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I. Constellations

 Group of stars that

appear to form a
pattern in the sky.

 88 recognized by
Astronomy Union
What are Constellations?

 A group of stars
that form a pattern
in the sky.
Why do the Stars appear to move in the
night sky?
Earth’s Rotation!

Stars in the northern hemisphere appear to

rotate around Polaris (the north star)
• Polaris aligns with the axis of rotation for
the Earth: The North Pole
Polaris: The North Star
(The brightest star in the constellation
Ursa Minor)
• As the Earth
rotates on its axis
its “celestial” north
pole remains
directly in line with
• This forms the
circles seen in the
previous photograph
You see different constellations from each

Southern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere

• A myth is story handed down through history

concerning the early history of a people or
explaining some natural or social phenomenon,.
• Myths typically involve supernatural beings or
• Many of the names of the constellations came
from myths.
Now, for a tour of the seven
major constellations…

Cassiopeia Orion
Cygnus Ursa major
Scorpius Ursa minor
Some Common
Constellations that You
Might Know…
Cassiopeia – “ The Queen”
Cassiopeia – “The Queen”
• Brightest Star – Schedar
• Best season to view – all year
• The Myth:
Cassiopeia was the queen of Ethiopia. She
was so proud of her beauty and bragged
about it. She offended the sea god Poseidon.
He sent a sea monster to attack her kingdom
and teach her some humility.
According to the legend, the sea god
Poseidon placed the figure of Cassiopeia
among the stars to remind people of her
This is Cassiopeia!
Cygnus – “The Swan”
Cygnus – “The Swan”
• Brightest Star – Deneb
• Best season to view – all year

The Myth:

One day three hunters were hiking through the

forest when they came upon a clear lake. The lake
was home to many birds including a beautiful snow
goose. One hunter shot his bow and the snow
goose fell into the lake. As the sky darkened, the
spirit of the snow goose formed a constellation
in the sky.
Scorpius – “The Scorpion”
Orion – “The Hunter”
Orion – “The Hunter”
• Brightest Star – Rigel and Betelgeuse
• Best season to view – the winter

The Myth:
Orion was a very good hunter, but also boastful.
Gaia, the goddess of Earth, became fed up with
Orion’s boast so she sent a deadly scorpion to kill the
hunter. The scorpion ended Orion’s bragging. Both
Orion and Scorpius were placed in the sky but to
avoid any further battles, they are never in the sky
at the same time. Orion is seen in the winter and
Scorpius is seen in the summer.
This is Orion!
Ursa Major – “Big Bear”
Ursa Major – “Big Bear”
• Brightest Star – Dubhe and Merak
• Best season to view – all year

The Myth:
Zeus, king of the gods, fell in love with Callisto.
Together they had a son, Arcas. Zeus changed
Callisto into a bear to protect her from his jealous
wife, Hera. When Arcas grew up, he almost shot
his mother by mistake. Zeus protected Callisto by
changing Arcas into another bear (Ursa Minor-
Little Dipper) and placing both bears in the sky.
This is Ursa Major!
Ursa Minor – “Little Bear”
• Ursa Minor, aka, Little Bear, contains the
Little Dipper and the North Star, Polaris
Ursa Minor – “Little Bear”
• Brightest Star – Polaris
• Best season to view – all year

• Remember Zeus loved Callisto and changed her into a

bear to protect her from his jealous wife. Arcas
liked to hunt and almost killed his mother, Callisto,
Big Bear. Zeus decided to also change Arcas into a
bear to protect both his son and his lover. He placed
both bears in the sky together.
This is Ursa Minor!
Draco – “The Dragon”
Draco – “The Dragon”
• Draco the dragon fought Minerva
during the wars between the giants
and the gods. Minerva threw Draco's
twisted body into the heavens before
it had time to unwind itself.
This is Gemini!
This is Andromeda!
How Early People Used
 Before calendars, people had no way of
determining when to sow or harvest except
by looking at these patterns in the sky.
Ancient people developed a way to
remember the patterns by giving these
patterns names and stories.
 For example, in the northern hemisphere the
constellation Orion indicates the coming of
cold season.
 Another example is Gemini, Gemini is seen in
the Philippines during the months of April
and May. Farmers interpreted the appearance
of Gemini as the end of planting season and it
signified rich harvest.
Other Uses

 Navigation
-The Polaris is widely used in navigation
because it does not change its position at any
time of the night or year. This allows the
sailors to sail across the sea.
Stars and Constellations Used by
Matigsalug Manobo of BUkidnon
Local Name Month of Related Western Equivalent
Appearance Agricultural
Baha December to Clearing of forest Taurus
Pandarawa January Start of planning Pleiades
what kind of crops
to plant
Balatik February Start of planting Orion’s Belt
and setting of traps
to protect the crops
from animals
Malihe March Planting of rice,
corn or vegetables
Gibbang April and May End of planting Gemini
season; signifies rich
Stars and Constellations Used by
Matigsalug Manobo of BUkidnon
Local Name Month of Related Western
Appearance Agricultural Equivalent

Malara May Stop planting Canis Minor

Lepu Late May Time to clean or Aquila
clear the fields
while waiting for
harvest time

Buwaya June Start of the rainy

Group Activity

1. Make a group of 3 people.

2. Recreate your constellation that has been given
to your group using a poster board (covered with
plastic cellophane, and other colorful materials)
3. Read about your constellation and be prepared
to tell the class about it and show us your poster