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5.1 Gas

At the end of this lesson, students should be able

to;

arrangement of particle, density and

compressibility

b)Explain qualitatively the basic assumptions of the

kinetic molecular theory of gases for and ideal gas

2

States of Matter

A form of matter that has ____definite shape or volume

The particles are _____________ moving & bouncing off

each other

When gas is placed in a container, the particles spread out

to_________the container and take its shape.

The particles are _______ to move and flow, which means all

gases are fluids

Unlike solids & liquids, gases are very ___________.

Gases have much __________ densities than liquids

& solids.

Objects with lower densities float in fluids with higher

densities.

Property Gas

Definite Shape

Definite Volume

Compressible

Fluid

Particle Spacing

UNIT OF PRESSURE

Force

Pressure =

Area

= 760 torr

1 atm = 101,325 Pa

= 101.325 kPa 7

4 basic assumptions (postulate):

to the ___________ between the

particles

Assume that the volume of the

individual particles is negligible

2. The particles are always _______

and _______against the walls of

the container result in the pressure

exerted by the gas.

3. The particles do not exert any force on each

other; they neither __________ nor _______

each other.

particles is _______________ proportional to

the Kelvin temperature of the gas

11

5.1 Gas

to;

i) Boyle’s law

ii) Charles’s law

iii) Avogadro’s law

and Charles’s law

12

THE GAS LAWS

by four variables:

Pressure (P)

Boyle’s law

Volume (V)

Charles’s law

(number of moles) (n) 13

BOYLE’S LAWS

At constant temperature, the volume occupied

by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional

to the applied (external) pressure

P x V = constant

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

a) Boyle’s Law

following shape :

pressure is inversely

proportional to volume

V

P a 1/V P x V = constant

15

a) Boyle’s Law

Graph of pressure vs 1 has the

following shape : volume

P

pressure is directly

proportional to 1/volume

1

V

P a 1/V P x V = constant

16

a) Boyle’s Law

PV

PV = constant

P a 1/V P x V = constant

17

Example EXAMPLE – 1

at a pressure of 726 mmHg. Calculate the pressure of

the gas (in mmHg) if the volume is reduced to 154 ml

at constant temperature ?

P1V1 = P2V2

ANS:

4460 mmHg 18

Ans: EXAMPLE – 01

ANS:

4460 mmHg 19

EXAMPLE– 02

A cylinder contains a gas at 5.25 atm pressure.

When the gas allowed to expand to a final

volume of 12.5 L, the pressure drop to 1.85 atm.

What was the original volume of the gas?

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

5.25 atm x V1 = 1.85 atm x 12.5 L

V1 = 4.40 L

ANS:

4.40 L 20

CHARLES’S LAWS

by a _________of gas is ________proportional

to its absolute temperature

V = constant

T T in Kelvin (K)!

V1 V2

=

T1 T2 T (K) = t (0C) + 273.15

William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824-1907). Scottish mathematician and physicist.

21

Variation of gas volume with temperature

at constant pressure

= 0 K ( Kelvin)

= absolute zero

P1,…P4 are

various gases

22

Absolute zero (0 K or –273.15 oC) is the

temperature at which an ideal gas would have

zero volume

Absolute temperature has never been reached.

But physicists have attained temperature as

low as 10–9 K

23

b) Charles’s Law

V

VaT V

V = constant

T

0 T(K) -273.15

T(0C)

24

EXAMPLE – 03

A sample of carbon monoxide gas occupies

3.20 L at 125 oC. At what temperature will the

gas occupy a volume of 1.54 L if the pressure

remains constant?

V1 V2

T1 T2

ANS:

192 K 25

Ans: EXAMPLE – 03

ANS:

192 K 26

EXAMPLE – 04

What is the effect of the following on the volume

of 1 mol of an ideal gas?

a) The temperature decreased from 700 K to

350 K (at constant P).

b) The temperature is increased from 350oC

to 700oC (at constant P).

27

EXAMPLE – 05

An engineer pumps air at 0oC into a newly

designed piston–cylinder assembly. The volume

measures 6.83 cm3. At what temperature (in K)

would the volume be 9.75 cm3?

V1 = V2

T1 T2

6.83 = 9.75

273.15 T2

T2 = 389.92 K

ANS:

390 K 28

AVOGADRO’S LAWS

At constant pressure and temperature,

the volume of a gas is _______ proportional to

the number of moles of the gas present

V = constant

n

V1 V2

=

n1 n2

Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregua e di Cerreto (1776-1856).

Italian mathematical physicist. 29

EXAMPLE – 06

Ammonia burns in oxygen to form nitric oxide

(NO) and water vapor. How many liters of NO

are obtained from one liter of ammonia at the

same temperature and pressure?

V1 = V 2

n1 n2

ANS:1 L 30

Ans: EXAMPLE – 06

31

EXAMPLE – 07

Suppose we have a 12.2–L sample containing

0.50 mol of O2 gas at a pressure of 1 atm and

a temperature of 25oC.

If all of this O2 is converted to ozone (O3) at the

same temperature and pressure, what will the

volume of the ozone? V =V

1 2

3O2(g) 2O3(g) n1 n2

ANS: 8.1 L

32

Ans: EXAMPLE – 07

From the equation:

3O2(g) 2O3(g)

3 mol of O2 produce 2 mol of O3

So, 0.50 mol of O2 produce 0.50 x 2

3

= 0.333 mol O3

V1 = 12.2 L V2 = ?

n1 = 0.50 mol n2 = 0.333 mol

By using the Avogadro’s law:

V1 V2

V2 = P , T fixed

12.2 L n1 n2

=

0.50 mol 0.333 mol

33

V2 = 8.1 L

Example EXAMPLE – 08

from

the reaction of 6.50 g of zinc with an excess of

dilute sulphuric acid at STP ?

ANS: 2.24 L 34

Solution

Ans: EXAMPLE – 08

6.50 g

6.5 g

n Zn =

65 g mol-1 = 0.10 mol

From stoichiometric equation :

1 mol Zn 1 mol H2

0.10 mol Zn = 0.10 mol H2

0.10 mol of H2 = 22.4 dm3 x 0.10

= 2.24 dm3 35

36

5.1 Gas

be able to;

37

EXAMPLE – 09

A sample of nitrogen has a volume of 880 mL

and a pressure of 740 torr. What pressure

will change the volume to 870 mL at the same

temperature?

ANS:

749 torr 38

Ans: EXAMPLE – 09

ANS:

749 torr 39

EXAMPLE – 10

Anesthetic gas is normally given to a patient

when the room temperature is 20.0oC and the

patient’s body temperature is 37oC.

What would this temperature change do

to 1.60 L of gas if the pressure and mass

stay constant.

ANS:

1.69 L 40

Ans: EXAMPLE – 10

ANS:

1.69 L 41

EXAMPLE – 12

A sample of a gas has a pressure of 850 torr

at 285oC. To what oC temperature must

the gas be heated to double its pressure if

there is no change in the volume of the gas?

ANS:

843.15 oC 42

Ans: EXAMPLE –12

ANS:

843.15 oC 43

EXERCISE – 01

A 1–L steel tank is fitted with a safety valve that

opens if the internal pressure exceeds

1.00 x 103 torr. It is filled with helium at 23oC and

0.991 atm and placed in boiling water at exactly

100oC. Will the safety valve open?

ANS:

P2 = 949 torr

The valve will not open 44

EXERCISE – 02

What is the effect of the following on the volume

of 1 mol of an ideal gas?

a) The pressure is tripled (at constant T).

b) The absolute temperature is increased by

a factor of 2.5 (at constant P).

c) Two more moles of the gas are added

(at constant P and T).

Using Boyle’s law:

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 n , T constant

An ideal gas,

ANS: P1 = 1 atm P2 = 3

a) Volume is reduced to 1/3 its original value V1 = 1L V2 = ? 45

b) Volume is increased by a factor of 2.5

c) Volume is increased by a factor of 4

COMBINED GAS LAW

Law gives the combined Gas Law

VaT ( n fixed )

P

PV = constant

T

P1V1 P2V2

=

T1 T2

46

EXAMPLE – 13

A sample of argon is trapped in a gas bulb

at a pressure of 760 torr when the volume is

100 mL and the temperature is 35oC.

What must it temperature be (in oC) if its

pressure becomes 720 torr and its volume

200 mL?

ANS:

311oC 47

Ans: EXAMPLE – 13

ANS:

311oC 48

EXAMPLE – 14

a change so that its final volume and temperature

become 1.7 L and 42oC. What is its final pressure?

Assume the number of moles remains unchanged.

ANS:

2.6 atm 49

Ans: EXAMPLE – 14

ANS:

2.6 atm 50

EXERCISE – 03

A small bubble rises from the bottom of a lake,

where the temperature and pressure are 8oC and

6.4 atm, to the water’s surface, where the

temperature is 25oC and pressure is 1.0 atm.

Calculate the final volume (in mL) of the bubble

if its initial volume was 2.1 mL.

ANS:

14 mL 51

More Exercise ….

pressure of 380 torr. What volume will it occupy at a

pressure of 4.00 atm at the same temperature?

(ans:2.50L)

compressed to 0.700L at a constant temperature.

Calculate the final temperature of the gas?

(ans:1.43atm)

52

More Excercise ….

870C to 270C at a constant pressure 1 atm. What is its

final volume?. (ans:16.7L)

what temperature will its volume be double under

constant pressure? (ans:602K)

53

Conclusion Complete the table below :

law Law

Definition For a fixed amount of gas at For a fixed amount of At constant P and T,

a constant T, gas volume is gas at a constant P, the the volume of a gas

inversely proportional to gas gas volume is directly is directly

pressure proportional to the proportional to the

temperature (in Kelvin) number of moles of

the gas present

Formula V1 = V2 V1 = V 2

P1V1 = P2V2 T1 = T2 n1 = n2

Graph a) P vs V a) V vs T(K)

b) P vs 1/V b) V vs T(0C)

c) PV vs P

54

55

5.1 Gas

able to;

laws

g. Perform calculations using ideal gas equation

56

IDEAL GAS

pressure–volume–temperature relationship

can be accounted for by the ideal gas equation

most simple gas such as N2, O2, H2,

and noble gas show nearly ideal

behavior at ordinary temperature and

pressure

IDEAL GAS EQUATION

V a 1 V a T V a n

P

Combination of those 3 laws :

8.314 J K-1 mol-1 @

0.0821 L atm K-1 mol-1

58

REMINDER

Ideal gas

obey the ideal gas equation

CHECK the unit when calculate : P, V, R

and T,

59

Units for pressure, volume, universal

gas constant and temperature

P V R T

1 J = 1 Nm-2

60

From ideal gas equation, we can write:

At 273 K (0oC) – at STP 1 mole gas occupied 22.4 L

PV

R

nT

1 atm x 22.414 L

1 mol x 273.15 K

= 0.082057 L atm

K mol

= 0.082057 L atm K-1 mol-1

61

EXERCISE – 4

In one lab, the gas collecting apparatus used

a gas bulb with a volume of 250 mL.

How many grams of Na2CO3(s) would needed

to prepare enough CO2(g) to fill this bulb to

a pressure of 738 torr at a temperature of 23oC?

Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

ANS:

1.06 g Na2CO3 62

Ans:

Ans:EXAMPLE – 12

EXERCISE –4

Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

mass = ? v= 250 mL

= 0.25 L

P = 738 torr

T = 23oC

By using the ideal gas equation: FIND mole CO2???

PV = nRT

n = RT

PV

ANS:

1.06 g Na CO

SOLVING GAS LAW PROBLEMS

Variables: P , V , n , T

a change in another; while the two or one

remaining variables are constant

64

EXAMPLE:

P1 V1 P2 V2

= Use Boyle’s Law

n1 T1 n2 T2

P1 V1 P2 V2

= Use Avogadro’s Law

n1 T1 n2 T2

P1 V1 P2 V2

= Use Combined Gas Law

n1 T1 n2 T2

65

One variable is unknown, but the

three are known and no change occurs

PV = nRT

66

EXAMPLE – 16

1.00 atm when 5.60 g of glucose are used up in

the reaction:

C6H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)

ANS:

4.76 L

67

Ans: EXAMPLE – 16

68

Ans: EXAMPLE – 16

ANS:

4.76 L 69

ACTIVITY – 01

gas variables P, V and T expressed in their

units. R has a different numerical value when

different units are used:

R = 0.08206 L atm mol–1K–1

= 8.314 m3 Pa mol–1K–1 ( 8.314 J mol–1K–1 )

= 62.36 L torr mol–1K–1

Show the calculation how to get the values above.

Note:

1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101325 Pa

1 L = 10–3 m3 70

Ans: ACTIVITY – 01

a)

At STP,

P = 1 atm V = 22.414 L n = 1 mol T = 273.15 K (0 oC)

PV = nRT

71

Ans: ACTIVITY – 01

b) At STP,

P = 1 atm = 101325 Pa

V = 22.414 L = 22.414 x 10–3 m3

n = 1 mol T = 273.15 K (0 oC)

PV = nRT

72

Ans: ACTIVITY – 01

b) At STP,

P = 1 atm = 760 torr

V = 22.414 L n = 1 mol T = 273.15 K (0 oC)

73

74

5.1 Gas

be able to;

gas using ideal gas equation

i. define

i. Partial pressure

ii. Dalton’s law

75

FURTHER APPLICATION

OF IDEAL GAS EQUATION

Densities, ρ Presure of gas, P

Molar mass of gas Temperature,T

76

Density AND Molar Mass OF

GASEOUS SUBSTANCE

PV = nRT

n P Where n = m

=

V RT M

m = P

MV RT

or

M : Molar mass of the gas (Unit: g/mol)

ρ : Density of gas 77

EXAMPLE – 17

An organic chemist isolates from a petroleum

sample a colorless liquid with properties of

cyclohexane (C6H12). He obtains the following

data to determine its molar mass (M):

Mass sample gas(m) = 0.582 g

T = 100.0oC P = 754 torr

the liquid being cyclohexane?

78

Ans: EXAMPLE – 17

V = 0.213 L m = 0.582 g

T = 100.0oC P = 754 torr

= 373 K = _________ atm

PV = nRT

79

Example EXAMPLE – 18

A chemist has synthesized a greenish-yellow

compound of chlorine and oxygen and finds that

its density is 7.71 g L-1 at 36°C and 2.88 atm.

Calculate the molar mass of the compound.

80

Solution

Ans: EXAMPLE – 18

RT

Molar mass

P

(7.71 g L-1) (0.0821 L atm K-1 mol-1) (309K)

(2.88 atm)

81

EXERCISE – 19

A series of measurements are made in order to

determine the molar mass of an unknown gas.

First, a large flask is evacuated and found to

weigh 134.567 g. It is then filled with the gas

to a pressure of 735 torr at 31oC and reweighed;

its mass now 137.456 g. Finally, the flask is filled

with water at 31oC and found to weigh 1067.9 g.

(The density of water at this temperature is

0.997 g/mL).

Calculate the molar mass of the unknown gas.

ANS:

79.7 g.mol

82

DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE

pressure is the sum of the partial pressures

of the individual gases

Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ……..

EXAMPLE:

2

PARTIAL PRESSURES

in the gas mixture

PA PB PTotal

Gas A & B 84

Consider a case in which two gases, A and B,

are in a container of volume V

Gas A Gas B

Volume of

container = V

n ART

pressure exerted by gas A = PA =

V

V

In the mixture of gases A and B :

total pressure= partial pressure A + partial pressure B

PT = PA + PB

n ART nBRT

=

V V

n TRT

PT = where nA + nB = nT

V

where XA = mole fraction of gas A in

PA = XA PT the mixture

X A= n A

nT 86

EXAMPLE – 20

A gaseous mixture made from 6.00 g O2 and

9.00 g CH4 is placed in a 15.0–L vessel at 0oC;

ii) what is the total pressure in the vessel?

PCH4 = 0.841 atm

PTotal = 1.122 atm 87

Ans: EXAMPLE – 21

Oxygen gas (O2): mass = 6.0 g

6.00 g

Mole of O2 = = 0.188 mol O2

32.00 g/mol

PO2 = nO2 RT

V

88

aEXAMPLE

Ans: – 22– 21

EXAMPLE 2.1

9.00 g

Mole of CH4 = = 0.563 mol CH4

16.01 g/mol

By using the ideal gas equation: PV = nRT

Partial pressure of methane, PCH4 V = nCH4 RT

P CH4 = nCH4 RT

V

=

89

EXAMPLE

Ans: – 22– 21

EXAMPLE 2.1

PTotal = PO + PCH

2 4

90

EXERCISE – 5

What is the total pressure exerted by a mixture

of 2.00 g of H2 and 8.00 g of N2 at 273 K in

a 10.0–L vessel.

ANS:

2.86 atm 91

EXAMPLE– –2322

EXAMPLE 2.1

(Ne), 0.74 mol of argon (Ar), and 2.15 mol of

Xenon (Xe). Calculate the partial pressures of

each gas if the total pressure is 2.000 atm at a

certain temperature.

ANS:

PNe = 1.214 atm

PXe = 0.584 atm 92

EXAMPLE

Ans: – 23– 22

EXAMPLE 2.1

Given, mole Ne: 4.46 mole , Find PAr , Pxe , Pne ????

Ar : 0.76 mole PT = 2.0 atm

Xe : 2.15 mole = PAr + Pxe + Pne

nNe

XNe =

nNe + nAr + nXe

PNe = XNePT

93

EXAMPLE

Ans: – 23– 22

EXAMPLE 2.1

nAr

XAr = =

nNe + nAr + nXe

PAr = XArPT

nXe

XXe = =

nNe + nAr + nXe

PXe = XXePT

94

EXAMPLE

Ans: – 23– 22

EXAMPLE 2.1

95

EXERCISE – 6

From the data gathered by Voyager 1, scientists

have estimated the composition of the atmosphere

of Titan, Saturn’s largest moon.

The total pressure on the surface of

Titan is 1220 torr. The atmosphere consists

82.0 mol percent N2, 12.0 mol percent Ar, and

6.0 mol percent CH4. Calculate the partial

pressure of each of these gases in Titan’s

atmosphere.

ANS:

1.0 x 103 torr N2

1.5 x 102 torr Ar

73 torr CH4 96

EXAMPLE– –2423

EXAMPLE 2.1

1.98 g of H2, and 8.15 g of NH3. If the total

pressure of the mixture is 1.56 atm, what is

the partial pressure of each component?

ANS:

P N2 = 0.37 atm

P H2 = 0.80 atm

PNH3 = 0.39 atm 97

EXAMPLE

Ans: – 24– 23

EXAMPLE 2.1

n N2

Mole fraction of N2 = X N2 =

n N2 + n H2 + n NH3

P N2 = X N2PT

99

EXAMPLE

Ans: – 24– 23

EXAMPLE 2.1

n H2

Mole fraction of H2 = X H2 =

n N2 + n H2 + n NH3

P H2 = X H2PT

10

0

EXAMPLE

Ans: – 24– 23

EXAMPLE 2.1

n NH3

Mole fraction of NH3 = X NH3 =

n N2 + n H2 + nNH3

PNH3= XNH3PT

10

1

EXERCISE – 7

A mixture of noble gases consisting of 5.50g

of He, 15.0 g of Ne, and 35.0 g of Kr is placed

in a piston-cylinder assembly at STP.

Calculate the partial pressure of each gas.

10

Ans: PHe = 0.543 atm , PNe = 0.294 atm , PKr = 0.165 atm 2

COLLECTING A GAS OVER WATER

EXAMPLE:

Assumption:

The gas does not react with

water and it is not soluble in it

Ptotal = PO + PH O

2 2

Water vapour

PH O : pressure of water vapor pressure is different

2

with temperature.

( at 25oC = 23.76 mmHg )

EXAMPLE:

gas and water vapor

Example of Dalton’s Law in laboratory practice is when a

gas is collected over water

Ptotal = Pgas + PH O

2

particular gas but also from the water

vapour

EXAMPLE – 24

Consider the reaction below:

2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)

over water at a pressure of 735.5 torr and at a

temperature of 25oC. How many grams of

oxygen have been collected?

At 25oC, the vapor pressure of water

= 23.8 torr

ANS:

6.69 g O2

Ans: EXAMPLE – 24

PT = PO2 + PH2O

PO

2

= PT – PH O

2

= 735.5 torr – 23.8 torr

= 711.7 torr convert to atm = 711.7 torr x 1 atm

760 torr

= 0.936 atm

By using the ideal gas equation:

PO V

nO = 2

2

RT

0.936 atm x 5.45 L

Mole of O2 = = 0.209 mol O2

0.0821 L atmmol-1K-1 x 298 K

EXERCISE – 8

Automobile air bags respond to a collision of a preset

strength by electrically triggering the explosive

decomposition of sodium azide (NaN3)to its elements.

2NaN3(s) 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)

In an industrial lab simulation, 135 mL of N2 gas

was collected over water at 25oC and 755 torr.

How many grams of sodium azide decomposed?

2

Ans:

0.23 g NaN3

Excercise EXERCISE – 9

20.0L tank at 270C if the pressure gauge reads

900 torr? (ans:2.40mole)

3.69g of the gas occupy 1.53L at 293K and 1

atm? (ans:58gmol-1)

(ans:1.25gL-1)

10

9

Conclusion Ideal Gas Equation

PV = nRT

We can rearranged the Ideal Gas

Equation to several equation

V = nRT PV = nRT

= PM

P RT

P = nRT n = PV

V RT

Mass = PV.M C= P

M = mass. RT

RT RT

PV 11

0

Conclusion Daltons’s Law

the partial pressures exerted by each of the gas in the mixture

PT = PA + PB

PA = XA PT PB = XB PT

X A= n A

nT

PT = n ART nBRT

V V

PT = n TRT

when nA + nB = nT

V

IDEAL GAS vs REAL GAS BEHAVIOUR

Ideal gas Real gas

Molecules of gas has Molecules of gas do occupy

negligible volume some space

depends on size of atoms

and bond lengths

Molecules of gas do not There are attractive and

attract / repulse one repulsive force among

another molecules

intermolecular forces of Has intermolecular

gas molecule is interaction

negligible

Obey ideal gas equation Obey Van Der Waals eq;

n2a

PV = n R T P + (V – nb) = nRT

V2 11

2

DEVIATIONS FROM IDEAL BEHAVIOUR

real gas : gases which do not obey ideal gas equation

: also known as non-ideal gas

however, real gas obeys ideal gas behaviour at :

a) Low pressure

b) High temperature

11

3

Real gas behave ideally at

condition;

low pressure

high temperature

11

4

Real gas behave ideal gas

low pressure

lowering P to

When V increase,

gas molecules

intermolecular force

volume of gas molecules

obey _____________________ theory

the gas behave

Real gas behave ideal gas

high temperature

high T

When kinetic energy high;

___________from attractive force

intermolecular force is

obey _________________ theory

the gas behave ________

Deviation from Ideal Behaviour

At Lower temperature,

the kinetic energy of the gas molecules

decrease

the attractive forces become significant

11

9

VAN DER WAALS EQUATION

To describe real gas behavior

condition of real gas, HIGH pressure LOW temperature

VDW equation is modified from ideal gas

equation which consider the deviations of real gas

Preal gas < Pideal gas

V real gas > V ideal gas

n2a

P + (V – nb) = nRT

V2

Johannes Diderck van der Waals (1837-1923). Dutch physicist

attractive forces between gas molecules

‘b’ is a constant which corrects the

volume of gas molecules

Preal gas< Pideal gas

In real gas,

the movement of molecules

less collision with wall

lower pressure exert compare

to ideal gas situation

(ideal gas no attraction at all)

attractive forces

V2

Vreal gas > Videal gas

nb

The volume occupied by molecules by which restricted

their movement

depends on number(‘n’) and size of molecules(‘b’)

V ideal = V real – nb

Van der Waals Constants for

Some Common Gases

Van der Waal’s Equation

Combining both factors into the ideal gas equation

PV = nRT

Veffective real – nb

Vcontainer - nb

V2

V2

Known as Van der Waals equation 12

4

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