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# Lecture 10 Flip-

Flops/Latches

## • Sequential switching network

– Output depends on present input
and past sequence of inputs.
– Need to remember past history.
– Flip-flop (latch) is a memory that
has a pair of complementary
outputs.

Chap 11 CH1
Gate Delay
• Propagation delay
• Timing diagram

Chap 11 CH2
Network with Feedback
• Inverter with feedback.
– Propagation delay (d = ½ period of CK)
– Oscillate between 1 and 0.

• Stable state

Chap 11 CH3
S-R Latch
• Set-reset latch
– Use NOR gate to construct a stable
state network

Chap 11 CH4
S-R Latch (cont.)
• When S=R=1, the S-R latch will not
operate properly. (Is it a stable state,
if S=R=1?)
– Q an P are not complementary.
– If S=R=1 changed to S=R=0, then the
network will oscillate assuming both
gates have the same delay. (Critical race
occurs)

Chap 11 CH5
S-R Latch Timing and
State
• S duration > delay time

## • S-R latch behavior

– Present state
• The state of Q output at the time the input
signals are applied.
– Next state
• The state of Q output after the latch has reacted
to the input signals.

Chap 11 CH6
S R latch Analysis
• Total state table
• If next state = present state, stable
0
y1(t)
y0(t) 1
0
y1(t) 1 y0(t)
0
1

Chap 11 CH7
K-map for Q(t+)
• Q+ = S + R’Q (SR=0)
– S and R can not be 1 at the same time.
– Q: present state
– Q+: next state
– Next state equation or characteristic
equation.

Chap 11 CH8
Debouncing Circuit
• Use S-R latch for debouncing.
• Pull-down resistors
• a switch to b.
S= 1 set Q
S = 0, (R=0)
Q remained

R = 1 set Q = 0

Chap 11 CH9
S-R Latch using NAND
gates
• S#-R# Latch, when S#= 0 sets Q = 1
and R#=0 resets Q = 0
S# R# Q Q+
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1
0 0 0 -
0 0 1 -

Chap 11 C H 10
Gated D Latch

• Gate input G
– Transparent latch (when G= 1, Q = D)

G D Q Q+
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
Chap 11 1 1 1 1 C H 11
Edge-Triggered D Flip-
Flop
• Output changes in response to clock
edge

Chap 11 C H 12
D Flip-Flop
• Using two gated D latches
• Output changes occur at the rising
edge
– CK = H, output follows input.
– CK = L, output remains

## P follows Q follows P follows Q follows

D PChap 11 D PC H 13
D Flip-Flop

edge

## ∆t = D1 latch’s propagation delay

This is the setup time for this FF.
Chap 11 C H 14
Setup and Hold Time

• Edge-Triggered D FF
– Propagation delay of a FF is the time
btw the active edge of the clock and
resulting change in the output

Chap 11 C H 15
Minimum Clock Period
• tp
– inverter = 2 ns,
– FF = 5ns
• Setup time 3 ns

Chap 11 C H 16
Master-Slave S-R Flip-Flop
• FF has a clock input.
• Change state after rising edge
• This figure shows a case that (S, R) are
changed at CLK = H (A,B), then at
CLK=L for C.
– What if (S,R) becomes (1,0) nears t5? (OK)
• Asserted Input (S-R) has effect on output
Q only at the time of Master on.

CLK’
P Q

Input
H H H changed
B C at CLK
A low to
(0,0) has
no effect
(1,0)
to P due to
S-R latch
feature.
Chap 11 S on C H 17
M on S on M on S on M on
Explaining at CLK =
H clock is correct.
Toggle FF
• T flip-flop
– Single input
– When T = 1, at clock edge, T FF
changes state. If T = 0, no state changes.
T Q Q+
0 0 0 Q+ = T’Q + TQ’ = T xor Q
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0

Chap 11 C H 18
T FF
• T flip-flop
– Converted from D to T
– Q+ = D = Q xor T= TQ’ + T’Q

T Q Q+
0 0 0 Q+ = T’Q + TQ’ = T xor Q
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0

Chap 11 C H 19
J-K Flip Flop
• J-K FF = S-R FF + T FF.
– Allow J = K = 1. This case works like a
T FF. J K Q Q + = JQ’ + K’Q
– Split T to J and K 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0

Chap 11 C H 20
J-K Flip Flop

## • J-K FF rising J K Q Q + = JQ’ + K’Q

0 0 0 0
edge trigger
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0

Chap 11 C H 21
Master-Slave J-K Flip-
Flop
• Clocked J-K FF (falling edge)
– Realization using two S-R latches
– Note where J and K change.

Chap 11 C H 22
T Flip-Flop
Implementation
• Conversion
– Using a J-K FF
– Using a D FF

Chap 11 C H 23
D FF Register

## • Register = many clocked D FFs

• Q+ = D

Chap 11 C H 24
Clear and Presets
• Active low inputs
• Asynchronous clear and preset

Chap 11 preset C H 25
Clock Enable
• D-CE flip-flop
• Hold existing data even input changes.
• Q+ = Q.CE’ + D.CE
• In Fig. c, Q+ = D = Q.CE’ + Din.CE
– No gating in clock line, no synchronization
problem.

## CLK Move effective falling edge ahead

(falling edge time is changed)
En

Risk of loss
of synchronization Chap 11 C H 26
Clocked Latches
Clocked latch:
The state changed whenever the
inputs change and the clock is
asserted.
A D latch with NOR gates and
clock (level trigger)

Chap 11 C H 27
Unclocked Latch

• SR latch
– State may change if input changes.

Chap 11 C H 28
S R latch Analysis
• Total state table
• Next internal state
y0(t) y1(t)

y1(t)
y0(t)

Chap 11 C H 29
D Flip Flop

## • Master latch with a slave latch

– State changes only at clock edge.
– Falling edge.

Chap 11 C H 30
Timing Requirement

## • Falling edge trigger

– Set up time
– Hold time
• Hold time requirement is either 0
or very small.

Chap 11 C H 31
Clock Period Requirement
• Clock period requirement
– t_propagation + t_combinational
+ t_setup + t_skew
– t_propagation is the time for FF
inputs to FF outputs.
– t_skew is the time difference
when two state elements see a
clock edge.

Chap 11 C H 32
Asynchronous inputs
• Why makes it a synchronous
input?
– Used to change state of a system
– If not synchronized, the signals
may violate the setup time or hold
time of a receiving device.
• Metastable behavior
– State in the middle of 1 and 0.

Chap 11 C H 33
A Gated D Latch
Whenever D or Clk changes, Q changes .
Clk
Not a real register!!
Clk A Verilog register
needed because of
assignment in
always block

input D, Clk;
output reg Q;

if (Clk)
Q = D;

endmodule

## Q = D if Clk = 1. The Verilog compiler assumes that

the value of Q caused by the if must be
maintained when Clk is not equal to 1.
This implies that a memory, a latch is instantiated.

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A D Flip-Flop

input D, Clk;
output reg Q;

## always @(posedge Clk)

Q = D;

endmodule

posedge negedge

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Blocking assignment: evaluation and
assignment are immediate

Blocking assignment:

always @ (a or b or c)
begin
x = a | b; 1. evaluate a | b, and assign result to x
y = a ^ b ^ c; 2. evaluate a ^ b^c, and assign result to y
end

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Non-Blocking assignment

## Nonblocking assignment: all assignments deferred until all right-

hand sides have been evaluated (end of simulation timestep)
always @ (a or b or c)
begin
x <= a | b; 1. evaluate a | b, but defer assignment of x
y <= a ^ b ^ c; 2. evaluate a ^ b^c, but defer assignment of y
end 3. assign x, y with their new values
• Non-blocking assignment is 2-step processes:
• Step 1: Evaluate the RHS
• Step 2: Update the LHS
• Sometimes, as above, blocking and non-blocking produce the same
result.
• Sometimes, not!

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Why two ways of assigning values?

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Verilog Simulation Behavior

## • Always blocks and “assign” statements execute in parallel

• Signals in the sensitivity list (@(..)) trigger the always blocks.
• “assign” triggered when RHS signal changes.

## • All non-blocking assignment statements in an always block are

evaluated using the values that the variables have when the always
block is entered.
• That is, a given variable has the same value for all statements in the block.
• The result of each non-blocking assignment is not seen until the end of the
always block.

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Blocking Assignment

## // blocking assignment here, so at rising clock

edge,
Q1=D, after that, Q2 = Q1, so Q2=Q1=D
module two-FFs (D, Clock, Q1, Q2);
input D, Clock;
This implies a circuit below:
output reg Q1, Q2;

## always @(posedge Clock)

begin D D Q Q1
Q1 = D;
Q2 = Q1;
end Clock Q
endmodule

D Q Q2

Q1及 Q2 Q

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Non-Blocking Assignment

## // at the rising clock edge,

Q1 and Q2 simultaneously receive the old values of D, and Q1.

## module two-FFs (D, Clock, Q1, Q2);

input D, Clock;
output reg Q1, Q2;
Q1 Q2
D D Q D Q
always @(posedge Clock)
begin
Clock Q Q
Q1 <= D;
Q2 <= Q1;
end
// at the end of always block, Q1 and Q2
change to a new value concurrently.
endmodule

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D-FF with Asynchronous Reset (Clear)

## module flipflop (D, Clock, ClrN, Q);

input D, Clock, ClrN;
output reg Q;

## always @(negedge ClrN, posedge Clock)

if (!ClrN) // if clear, then,
Q <= 0;
else // normal update
Q <= D;

endmodule
What about both? PreN and ClrN

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D-FF with Synchronous Reset

## module flipflop (D, Clock, ClrN, Q);

input D, Clock, ClrN;
output reg Q;

## always @(posedge Clock)

if (!ClrN) // if clear, then,
Q <= 0;
else // normal update
Q <= D;

endmodule

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