Undertaking (BEST),


started a ferry operations between Manori and Marve Beach in 1981, but it
was soon taken over by private providers.

2011- In 2011, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development


Authority (MMRDA), proposed to run roll on roll off (RORO) services
from Ferry Wharf to Mandwa.

2017- The Maharashtra Maritime Board granted permission to a private


operator to begin regular ferry services from Mora jetty in Uran to Elephanta
(Gharapuri) from 15 April 2017.

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AIR TRANSPORT

The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the
main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of
passenger traffic. It handled 30.74 million passengers and 656,369 tonnes of cargo
during FY 2011–12.Its passenger traffic was about 49.8 million in year 2018.
The new integrated terminal T2 was inaugurated on 10 January 2014 and opened for
international operations on 12 February 2014, increasing the capacity of the airport to
40 million passengers annually.

1930- RAF airfield (Royal Air Force) Santacruz ,was an airfield in Bombay which saw
extensive use in World War II was home to several RAF squadrons during World War
II from 1942 to 1947.

1946 -By 1946, when the RAF began the process of handing over the airfield to the
Director General of Civil Aviation for Civil operation two old abandoned hangars of the
Royal Air Force had been converted into a terminal for passenger traffic.

1950- Traffic at the airport increased after Karachi was partitioned to Pakistan and as
many as 40 daily domestic and foreign services operated by 1949, prompting the
Indian Government to develop the airport, equipping the airport with a night landing
system comprising a Radio range and a modernized flare path lighting system.

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