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201612500186 - Rian Purnamasari

201612500 - Annisa Ardila

201612500 - Rusherwanto
201512500092 - Akbaruddin Fadhilah
Types of errors
Among the most frequent sources of errors Brown counts
1. Interlingual transfer,
2. Intralingual transfer,
Context of learning,
4. Various communication strategies the learners use
Interlingual errors
 Interference, language transfer, and cross-
linguistic interference are also known as interlingual
 Corder (1981) states that these kinds of errors occur when the
learner's habits (patterns, systems, or rules) interfere or
prevent him or her, to some extent, from acquiring the
patterns and rules of the second language.
 Brown (1980: 160), most of the learners‟ errors in the second
language result primarily from the learner‟s assumption that
the second language forms are similar to the native language.
According to Allen and Corder (
Kinds of
Interlingual errors
1. Transfer Error : error caused by interference from
mother tongue. A student who has not known the
rules of target language will use the same rules as
he obtained in his native language.
2. Mother tongue Interference: errors are produced
in the learners attempt to discover the structure of
the target language rather than transferring
models of their first language.
3. Literal Translation:errors happen because a
student translates his first language sentence or
idiomatic expression in to the target language
word by word.
Error in Phonological level
Phonologically speaking, there are certain features
specific to any individual language. Such features may
not be found in another language, or even if they exist in
another language, they may take new characteristics
which again make them distinctive features in that
particular language . The sounds that do not occur in Bhs
Indonesia cause the students to mispronounce them.
They attempt to pronounce them.
 Examples :
- Van /væn/ = Mobil van (mobil gerbong)
- Fan /fæn/ = Kipas angin
- Sea/si:/ = Laut
- She /ʃi:/ = Dia (pr)
Morphology level
In morphology level , student’s error is about
they who don’t understand to use morphology in
English . For example , we will use one topic is about
affixation (prefix, suffix) . That errors can be
happened it’s cause our mother tongue (Indonesia)
doesn’t have this rule. For singular we can write one
word,for example buku and for plural we just need
to repeat the word twice buku-buku . Almost for
Indonesian language use this role, and no others
roles more. Examples :
- Many book-book (X) = Many books (OK)
- One trouser (X) = One trousers (OK)
- Five boxs (X) = Five boxes (OK)
Grammatically level
In this kind of error , it’s cause many students don’t
understand with English . Grammar of english has many
rules that must be applied especially in writing . Whereas
in our mother tongue , the rules are not as difficult as
English . The student who do this kind of error , often use
the grammar of their mother tongue to English and it’ll
make wrong perception because every language has
their culture themselves . For example we can take a
rule of English grammar in plural / singular.
Examples :
- Three student is coming to the library (X)= three students
are coming to the library (OK)
- Six mouse eats the cheese (X) = Six mice eat the cheese
Lexico-semantic level
Student often translate one by word without learn the
context or situation . In English one word has many meanings
. For example get the meaning it’s not just mendapatkan but
there are the others meaning more . We also must learn about
the context , whether that word is suitable to use or not
because in english there are idoms too . That error make
misunderstand if we talk with native speaker .
Examples :
- I am working 24 o’clock each week = I am working 24 hours
each week
- He gives the shock to his girlfriend = he gives surprise to his
- Piece of cake (sepotong kue) = piece of cake (something
easy to do)
Any Question?