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Work Design

and
Measurement
METHODS ANALYSIS
- analyzing how a job is done.

The need for methods analysis can come from a


number of different sources:
■ Changes in tools and equipment
■ Changes in product design or new products
■ Changes in materials or procedures
■ Government regulations or contractual agreements
■ Other factors (e.g. accidents, quality problems)

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1. Selecting an Operation to Study

Sometimes a foreman or supervisor will request that a


certain operation be studied. At other times, methods
analysis will be part of an overall program to increase
productivity and reduce costs.
2. Documenting the Current Method
Use charts, graphs, and verbal descriptions of the
way the job is now being performed. This will provide
a good understanding of the job and serve as a basis
of comparison against which revisions can be judged.
3. Analyzing the Job and Proposing New
Methods
It is facilitated by the use of various charts such as
FLOW PROCESS CHARTS and WORKER-
MACHINE CHARTS. Job analysis requires a careful
thought about the what, why, when, where, and who
of the job.
Flow Process Chart

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Flow Process
Chart

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Work Process
Chart

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Motion study is the systematic
study of the human motions used
to perform an operation. The
purpose is to eliminate
unnecessary motions and to
identify the best sequence of
motions for maximum efficiency.
Hence, motion study can be an
important avenue for productivity
improvements.
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Big concept
Frank Gilbreth originated the concepts in the bricklaying trade in the early
20th century. Gilbreth’s work laid the foundation for the development of
motion study principles, which are guidelines for designing motion-efficient
work procedures.
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Motion Study Principles – guidelines for
designing motion-efficient work
procedures

■ Principles for use of the body


■ Principles for arrangement of the workplace
■ Principles for the design of tools and
equipment

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The analyst tries to:

■ 1. Eliminate unnecessary motions.


■ 2. Combine activities.
■ 3. Reduce fatigue.
■ 4. Improve the arrangement of the
workplace.
■ 5. Improve the design of tools and
equipment.

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Therbligs are basic elemental motions. The approach is
to break jobs down into basic elements and base
improvements on an analysis of these basic elements by
eliminating, combining, or rearranging them.
Although a complete description of therbligs is outside the
scope of this text, a list of some common ones will
illustrate the nature of these basic elemental motions:
Search implies hunting for an item with the hands and/or
the eyes.
Select means to choose from a group of objects.
Grasp means to take hold of an object.
Hold refers to retention of an object after it has been
grasped.
Transport load means movement of an object after hold.
Release load means to deposit the object.
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Micromotion study – Use of motion pictures and
slow motion to study motions that otherwise would
be too rapid to analyze.

This approach is applied not only in industry but


also in many other areas of human endeavor, such
as sports and health care. Use of the camera and
slow-motion replay enables analysts to study
motions that would otherwise be too rapid to see.

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Work measurement –
concerned with determining the
length of time it should take to
complete the job. Job times are
vital inputs for capacity planning,
workforce planning, estimating
labor costs, scheduling,
budgeting, and designing
incentive systems.

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Standard time

The time it should take a fully trained and qualified


worker to complete a specific task, working at an
efficient, yet sustainable pace, using specific
methods, tools and equipment, raw materials, and
workplace arrangement.

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Stopwatch Time Study
- used to develop a time standard based on
observations of one worker taken over a number
of cycles. That is then applied to the work of all
others in the organization who perform the same
task. The basic steps in a time study are the
following:
- 1. Define the task to be studied, and inform the
worker who will be studied.
- 2. Determine the number of cycles to observe.
- 3. Time the job, and rate the worker’s
performance.
- 4. Compute the standard time.

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Use charts to explain your ideas

White Gray Black

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And tables to compare data

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