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Camless

Engine
RAHUL.R
S5 MECHANICAL
ROLLNO:34
REGNO:16020541
Contents
 Introduction>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>1
 Cams>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>2
 Conventional valve train>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>3
 Disadvantages of valve train>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>6
 Introduction to camless engine >>>>>>>>>>>>>>7
 Overview of camless engine>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>8
 Types of camless systems>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>12
 Advantages>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>18
 Disadvantages>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>19
 Current applications>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>20
 Conclusion>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>21
Introduction 1

 CAMS
 Control the breathing channels (valves) of
an IC engine

 Connected to camshaft which is operated


by crankshaft

 Cams push open valves at proper time &


guide their closure
What Is Cam??? 2
 Cam is a rotating machine element which gives
reciprocating motion to the follower.

 The motion of the follower is pre-determined and


accordingly the Cam is designed.

 The cams are normally placed on a fixed camshaft


which is then geared to the crankshaft.
Working Of Conventional Four 3
Stroke IC Engine

 Has four strokes.

 Movement of inlet and exhaust


valves with the help of Cam.
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Conventional Valve train 4

 The valvetrain consists of


valves, rocker arms,
pushrods, lifters, and
camshafts.
 It involves many moving
parts.

CAMSHAFT
5

 Rocker arm is a
reciprocating lever that
conveys radial movement
from the cam lobe into
linear movement at the
poppet valve to open it.

 It provides a reasonable
balance of strength, ROCKER ARM
weight and economical
cost.
Disadvantages Of Conventional 6
Valvetrain
I. Increased frictional losses
II. Cam profile is fixed
III. Noise
CAM LESS ENGINE 7

 In a cam less engine ,electromechanical


actuators (a set of electromagnets) , placed
directly on the valve , replace the camshaft .
 This technology makes it possible “ to
optimise the circulation of gases in the
engines , both for intake & exhaust .
 It gives the valves great flexibility in opening
& closing , improve fuel consumption , clean
exhaust technology & performance .
Overview Of Camless Engine 8

SENSORS ELECTRONIC ACTUATORS


CONTROL
UNIT

Mainly Five Sensors are present,which senses;


I. Speed of the engine.
II. Load on the engine.
III. Exhaust gas Sensor.
IV. Valve position Sensor.
V. Current Sensor.
Microprocessors are present in ECU to issue
signals and control the Actuators.
9
Sensors

A sensor is coverter that


measures a physical quantity
and converts it into signal
which can be read by an
observer or by an instrument
ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT 10

 The modern engines are controlled by


computers which are called ECU
 The ECU is located inside the vehicles is
recieves signal from the circuit and control
the brake pressure at the road wheels
according to the data analysed by the unit
Actuators 11

 It is a electro-hydraulic camless valve train


(ECV)

 Uses elastic property of compressed


hydraulic fluid which acts like a liquid spring,
accelerates & decelerates the valves
Types Of Camless Mechanisms 12

I. Electromechanical Poppet Valves.

II. Electromechanical Ball Valves.

III. Electrohydraulic Poppet Valves.


Electromechanical Poppet Valves 13
 Early systems magnetic
attraction/repulsion was
used on an iron or
ferromagnetic armature

 Varying Air Gaps which


lead to high energy
losses and High Seating
Velocities which made
varying of the lift
difficult.
14
 It is replaced with a current-carrying armature
coil.
 A magnetic field is generated by a magnetic
field generator and is directed across the fixed
air gap.
 The force generated on the armature coil
drives the armature coil linearly in the air gap
in a direction parallel with the valve stem.
 Depending on the direction of the current
supplied to the armature coil, the valve will be
driven toward an open or closed position.
Electromechanical Ball Valves 15

 It consists of a ball
through which there is
a passage.

 If the ball is rotated


such that the passage
lines up with other
openings in the valve
assembly, gas can pass
through it.
16

Electro-hydraulic Poppet Valves

 A source of pressurized hydraulic fluid and


a hydraulic actuator coupled to the poppet
valve is used.

 The use of engine oil as the hydraulic fluid


simplifies and lowers the cost of the
design.
17

 Electro-hydraulic Poppet Valves


18

 Increases engine performance.


 Decreases fuel consumption
 Decreases harmful emissions
 Valeo estimates that the efficiency of a camless engine
would be 20% greater than a comparable camshaft-
operated engine
 ECV system can control valve velocity, valve acceleration
and deceleration
 Better fuel economy- 7 to 10 % increase
 Higher torque & power- 10 to 15 % increase
 Reduction in size & weight
Disadvantages 19

 Relatively high Power consumption Noise


and vibration
 Opening & closing of valves requires some
power-
Electromechanical- alternator
Electrohydraulic- accumulator
 Current solenoids cannot run at high rpms;
 Hidden cost of microprocessor & software
controls
 Sophisticated electronic control required for
gentle seating of valves
Current Applications Of Camless 20

Engines
 Camless valve trains using solenoids or magnetic
systems are being investigated by BMW and Fiat.
 They are being prototyped by Valeo and Ricardo.
 Used in the new Fiat 500.
CONCLUSION 21

Even though some advantages are present,we


can expect electro-hydrauclic and electro-
mechanical valves to replace the conventional
camshaft technology.
Thank You

Questions?