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Fluid Mechanics

Fluid :- Fluid is substance witch has ability to flow from

one pt. to another pt.
Since Liq. & gases are fluids.

Mechanics:- Mechanics is the branch of physics

concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when
subjected to forces or displacement & the subsequent effect
of the bodies on their environment.
Fluid Mechanics:- Fluid Mechanics is the
branch of science of which deals with the
behavior of the fluid at rest as well as in
Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Fluid Fluid

Statics Kinematics Dynamics
Chap - I
(A)Fluid Properties & (B) Fluid Statics
(A)Fluid Properties:-
1. Density or Mass Density (ρ) rho :-

(ρ) = Mass of Fluid

Volume of Fluid
• Specific Weight or Weight Density (W) :-

Weight of fluid
Volume of Fluid

Mass of fluid x Accel. Due to Gravity

Volume of Fluid
W= ρ x g
W for water = 1000 X 9.81 N/m3
• Specific Volume (V):-

Volume of Fluid
Mass of fluid
• Specific Gravity (S):-

Weight density of fluid / gas

Weight density of water / Air

Weight density = Sx Weight density

of fluid / gas of water / Air
Specific Gravity (S)
Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the weight
density (or density) of a fluid to the weight density (or
density) of a standard fluid.
Pressure (P)
Pressure is the force per unit area, where the
force is perpendicular to the area.

F pa= 105 Nm-2
A m2 1psi =6895Pa
Viscosity is defined as the property of a fluid which
offers resistance to the movement of one layer of
fluid over another adjacent layer of the fluid.


The viscosity units:

Kinematic Viscosity (ϑ) :-
It is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity
and density of fluid. It is denoted by the Greek symbol
(ϑ) called 'nu'. Thus, mathematically:

• H .W.
• Newton's low of Viscosity :-
• Types of Fluid:-
• Thermodynamic Properties:-
Compressibility & Bulk Modulus :-
Compressibility:- It is the reciprocal of the bulk
modulus of elasticity. C= 1/ K
Bulk Modulus (K):- Defined as the ratio of
compressive stress to volumetric strain.
Relationship between Bulk Modulus (K) &
Pressure (P) for a gas.
1. For Isothermal Process :-
PV = Constant .

2. For Adiabatic Pressure :-

K = Pk
K is the ratio of specific heat of gas at constant
pressure & const. volume is 1.4 for air
Surface Tension
• Surface Tension (σ)- The tensile force acting on the
surface of a liq. In contact with a gas or on the surface
between tow immiscible liq. Such that the contact
surface behaves like a membrane under tension.
Units is N/m.
Consider a small Spherical droplet of liq.
Surface tension on a hallow Bubble
• A hallow bubble like a soap bubble in air has
two surface in contact with air one inside &
other outside
Hence two forces are equal & apposite under
equilibrium condition.
Surface tension on Liq. Jet
• Capillarity:- The phenomena of rise or fall of a
liq. Surface in a small tube relative to the
adjacent general level when the tube is held
vertically in the liq.
• Vapour Pressure & Cavitations
Chap – I B] Fluid Statics
Definitions and Applications
• Statics: no relative motion between adjacent
fluid layers.
– Shear stress is zero
– Only _______
pressure can be acting on fluid surfaces
• Gravity force acts on the fluid (____
body force)

• Applications:
– Pressure variation within a reservoir
– Forces on submerged surfaces
– Tensile stress on pipe walls
– Buoyant forces
Pascal's law
• It state that the pressure or
intensity of pressure at a
point in a static fluid is equal
in all direction.
Hydrostatic Law of Pressure
• The pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is
obtained by the hydrostatic law witch state that
the rate of increase of pressure in a vertically
downward direction must be equal to the
specific weight of the fluid at that point.
• Increase of pressure = Specific weight (w)
• Hydrostatic force on surface
• Total Pressure
• Center of Pressure
• Buoyancy
• Meta Center
• Condition of equilibrium of a floating &
submerged bodies