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Part I:

Introduction to Research

Research Methods

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Introduction to Research:

“ …Research is a high-hat word that scares a lot of


people. It needn’t. It is rather simple. Essentially, it is
nothing but a state of mind—a friendly, welcoming
attitude towards change. Going out to look for change,
instead of waiting for it to come. Research for practical
men is an effort to do things better and not to be caught
asleep at a switch. The research state of mind can apply
to anything. Personal affairs or any kind of business, big
or little. It is the problem-solving mind as contrasted with
the let-well-enough-alone mind. It is the “composer”
mind, instead of the “fiddler” mind. It is the “tomorrow”
mind, instead of the “yesterday” mind.

C. F. Kettering
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Research: Its Nature, Types and
Role in Development

Research extends our vision and


experiences. It helps us understand
how and why a situation exists. It
enables us to discover new things
and ideas, validate existing theories
and generate new ones. It provides
us with accurate and reliable
information which we can use as
bases for making decisions.

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Learning Objectives
After this lesson, the student should be able to:
1. Define research and explain its role and
functions
2. Explain and illustrate the value of research in
knowledge-development and decision-making
3. Describe and compare the different types and
methods of research and give examples for
each, and
4. Describe and explain the research process

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What is Research?

• Research is defined as a careful,


systematic study in a field of knowledge,
undertaken to discover or establish facts
or principles.
• It is also a systematic process of collecting
and analyzing data to find an answer to a
question or a solution to a problem, or to
validate or test an existing theory.

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The Value of Research
Educators need to know what teaching
approaches and materials can be used to help
learners learn better. Health providers need
data to develop programs and better delivery of
services and interventions that will improve the
health condition of individuals. Managers,
entrepreneurs, policy makers, counselors,
professionals, most everybody, need information
to make decisions or to perform their functions
more effectively. Research can help them meet
this need.
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Functions of Research
• It helps us answer questions, solve
problems and make decisions.
• It enables us to see and understand how
and why a situation or a problem exists.
• It helps us discover new things and ideas.
• It allows us to validate existing theories or
generate new ones
• It helps us identify and understand the
causes and effects of a situation or a
phenomenon. Powerpoint Templates Page 7
The Role of Research in Improving
the Quality of Life
Through research, new knowledge or technology is
discovered. New knowledge can result in the
development or improvement of skills, behavior or
practices, while newly discovered or developed
technology can lead to the development of new
tools or devices. Improved skills, behavior or
practices can lead to better conditions and better
quality of life. Moreover, new or improved tools or
strategies can result in improved performance
and/or better service delivery, which contribute to
the improvement of man’s living conditions and
quality of life. Powerpoint Templates
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• Reseach Flow
NEW SKILLS,
NEW PRACTICES,
KNOWLEDGE BEHAVIORS

IMPROVED
RESEARCH CONDITION/
WELFARE

NEW NEW TOOLS/


TECHNOLOGY DEVICES/
APPROACHES

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Uses of Research
• Determine / Describe an existing situation
(situation analysis),
• Describe a population (people, objects,
institutions),
• Compare two conditions or groups of population,
• Determine existence, degree or nature of
relationship between two or more factors,
• Evaluate and/or compare effectiveness of an
intervention, treatment or exposure, and
• Predict the value of a certain characteristic.
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The Role of Research in Knowledge
Development

Development projects/programs are


designed to improve the welfare of man.
There are continuous development
projects in education, health, housing,
employment, business, agriculture, etc.
The development process involves
planning, implementation, monitoring and
evaluation. In each stage of knowledge
development, research plays an
important Powerpoint
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The Role of Research in Knowledge
Development
• Research is needed in describing and
analyzing existing social or economic problems
or conditions.
• Research data are important inputs to planning
and in designing a program, project or activity
intended to address an existing problem.
• Data on the background and needs of target
clients of a proposed program/project are
needed in the preparation of the intervention.

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The Role of Research in Knowledge
Development
• Program managers or project implementers
should continue collecting, analyzing and using
relevant data to determine if, or to make sure
that, a project/program is being implemented as
planned.
• Project implementation should be closely
monitored to check progress and quality of
implementation. Monitoring requires accurate
information about the status of project
implementation, including rate of completion,
financial standing, and quality of
performancePowerpoint
(inputs Templates
and outputs). Page 13
The Role of Research in Knowledge
Development

• Upon completion of a project, its


performance or impact needs to be
evaluated. For instance, the effect of a
new teaching strategy may be evaluated in
terms of its effectiveness in improving
students’ performance. A training
intervention can be evaluated in terms of
the skills learned and applied by the
training participants.
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3 General Types of Research

1) Descriptive Research
2) Explanatory or Correlation Research
3) Intervention or Experimental
Research

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Descriptive Research

• Finds answers to the questions Who,


What, When, Where and How.
• Describes a situation or given state of
affairs in terms of specified aspects or
factors.
• What may be described are characteristics
of individuals or groups, physical
environments or conditions.

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Samples of Descriptive Research
topics...
• “The Management Style of School
Principals in the National Capital Region.”
• “Tardiness and Absenteeism Among High
School Students”
• “Medicinal Components of Five Kinds of
Philippine Backyard Plants”
• “A Typical Office Day of a Government
Employee: A Time Allocation Study”
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Explanatory or Correlation Research

• Answers the questions Why and How?


• Goes beyond description of the problem or
situation.
• Attempts to explain the possible factors
related to a problem which have been
observed in a descriptive study.
• These factors need not be viewed as real
“causes” of the problem but are
associated with or may contribute to its
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occurrence. Page 18
•The explanatory type of study is also called
Correlation Research.
•It investigates relationships between factors
or variables.
•Certain factors are “assumed” to explain or
contribute to the existence of a problem or
a certain condition or the variation in a
given situation.
•The researcher usually uses a theory or a
hypothesis to account for or explain the
forces that are “assumed to have
caused” the problem.
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Relationships between the following pairs of
variables can be studied
1. Employees’ knowledge 1. Work performance
about the Local
Government Code
2. Gender 2. Grades in STEM
subjects
3. Family history of HPN 3. Compliance with
medical regimen
4. Source of business 4. Financial performance
capital of business firms
5. Educational attainment 5. Payment habits of
members of
cooperatives
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In Correlation Research…

• In studying the relationship between these


two sets of variables, the researcher will
use a theory or a hypothesis to account for
or explain the forces that have a causal
effect on the problem.

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Examples of research topics within the
explanatory or correlation category
• “Factors Associated with Extent of Involvement in Local
Governance Among Barangay Officials in Quezon City”
• “Relationship Between Socioeconomic Factors and
Grades in STEM Subjects Among High School Students
in the National Capital Region”
• “Awareness of a Family History of Hypertension and
Compliance with Diet, Exercise and Medical Regimen
among Hypertensive Patients”
• “Marketing Strategies and Sales Performance of
Garment Industries in the Province of Cebu”
• “Employment and Income As Determinants of Loan
Repayment Status of Borrowers of Credit Cooperatives
in Batangas City” Powerpoint Templates Page 22
Intervention or Experimental Research
• Evaluates the effect or outcome of a
particular intervention or treatment. It
studies the “cause and effect” relationship
between certain factors on a certain
phenomenon under controlled conditions.
The subjects of the study are randomly
assigned to the experimental group and to
the control group and both groups are
exposed to similar conditions except for
the intervention/treatment.
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*For example, one can assess or compare the effect or
outcome of two or more methods of teaching math on the
mathematical ability of students – “The Effect of Contextual
Teaching and Learning (CTL) Approach on the Performance
in Mathematics of Junior High School Students of NCBA
Fairview.”

*Two or more health management practices on the recovery


of patients – “The Effect of Verbal Suggestion on Overt Pain
Reaction of Selected Migraine Patients in the Neurology
Ward of the FEU NRMF Hospital.”

*Or two or more management styles on employees’


productivity – “The Effect of In-House Training on Human
Relations on the Productivity and Efficiency of Office
Employees in Private Banks in Zamboanga City.”
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Other Dichotomies of Research

• There are other classifications of


research. Research may also be
classified as either:
• pure or applied,
• exploratory or explanatory, and
• quantitative or qualitative

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1. Pure/Basic vs Applied Research
Attempts to describe an existing situation
and/or explain certain patterns of behavior
using either or both qualitative and
quantitative research techniques.
The goal of Pure Research is to offer better
descriptions and better explanation of human
behavior.
The intention is to accumulate knowledge
about a certain phenomenon.
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Applied Research
• While the primary aim of pure research is the
formulation or the refinement of theory, Applied
Research aims to see an immediate solution to a
problem.
• This type of research focuses on variables or factors
which can be changed by intervention in order to
achieve a desired goal, like improvement of health,
school achievement, or increase in revenue.
• An experimental study comparing the effectiveness of
two methods of improving health practices of mothers
or two management styles of bank managers can yield
results that recommend a better practice or style.
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Examples of Pure/Basic Research Topics:

“Factors Associated With Tardiness and Absenteeism Among


High School Students”

“Attitudes Towards Health and Smoking Habits of Health Service


Providers”

Examples of Applied Research Topics:

“The Effect of Gender Sensitivity Training on Men’s Involvement


in Child Care”

“Remedial Teaching: Its Effect on the Performance of Slow


Learners”
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2. Exploratory vs Explanatory Research
• Exploratory Research – designed to describe an
existing problem situation and examine the
underlying factors that contribute to the emergence
of the problem, the nature of which is not yet known.

• Explanatory Research – its primary goal is to


understand or explain a prevailing situation or
explain a relationship between factors which may
have already been identified in exploratory studies
and why the relationship exists. Explanatory studies
seek more specific answers to “Why” and “How”
questions.
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2. Exploratory vs Explanatory Research

Exploratory Research Explanatory Research


• “Domestic Violence: • “Relationship Between
Ideas, Experiences and Alcohol Intake and
Needs of Married Domestic Violence
Working Men in the City Among Married Men in
of Baguio” the Municipality of Dulag,
• “Menopause: Working Leyte”
Women’s Perceptions, • “Extent of Exposure to
Experiences and Coping Advertising Materials and
Strategies” Expenditure Patterns of
Young Professionals in
Cebu City”
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3. Quantitative vs Qualitative Research
• Quantitative Research – seeks to quantify
or reflect in numbers the observations on the
characteristics of the population being
studied.
• It measures the number of respondents or
objects possessing a particular
characteristic.
• It emphasizes precise measurement and
often times requires statistical analysis of
data or the testing of hypotheses based on a
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sample of observations. Page 31
3. Quantitative vs Qualitative Research
• Qualitative Research – emphasizes verbal
descriptions and explanations of human
behavior and practices in an attempt to
understand how the units or members of the
study population experience or explain their
own world.
• To gather information, the researcher makes
use of one or a combination of the following
techniques: participant observation, key
informant interview, focus group discussion,
direct observation and in-depth analysis of a
single case. Powerpoint Templates
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3. Quantitative vs Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research Qualitative Research
• “The Socioeconomic • “Experiences and Needs
Profile of Households in of Victims of Child Abuse
Upland Communities in Among Elementary
the Province of Antique” School Pupils in Iloilo
• “Health Seeking Behavior Province”
and Health Status of • “Menopause: Women’s
Retire School Teachers in Perceptions and
Leyte” Experiences”
• “Underground Economy:
A Survival Strategy of
Public School
Employees”
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Research Methods
1. Experimental Method
2. Survey Method
3. Historical Method
4. Content Analysis

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Experimental Method
• Yields the most conclusive research
findings.
• Used to determine the effectiveness of a
treatment or an intervention or the “cause
and effect” relationship of certain
phenomena under controlled condition.
• The subjects of the study are randomly
assigned to the experimental group and to
the control groups and both groups are
exposed to similar conditions except for the
intervention/treatment.
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Experimental Method
For example, a teacher who has been using the
traditional approach in teaching algebra wants to
test the effectiveness of the cooperative learning
approach in improving performance. An
experiment can be conducted to compare the
cooperative learning approach and traditional
approach.
Or an agriculturist who wants to determine what level
of nitrogen should be applied to maximize yield of
rice can conduct an experiment to determine the
effect of different levels of applied nitrogen on the
growth and yield of rice.
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Survey Method
• Obtains data to determine specific
characteristics of a group.
• The purpose of the survey is to get a general
picture of the characteristics of a study
population at a particular time.
• The use of the survey approach is
appropriate for most descriptive and
correlation studies.

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Survey Method
For example, the Department of Trade and
Industry (DTI) of Region VI has available
funds for a technical assistance project for
cut-flower growers in Region VI. Before the
project can be implemented there is a need
to determine first the production and
marketing practices of cut-flower growers in
the region. A survey can be conducted to
determine these practices.

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Historical Method
• Used to determine the growth and
development of a group, organization or
institution.
• The description is based on information
about some past aspects of the group,
organization or institution.
• Most of the data used in this method are
collected from secondary sources, such as
records, documents, written materials,
accounts, etc.
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For instance, in a study of the
history and development of
cooperatives in the Philippines,
the historical method would be the
most appropriate.

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Content Analysis
• Used when the intention of the researcher
is to ascertain the quality of message or
information found in a document or in
mass media.
• Also used to test the level of readability of
certain books, e.g. Textbooks for
elementary pupils, before they are printed
for distribution.
• Also used in determining authenticity of
documents and in literary research, e.g.
literary analysis and critique.
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Content Analysis
For instance, the Department of Health (DOH) would
like to know whether a brochure it plans to use to
disseminate information about breast cancer can be
understood by its target readers. Before mass
production and distributing the brochure, a content
analysis of the material can be done. Sample
copies can be distributed to selected individuals
resembling the potential target readers of the
reading materials. After asking them to read the
materials, they can be given a test to determine
their understanding of the content of the brochure.

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Research as a Scientific Method
• Science is defined as a systematic body of
knowledge (Webster, 2006).
• Research, as a scientific method, involves
a systematic way of gaining knowledge or
the process of testing ideas (hunches,
perceptions, guesses or hypotheses) to
see if an idea holds true in a given
situation or under controlled conditions.

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As a scientific method, Research
involves the following major steps:
• Identification of a problem,
• Formulation of hypotheses,
• Data collection,
• Data analysis,
• Drawing of conclusions, and
• Reporting results.

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The Research Process
• Regardless of type or method, all research
studies are conducted using more or less the
same process.
• Each step in the process may have or require
one or more components or activities.
• Some studies, especially explanatory or
correlation studies usually require theoretical
and/or conceptual frameworks.
• The research activities are outlined and
explained in a research plan, as follows.
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Latest Paradigm in Research

• Research is no longer just a scientific


process, it is also an artistic activity.
• The researcher’s artistic innovation can be
seen in the way tables and graphs are
presented, in the inclusion of pictures and
illustrations, in the accuracy and level of
language used, in the summary points and
recommendations voiced.

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Latest Paradigm in Research

• Even in how the researcher chooses the


particular related literature and studies to
include in the research.
• And of course in the development of the
study’s conceptual and theoretical
frameworks.

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And just like a symphony, science
and art combine in the truly
splendid research work that is the
product of an inquisitive mind that
does not limit itself to answers to
the questions Who, What, Where,
When and How. But rather
questions on...and on...and on...
End of Lesson 1
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Key Terms to Remember

• Research • Applied Research


• Descriptive Research • Experimental
• Correlation Research Methods
• Intervention Research • Survey Method
• Scientific Process • Historical Method
• Quantitative • Pure Research
Research
• Qualitative Research

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Next week’s topic –

Part II: The Research Process

Lesson 2: Problem Identification


and Definition

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