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Comparison Between Operating Systems

MUHAMMAD HASHAAM JAVED 03 -134162-034


MUHAMMAD JAMAL TARIQ 03 -134162-040
Mostly used Operating Systems in General Audience

• ChromeOS
• Linux
• Windows
• MacOS
Percentage of Operating Systems Used on Desktop
PCs
Comparison
80.00%

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%
Windows - 75.47% MacOS - 12.33% Linux - 1.61% ChromeOS - 1.17% Others - 9.42%
ChromeOS
• Chrome OS is an operating system designed by Google.
• It is based on the Linux kernel and uses the Google Chrome web
browser as its principal user interface.
• Because of this, Chrome OS primarily supports web applications.
• Google announced this project in 2009.
• The first ChromeBook came out in 2011 using solely Chrome as an
operating system.
ChromeOS
• Chrome OS is only available pre-installed on hardware from Google
manufacturing partners.
• There are unofficial methods to install it on other devices.
• An open source equivalent, Chromium OS, can be compiled from
downloaded source code.
• Users have been skeptical about using a web browser as an
operating system.
• Files always on cloud.
Linux
• Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating
systems based on the Linux kernel.
• Linux is based on the GNU project.
• Popular Linux distributions include Debian, Fedora, and Ubuntu.
• Commercial distributions include Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE
Linux Enterprise Server.
• Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the
Intel x86 architecture.
Linux
• Since then the OS has been ported to more platforms than any
other operating system.
• Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron
systems such as mainframe computers.
• Since 2017 Linux has eliminated all its competitors from the TOP500
supercomputers.
• Due to Android installed phones Linux has the largest installed base
of all general purpose operating systems.
Versatility Of Linux
• Linux also runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating
system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the
system.
• These include
• Routers
• Automation controls
• Televisions
• Digital video recorders
• Video game consoles
• Smartwatches
Windows
• Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system
families.
• Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows
Embedded or Windows Server.
• Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile
and Windows Phone.
• Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows
on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for
MS-DOS.
Versions
• Windows 1.0
• Windows 2.0
• Windows 2.1x
• Windows 3.x
• Windows 9x
• Windows NT
• Windows XP
• Windows Vista
• Windows 7
• Windows 8 and 8.1
• Windows 10
Milestones
• Windows 95 was the first MS-DOS based GUI operating system.
• This became widely popular in a short period of time.
• The GUI attracted a huge amount of people and people were more
interested in buying PCs than ever.
• Windows 95 also provided plug and play hardware, preemptive
multitasking and long file names among a lot of other features.
Milestones
• After the Windows 9x family the next operating system that took people’s
attention was Windows XP.
• Windows XP belonged to the Windows NT family and was released on October
25, 2001.
• Windows XP would also introduce a redesigned user interface including an
updated Start menu and a "task-oriented" Windows Explorer.
• Windows XP was now marketed in two main editions.
• The "Home" edition was targeted towards consumers while the "Professional"
edition was targeted towards business environments and power users, and
included additional security and networking features.
• Home and Professional were later accompanied by the "Media Center" edition.
Windows 7-10
• Windows 7 has multi-touch support, a redesigned Windows shell
with an updated taskbar, a home networking system called
HomeGroup.
• Windows 8, including the introduction of a user interface based
around Microsoft's Metro design language.
• With this came integration with cloud services, Xbox live, OneDrive,
windows store and an updated start menu.
• In windows 10 features included new icons and right-click context
menus, default printer management, four times as many tiles
allowed in the Start menu, Find My Device, and Edge updates.
MacOS
• macOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and
marketed by Apple Inc.
• It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of
computers.
• Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by
web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after
Microsoft Windows.
Versions
• Mac OS X Public Beta • OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion
• Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah • OS X 10.9 Mavericks
• Mac OS X 10.1 Puma • OS X 10.10 Yosemite
• Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar • OS X 10.11 El Capitan
• Mac OS X 10.3 Panther • macOS 10.12 Sierra
• Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger • macOS 10.13 High Sierra
• Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard • macOS 10.14 Mojave
• Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard
• Mac OS X 10.7 Lion
macOS
• The system was based in part on Unix and mimics it's format with
the administrative controls.
• Mac OS X software requires a low level of maintenance with fewer
occurrences of computers worms, viruses and spyware.
• Is considered to be more secure than other operating systems.
• Mostly used by people for personal use.
• Minimal industrial use.
User and Operating System Interface
User and Operating System Interface
There are two types of User Interfaces discussed here.
• Command-Line Interface/Command Interpreters.
• GUI – Graphical User Interface.
Command Interpreters
• Some operating systems include the command interpreter in the
kernel.
• Others, such as Windows and UNIX, treat the command interpreter
as a special program that Is running when a job is initiated or when
a user first logs on.
• On systems with multiple command interpreters to choose from,
the interpreters are known as shells.
• The main function of the command interpreter is to get and execute
the next user-specified command.
Command Interpreters
• Many of the commands given at this level manipulate files
• Create
• Delete
• List
• Print
• Copy
• Execute, and so on.
Methods Used In Command Interpreters
• In one approach, the command interpreter itself contains the code
to execute the command.
• For example, a command to delete a file may cause the command
interpreter to jump to a section of its code that sets up the
parameters and makes the appropriate system call.
• In this case, the number of commands that can be given determines
the size of the command interpreter, since each command requires
its own implementing code.
Methods Used In Command Interpreters
• An alternative approach used by UNIX, among other operating
systems implements most commands through system programs. In
this case
• The command interpreter does not understand the command in
any way it merely uses the command to identify a file to be loaded
into memory and executed.
Shell Scripts
• if a frequent task requires a set of command-line steps.
• Those steps can be recorded into a file, and that file can be run just
like a program.
• The program is not compiled into executable code but rather is
interpreted by the command-line interface.
• These shell scripts are very common on systems that are command-
line oriented, such as UNIX and Linux.
Graphical User Interfaces
• In GUI, rather than entering commands directly via a command-line
interface, users employ a mouse-based window and-menu system
characterized by a desktop metaphor.
• The user moves the mouse to position its pointer on images, or
icons, on the screen.
• These icons represent programs, files, directories, and system
functions.
• Depending on the mouse pointer’s location, clicking a button on the
mouse can invoke a program, select a file or directory known as a
folder or pull down a menu that contains commands.
Graphical User Interfaces
• Smartphones and handheld tablet computers typically use a
touchscreen interface.
• Here, users interact by making gestures on the touchscreen for
example, pressing and swiping fingers across the screen.
Graphical User Interfaces
• The choice of whether to use a command-line or GUI interface is
mostly one of personal preference.
• System administrators who manage computers and power users
who have deep knowledge of a system frequently use the
command-line interface.
• For them, it is more efficient, giving them faster access to the
activities they need to perform.