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HUMAN FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE

SYSTEM
Female Reproductive System
A. Functions
1. Oogenesis
2. Copulation – receive
sperm from male
3. Hormone production
4. Provide sites for egg
fertilization,
implantation, and
development
5. Acts as birth canal
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
• EXTERNAL GENITALIA
(collectively referred to as vulva)
– Labia majora
– Labia minora
– Clitoris
– Mammary Glands (Accessory
Organ)
• INTERNAL GENITALIA
– ova producing organs
• Ovaries
– ducts/organs
• Uterine (fallopian) tubes
• Uterus
• Vagina
EXTERNAL GENITALIA
External Genitalia
• Collectively known as the VULVA
• Labia majora
– Rounded folds of adipose tissue covered with
skin
– Protects other external reproductive organs

• Labia minora
– Hairless folds of skin between labia majora
– Merge to form hood over clitoris
– Close to cover and protect vaginal and external
urethral openings
– Vestibule – space enclosed by labia minora
• Bartholin’s glands secrete mucus during sexual
arousal

FUNCTIONS:
– Protects internal organs against pathogens
– For sexual arousal
External Genitalia
• Clitoris
– Anterior to urethral meatus
– Contains female erectile
tissue
– Rich in sensory nerves
– Important in sexual arousal
• Similar in sensitivity & # of
nerve endings to head of
penis
• Perineum
– Between vagina and anus
– Area for episiotomy, if
needed, during birth process
• MONS PUBIS
– Rounded, fatty pad of
tissue
– Covered in pubic hair
after puberty begins
– Front of body, on top
of pubic bone
(protection)
Vestibule – region between
the labia minora
a) contains the vaginal
and urethral orifices
b) vestibular glands –
produce mucus to
facilitate copulation;
analogous to the
bulbourethral glands
in males
c) paraurethral glands –
produce mucus to
facilitate copulation;
analogous to the
prostate gland in
males
Vaginal Opening/Orifice
– Hymen (Virginal Membrane)
• Located just inside the vaginal
opening
• Thin mucous membrane stretching
across the opening
• No known function; not always
present
– Some females may be born w/o;
usually has several holes
– Allows passage of menstrual flow
• 1ST time w/intercourse – female
may experience pain & bleeding,
NOT ALWAYS true with all females!
• Tissue is very flexible & may stay
intact during intercourse!
– b/c it has openings, sperm released at
the vaginal opening can swim into
vagina and up to the ovum
» Can get pregnant & still have
hymen intact!
External Genitalia

mons pubis
Labium
Clitoris majus

Urethral Labium
orifice minus
Vaginal
Vaginal
orifice
vestibule
Fossa
Perineal navicularis
body
Anus
External Accessory Organs
• Mammary glands
– Secretion of milk
– Structures
• Nipple
– Oxytocin induces lactiferous
ducts to deliver milk
through openings
• Areola – pigmented area
around nipple
• Alveolar glands – within
mammary glands
– Make milk when stimulated
by prolactin
INTERNAL GENITALIA
•INTERNAL GENITALIA
•Ovaries
•Uterine (fallopian)
tubes
•Uterus
•Vagina
Female Internal Genitalia
OVARIES
Location:
-Situated on
both sides of the
uterus; end of
fallopian tubes
and on the pelvic
cavity.
Function: OVARIES
1.) Produces and
houses OOCYTE/
OVUM
- Most primary oocytes
undergo a process of
degeneration called
atresia. Only 2 million
remain at the time of
birth, and by puberty,
only 400,000 remain.
- Only one oocyte is
ovulated each 28-day
cycle.
Function: OVARIES
2.)produce
hormone
-estrogens,
progesterone,
inhibin, and a
small amount of
androgen.
Structure:
Ovaries are:
1) covered by 2 cell layers
a) germinal epithelium
– outer layer
Compose of cuboidal
cells
b) tunica albuginea
– inner layer
compose of fibrous CT
–Medulla
• Inner area; contains
nerves, lymphatic
vessels, and blood
vessels
–Cortex
• Outer area;
contains ovarian
follicles
-Interior is composed
of numerous sac-like
structures (ovarian
follicles)

a.) each contains an


oocyte (immature
egg cell) surrounded
by a single layer of
follicular cells
• Every 28 days the pituitary
hormones FSH and LH
stimulate the growth of one
follicle and maturation of the
oocyte within the follicle
called the ovarian cycle