Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 121

# 1

5.1 Gas
At the end of this lesson, students should be able
to;

## a)Explain the general properties of gas in terms of

arrangement of particle, density and
compressibility
b)Explain qualitatively the basic assumptions of the
kinetic molecular theory of gases for and ideal gas

2
States of Matter
 A form of matter that has ____definite shape or volume
 The particles are _____________ moving & bouncing off
each other
 When gas is placed in a container, the particles spread out
to_________the container and take its shape.
 The particles are _______ to move and flow, which means all
gases are fluids
 Unlike solids & liquids, gases are very ___________.
 Gases have much __________ densities than liquids
& solids.
 Objects with lower densities float in fluids with higher
densities.
Property Gas
Definite Shape
Definite Volume
Compressible
Fluid
Particle Spacing
UNIT OF PRESSURE

Force
Pressure =
Area

## 1 atm = 760 mmHg

= 760 torr
1 atm = 101,325 Pa
= 101.325 kPa 7
4 basic assumptions (postulate):

## 1. The particles are _______ compared

to the ___________ between the
particles
Assume that the volume of the
individual particles is negligible
2. The particles are always _______
and _______against the walls of
the container result in the pressure
exerted by the gas.
3. The particles do not exert any force on each
other; they neither __________ nor _______
each other.

## 4. The average kinetic energy of the gas

particles is _______________ proportional to
the Kelvin temperature of the gas
11
5.1 Gas

to;

## c) Define gas laws

i) Boyle’s law
ii) Charles’s law

## d) Sketch and interpret the graph of Boyle’s law

and Charles’s law

12
THE GAS LAWS

## The physical behavior of gas can be described

by four variables:

Pressure (P)
Boyle’s law
Volume (V)
Charles’s law

## Amount Ideal gas law

(number of moles) (n) 13
BOYLE’S LAWS
At constant temperature, the volume occupied
by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional
to the applied (external) pressure

## P a 1/V ( T and n fixed )

P x V = constant

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

a) Boyle’s Law

## Graph of pressure(P) vs volume (V) has the

following shape :

pressure is inversely
proportional to volume

V
P a 1/V P x V = constant
15
a) Boyle’s Law
Graph of pressure vs 1 has the
following shape : volume
P

pressure is directly
proportional to 1/volume

1
V

P a 1/V P x V = constant
16
a) Boyle’s Law

## Graph of PV vs pressure has the following shape :

PV

PV = constant

P a 1/V P x V = constant
17
Example EXAMPLE – 1

## A sample of chlorine gas occupies a volume of 946 ml

at a pressure of 726 mmHg. Calculate the pressure of
the gas (in mmHg) if the volume is reduced to 154 ml
at constant temperature ?

P1V1 = P2V2

ANS:
4460 mmHg 18
Ans: EXAMPLE – 01

ANS:
4460 mmHg 19
EXAMPLE– 02
A cylinder contains a gas at 5.25 atm pressure.
When the gas allowed to expand to a final
volume of 12.5 L, the pressure drop to 1.85 atm.
What was the original volume of the gas?
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2
5.25 atm x V1 = 1.85 atm x 12.5 L
V1 = 4.40 L

ANS:
4.40 L 20
CHARLES’S LAWS

## At constant pressure, the volume occupied

by a _________of gas is ________proportional
to its absolute temperature

## VaT ( P and n fixed )

V = constant
T T in Kelvin (K)!

V1 V2
=
T1 T2 T (K) = t (0C) + 273.15

## Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles (1746-1823). French physicist.

William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824-1907). Scottish mathematician and physicist.
21
Variation of gas volume with temperature
at constant pressure

= 0 K ( Kelvin)
= absolute zero

P1,…P4 are
various gases

## VaT (P and n fixed)

22
Absolute zero (0 K or –273.15 oC) is the
temperature at which an ideal gas would have
zero volume
Absolute temperature has never been reached.
But physicists have attained temperature as
low as 10–9 K

23
b) Charles’s Law

V
VaT V
V = constant
T

0 T(K) -273.15
T(0C)

24
EXAMPLE – 03
A sample of carbon monoxide gas occupies
3.20 L at 125 oC. At what temperature will the
gas occupy a volume of 1.54 L if the pressure
remains constant?

V1 V2

T1 T2
ANS:
192 K 25
Ans: EXAMPLE – 03

ANS:
192 K 26
EXAMPLE – 04
What is the effect of the following on the volume
of 1 mol of an ideal gas?
a) The temperature decreased from 700 K to
350 K (at constant P).
b) The temperature is increased from 350oC
to 700oC (at constant P).

27
EXAMPLE – 05
An engineer pumps air at 0oC into a newly
designed piston–cylinder assembly. The volume
measures 6.83 cm3. At what temperature (in K)
would the volume be 9.75 cm3?
V1 = V2
T1 T2
6.83 = 9.75
273.15 T2
T2 = 389.92 K
ANS:
390 K 28
At constant pressure and temperature,
the volume of a gas is _______ proportional to
the number of moles of the gas present

## Van ( P and T fixed )

V = constant
n
V1 V2
=
n1 n2
Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregua e di Cerreto (1776-1856).
Italian mathematical physicist. 29
EXAMPLE – 06
Ammonia burns in oxygen to form nitric oxide
(NO) and water vapor. How many liters of NO
are obtained from one liter of ammonia at the
same temperature and pressure?
V1 = V 2
n1 n2

ANS:1 L 30
Ans: EXAMPLE – 06

31
EXAMPLE – 07
Suppose we have a 12.2–L sample containing
0.50 mol of O2 gas at a pressure of 1 atm and
a temperature of 25oC.
If all of this O2 is converted to ozone (O3) at the
same temperature and pressure, what will the
volume of the ozone? V =V
1 2
3O2(g)  2O3(g) n1 n2

ANS: 8.1 L
32
Ans: EXAMPLE – 07
From the equation:
3O2(g)  2O3(g)
3 mol of O2 produce 2 mol of O3
So, 0.50 mol of O2 produce 0.50 x 2
3
= 0.333 mol O3
V1 = 12.2 L V2 = ?
n1 = 0.50 mol n2 = 0.333 mol
V1 V2
V2 = P , T fixed
12.2 L n1 n2
=
0.50 mol 0.333 mol
33

V2 = 8.1 L
Example EXAMPLE – 08

## What is the volume of hydrogen gas obtained

from
the reaction of 6.50 g of zinc with an excess of
dilute sulphuric acid at STP ?

ANS: 2.24 L 34
Solution
Ans: EXAMPLE – 08

## Zn (s) + H2SO4 (aq) ZnSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)

6.50 g
6.5 g
n Zn =
65 g mol-1 = 0.10 mol
From stoichiometric equation :
1 mol Zn  1 mol H2
 0.10 mol Zn = 0.10 mol H2

## At STP 1 mol of any gases  22.4 dm3

 0.10 mol of H2 = 22.4 dm3 x 0.10
= 2.24 dm3 35
36
5.1 Gas

be able to;

## e) Perform calculations involving gas laws

37
EXAMPLE – 09
A sample of nitrogen has a volume of 880 mL
and a pressure of 740 torr. What pressure
will change the volume to 870 mL at the same
temperature?

ANS:
749 torr 38
Ans: EXAMPLE – 09

ANS:
749 torr 39
EXAMPLE – 10
Anesthetic gas is normally given to a patient
when the room temperature is 20.0oC and the
patient’s body temperature is 37oC.
What would this temperature change do
to 1.60 L of gas if the pressure and mass
stay constant.

ANS:
1.69 L 40
Ans: EXAMPLE – 10

ANS:
1.69 L 41
EXAMPLE – 12
A sample of a gas has a pressure of 850 torr
at 285oC. To what oC temperature must
the gas be heated to double its pressure if
there is no change in the volume of the gas?

ANS:
843.15 oC 42
Ans: EXAMPLE –12

ANS:
843.15 oC 43
EXERCISE – 01
A 1–L steel tank is fitted with a safety valve that
opens if the internal pressure exceeds
1.00 x 103 torr. It is filled with helium at 23oC and
0.991 atm and placed in boiling water at exactly
100oC. Will the safety valve open?

ANS:
P2 = 949 torr
The valve will not open 44
EXERCISE – 02
What is the effect of the following on the volume
of 1 mol of an ideal gas?
a) The pressure is tripled (at constant T).
b) The absolute temperature is increased by
a factor of 2.5 (at constant P).
c) Two more moles of the gas are added
(at constant P and T).
Using Boyle’s law:
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 n , T constant
An ideal gas,
ANS: P1 = 1 atm P2 = 3
a) Volume is reduced to 1/3 its original value V1 = 1L V2 = ? 45
b) Volume is increased by a factor of 2.5
c) Volume is increased by a factor of 4
COMBINED GAS LAW

## Simple combination of Boyle’s and Charles’s

Law gives the combined Gas Law

VaT ( n fixed )
P

PV = constant
T

P1V1 P2V2
=
T1 T2
46
EXAMPLE – 13
A sample of argon is trapped in a gas bulb
at a pressure of 760 torr when the volume is
100 mL and the temperature is 35oC.
What must it temperature be (in oC) if its
pressure becomes 720 torr and its volume
200 mL?

ANS:
311oC 47
Ans: EXAMPLE – 13

ANS:
311oC 48
EXAMPLE – 14

## A gas initially 4.0 L, 1.2 atm, and 66oC undergoes

a change so that its final volume and temperature
become 1.7 L and 42oC. What is its final pressure?
Assume the number of moles remains unchanged.

ANS:
2.6 atm 49
Ans: EXAMPLE – 14

ANS:
2.6 atm 50
EXERCISE – 03
A small bubble rises from the bottom of a lake,
where the temperature and pressure are 8oC and
6.4 atm, to the water’s surface, where the
temperature is 25oC and pressure is 1.0 atm.
Calculate the final volume (in mL) of the bubble
if its initial volume was 2.1 mL.

ANS:
14 mL 51
More Exercise ….

## 1) A given mass of nitrogen at 2980K occupies 20.0L at a

pressure of 380 torr. What volume will it occupy at a
pressure of 4.00 atm at the same temperature?
(ans:2.50L)

## 2) A 1.00L sample of gas at atmospheric pressure is

compressed to 0.700L at a constant temperature.
Calculate the final temperature of the gas?
(ans:1.43atm)

52
More Excercise ….

## 3) A sample of 20.0L of nitrogen gas was cooled from

870C to 270C at a constant pressure 1 atm. What is its
final volume?. (ans:16.7L)

## 4) A sample of helium gas occupies 100.0ml at 280C. At

what temperature will its volume be double under
constant pressure? (ans:602K)

53
Conclusion Complete the table below :

law Law

Definition For a fixed amount of gas at For a fixed amount of At constant P and T,
a constant T, gas volume is gas at a constant P, the the volume of a gas
inversely proportional to gas gas volume is directly is directly
pressure proportional to the proportional to the
temperature (in Kelvin) number of moles of
the gas present
Formula V1 = V2 V1 = V 2
P1V1 = P2V2 T1 = T2 n1 = n2

Graph a) P vs V a) V vs T(K)
b) P vs 1/V b) V vs T(0C)
c) PV vs P

54
55
5.1 Gas

able to;

## f. Derive ideal gas equation based on the gas

laws
g. Perform calculations using ideal gas equation

56
IDEAL GAS

## Hypothetical gas whose

pressure–volume–temperature relationship
can be accounted for by the ideal gas equation

## Although no ideal gas actually exist,

most simple gas such as N2, O2, H2,
and noble gas show nearly ideal
behavior at ordinary temperature and
pressure
IDEAL GAS EQUATION

## Boyle’s Law Charles’s Law Avogadro’s Law

V a 1 V a T V a n
P
Combination of those 3 laws :

## Where R : gas constant

8.314 J K-1 mol-1 @
0.0821 L atm K-1 mol-1

58
REMINDER

Ideal gas
 obey the ideal gas equation
 CHECK the unit when calculate : P, V, R
and T,

59
Units for pressure, volume, universal
gas constant and temperature

P V R T

1 J = 1 Nm-2

## atm dm3 0.0821 dm3 atm K-1 mol-1 K

60
From ideal gas equation, we can write:
At 273 K (0oC) – at STP 1 mole gas occupied 22.4 L

PV
R 
nT
1 atm x 22.414 L

1 mol x 273.15 K
= 0.082057 L atm
K mol
= 0.082057 L atm K-1 mol-1

61
EXERCISE – 4
In one lab, the gas collecting apparatus used
a gas bulb with a volume of 250 mL.
How many grams of Na2CO3(s) would needed
to prepare enough CO2(g) to fill this bulb to
a pressure of 738 torr at a temperature of 23oC?

## The equation is:

Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

ANS:
1.06 g Na2CO3 62
Ans:
Ans:EXAMPLE – 12
EXERCISE –4
Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
mass = ? v= 250 mL
= 0.25 L
P = 738 torr
T = 23oC
By using the ideal gas equation: FIND mole CO2???

PV = nRT
n = RT
PV

ANS:
1.06 g Na CO
SOLVING GAS LAW PROBLEMS

Variables: P , V , n , T

## A change in one of the four variables cause

a change in another; while the two or one
remaining variables are constant

## Use individual gas law!

64
EXAMPLE:

P1 V1 P2 V2
= Use Boyle’s Law
n1 T1 n2 T2

P1 V1 P2 V2
n1 T1 n2 T2

P1 V1 P2 V2
= Use Combined Gas Law
n1 T1 n2 T2
65
One variable is unknown, but the
three are known and no change occurs

PV = nRT

66
EXAMPLE – 16

## What is the volume of CO2 produced at 37o C and

1.00 atm when 5.60 g of glucose are used up in
the reaction:
C6H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)

ANS:
4.76 L

67
Ans: EXAMPLE – 16

68
Ans: EXAMPLE – 16

ANS:
4.76 L 69
ACTIVITY – 01

## The numerical value of R corresponds to the

gas variables P, V and T expressed in their
units. R has a different numerical value when
different units are used:
R = 0.08206 L atm mol–1K–1
= 8.314 m3 Pa mol–1K–1 ( 8.314 J mol–1K–1 )
= 62.36 L torr mol–1K–1
Show the calculation how to get the values above.
Note:
1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101325 Pa
1 L = 10–3 m3 70
Ans: ACTIVITY – 01
a)
At STP,
P = 1 atm V = 22.414 L n = 1 mol T = 273.15 K (0 oC)

PV = nRT

71
Ans: ACTIVITY – 01
b) At STP,
P = 1 atm = 101325 Pa
V = 22.414 L = 22.414 x 10–3 m3
n = 1 mol T = 273.15 K (0 oC)

PV = nRT

72
Ans: ACTIVITY – 01

b) At STP,
P = 1 atm = 760 torr
V = 22.414 L n = 1 mol T = 273.15 K (0 oC)

73
74
5.1 Gas

be able to;

## h. Determine the molar mass and density of

gas using ideal gas equation

i. define

i. Partial pressure
ii. Dalton’s law

## j. Perform calculation using Dalton’s law

75
FURTHER APPLICATION
OF IDEAL GAS EQUATION

## ideal gas equation can be used to determine:

Densities, ρ Presure of gas, P
Molar mass of gas Temperature,T
76
Density AND Molar Mass OF
GASEOUS SUBSTANCE
PV = nRT

n P Where n = m
=
V RT M
m = P
MV RT

or

## m : Mass of the gas in g

M : Molar mass of the gas (Unit: g/mol)
ρ : Density of gas 77
EXAMPLE – 17
An organic chemist isolates from a petroleum
sample a colorless liquid with properties of
cyclohexane (C6H12). He obtains the following
data to determine its molar mass (M):

## Volume of sample gas = 213 mL

Mass sample gas(m) = 0.582 g
T = 100.0oC P = 754 torr

## Is the calculated molar mass consistent with

the liquid being cyclohexane?
78
Ans: EXAMPLE – 17
V = 0.213 L m = 0.582 g
T = 100.0oC P = 754 torr
= 373 K = _________ atm

## By using the ideal gas equation:

PV = nRT

79
Example EXAMPLE – 18
A chemist has synthesized a greenish-yellow
compound of chlorine and oxygen and finds that
its density is 7.71 g L-1 at 36°C and 2.88 atm.
Calculate the molar mass of the compound.

80
Solution
Ans: EXAMPLE – 18

 RT
Molar mass 
P
(7.71 g L-1) (0.0821 L atm K-1 mol-1) (309K)

(2.88 atm)

81
EXERCISE – 19
A series of measurements are made in order to
determine the molar mass of an unknown gas.
First, a large flask is evacuated and found to
weigh 134.567 g. It is then filled with the gas
to a pressure of 735 torr at 31oC and reweighed;
its mass now 137.456 g. Finally, the flask is filled
with water at 31oC and found to weigh 1067.9 g.
(The density of water at this temperature is
0.997 g/mL).
Calculate the molar mass of the unknown gas.
ANS:
79.7 g.mol
82
DALTON’S LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE

## In a mixture of unreacting gases, the total

pressure is the sum of the partial pressures
of the individual gases

Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ……..

EXAMPLE:

2

## John Dalton (1766-1844). English chemist, mathematician, and philosopher 83

PARTIAL PRESSURES

## Pressures of individual gas components

in the gas mixture
PA PB PTotal

## Gas A Gas B Mixture

Gas A & B 84
Consider a case in which two gases, A and B,
are in a container of volume V

Gas A Gas B

Volume of
container = V

## According to ideal gas equation :

n ART
pressure exerted by gas A = PA =
V

## pressure exerted by gas B = PB = nBRT

V
In the mixture of gases A and B :
total pressure= partial pressure A + partial pressure B

PT = PA + PB
n ART nBRT
= 
V V
n TRT
 PT = where nA + nB = nT
V

## Thus, partial pressure of A is also given by :

where XA = mole fraction of gas A in
PA = XA PT the mixture

X A= n A
nT 86
EXAMPLE – 20
A gaseous mixture made from 6.00 g O2 and
9.00 g CH4 is placed in a 15.0–L vessel at 0oC;

## i) what is the partial pressure of each gas

ii) what is the total pressure in the vessel?

## ANS: PO2 = 0.281 atm

PCH4 = 0.841 atm
PTotal = 1.122 atm 87
Ans: EXAMPLE – 21
Oxygen gas (O2): mass = 6.0 g
6.00 g
Mole of O2 = = 0.188 mol O2
32.00 g/mol

PO2 = nO2 RT
V

88
aEXAMPLE
Ans: – 22– 21
EXAMPLE 2.1

## Methane gas (CH4): mass = 9.0g

9.00 g
Mole of CH4 = = 0.563 mol CH4
16.01 g/mol
By using the ideal gas equation: PV = nRT
Partial pressure of methane, PCH4 V = nCH4 RT

P CH4 = nCH4 RT
V
=

89
EXAMPLE
Ans: – 22– 21
EXAMPLE 2.1

## By using the Dalton’s Law of partial pressure:

PTotal = PO + PCH
2 4

90
EXERCISE – 5
What is the total pressure exerted by a mixture
of 2.00 g of H2 and 8.00 g of N2 at 273 K in
a 10.0–L vessel.

ANS:
2.86 atm 91
EXAMPLE– –2322
EXAMPLE 2.1

## A mixture of gases contains 4.46 mol of neon

(Ne), 0.74 mol of argon (Ar), and 2.15 mol of
Xenon (Xe). Calculate the partial pressures of
each gas if the total pressure is 2.000 atm at a
certain temperature.

ANS:
PNe = 1.214 atm

## PAr = 0.202 atm

PXe = 0.584 atm 92
EXAMPLE
Ans: – 23– 22
EXAMPLE 2.1

Given, mole Ne: 4.46 mole , Find PAr , Pxe , Pne ????
Ar : 0.76 mole PT = 2.0 atm
Xe : 2.15 mole = PAr + Pxe + Pne

nNe
XNe =
nNe + nAr + nXe

PNe = XNePT

93
EXAMPLE
Ans: – 23– 22
EXAMPLE 2.1

nAr
XAr = =
nNe + nAr + nXe

PAr = XArPT

nXe
XXe = =
nNe + nAr + nXe

PXe = XXePT

94
EXAMPLE
Ans: – 23– 22
EXAMPLE 2.1

## Checking.. PT = PNe + PAr + PXe

95
EXERCISE – 6
From the data gathered by Voyager 1, scientists
have estimated the composition of the atmosphere
of Titan, Saturn’s largest moon.
The total pressure on the surface of
Titan is 1220 torr. The atmosphere consists
82.0 mol percent N2, 12.0 mol percent Ar, and
6.0 mol percent CH4. Calculate the partial
pressure of each of these gases in Titan’s
atmosphere.
ANS:
1.0 x 103 torr N2
1.5 x 102 torr Ar
73 torr CH4 96
EXAMPLE– –2423
EXAMPLE 2.1

## A mixture of gases contains 12.47 g of N2,

1.98 g of H2, and 8.15 g of NH3. If the total
pressure of the mixture is 1.56 atm, what is
the partial pressure of each component?

ANS:
P N2 = 0.37 atm
P H2 = 0.80 atm
PNH3 = 0.39 atm 97
EXAMPLE
Ans: – 24– 23
EXAMPLE 2.1

n N2
Mole fraction of N2 = X N2 =
n N2 + n H2 + n NH3

P N2 = X N2PT

99
EXAMPLE
Ans: – 24– 23
EXAMPLE 2.1

n H2
Mole fraction of H2 = X H2 =
n N2 + n H2 + n NH3

P H2 = X H2PT

10
0
EXAMPLE
Ans: – 24– 23
EXAMPLE 2.1

n NH3
Mole fraction of NH3 = X NH3 =
n N2 + n H2 + nNH3

PNH3= XNH3PT

10
1
EXERCISE – 7
A mixture of noble gases consisting of 5.50g
of He, 15.0 g of Ne, and 35.0 g of Kr is placed
in a piston-cylinder assembly at STP.
Calculate the partial pressure of each gas.

10
Ans: PHe = 0.543 atm , PNe = 0.294 atm , PKr = 0.165 atm 2
COLLECTING A GAS OVER WATER

EXAMPLE:

## 2KClO3(s)  2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)

Assumption:
The gas does not react with
water and it is not soluble in it

Ptotal = PO + PH O
2 2
Water vapour
PH O : pressure of water vapor pressure is different
2
with temperature.
( at 25oC = 23.76 mmHg )
EXAMPLE:

## Bottle full of oxygen

gas and water vapor
Example of Dalton’s Law in laboratory practice is when a
gas is collected over water

Ptotal = Pgas + PH O
2

## total pressure is not only from the

particular gas but also from the water
vapour
EXAMPLE – 24
Consider the reaction below:
2KClO3(s)  2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)

## A sample of 5.45 liters of oxygen is collected

over water at a pressure of 735.5 torr and at a
temperature of 25oC. How many grams of
oxygen have been collected?
At 25oC, the vapor pressure of water
= 23.8 torr

ANS:
6.69 g O2
Ans: EXAMPLE – 24
PT = PO2 + PH2O
PO
2
= PT – PH O
2
= 735.5 torr – 23.8 torr
= 711.7 torr convert to atm = 711.7 torr x 1 atm
760 torr
= 0.936 atm
By using the ideal gas equation:
PO V
nO = 2
2
RT
0.936 atm x 5.45 L
Mole of O2 = = 0.209 mol O2
0.0821 L atmmol-1K-1 x 298 K

## Mass of O2 = 0.209 mol x 32 g/mol = 6.69 g of O2

EXERCISE – 8
Automobile air bags respond to a collision of a preset
strength by electrically triggering the explosive
decomposition of sodium azide (NaN3)to its elements.
2NaN3(s)  2Na(s) + 3N2(g)
In an industrial lab simulation, 135 mL of N2 gas
was collected over water at 25oC and 755 torr.
How many grams of sodium azide decomposed?

## PH O at 25oC = 23.8 torr

2

Ans:
0.23 g NaN3
Excercise EXERCISE – 9

## 1) How many moles of oxygen gas are there in a

20.0L tank at 270C if the pressure gauge reads
900 torr? (ans:2.40mole)

## 2) Calculate the molar mass of butane gas, if

3.69g of the gas occupy 1.53L at 293K and 1
atm? (ans:58gmol-1)

## 3) What is the density of N2 gas at s.t.p?

(ans:1.25gL-1)

10
9
Conclusion Ideal Gas Equation

PV = nRT
We can rearranged the Ideal Gas
Equation to several equation

V = nRT PV = nRT
 = PM
P RT
P = nRT n = PV
V RT

Mass = PV.M C= P
M = mass. RT
RT RT
PV 11
0
Conclusion Daltons’s Law

## The total pressure of mixture of nonreacting gases is the sum of

the partial pressures exerted by each of the gas in the mixture

PT = PA + PB

PA = XA PT PB = XB PT
X A= n A
nT
PT = n ART nBRT

V V
 PT = n TRT
when nA + nB = nT
V
IDEAL GAS vs REAL GAS BEHAVIOUR
Ideal gas Real gas
Molecules of gas has Molecules of gas do occupy
negligible volume some space
depends on size of atoms
and bond lengths
Molecules of gas do not There are attractive and
attract / repulse one repulsive force among
another molecules
intermolecular forces of Has intermolecular
gas molecule is interaction
negligible
Obey ideal gas equation Obey Van Der Waals eq;

n2a
PV = n R T P + (V – nb) = nRT
V2 11
2
DEVIATIONS FROM IDEAL BEHAVIOUR

##  ideal gas : gases which obey ideal gas equation

 real gas : gases which do not obey ideal gas equation
: also known as non-ideal gas
 however, real gas obeys ideal gas behaviour at :

a) Low pressure

b) High temperature

11
3
Real gas behave ideally at
condition;

low pressure
high temperature

11
4
Real gas behave ideal gas

## Gas behaves almost ideally at very

low pressure

lowering P  to
When V increase,
gas molecules
intermolecular force
volume of gas molecules
obey _____________________ theory
the gas behave
Real gas behave ideal gas

## Gas behaves almost ideally at

high temperature

high T 
When kinetic energy high;
___________from attractive force
intermolecular force is
obey _________________ theory
the gas behave ________
Deviation from Ideal Behaviour

At Lower temperature,
the kinetic energy of the gas molecules
decrease
 the attractive forces become significant

11
9
VAN DER WAALS EQUATION
To describe real gas behavior
condition of real gas, HIGH pressure LOW temperature
VDW equation is modified from ideal gas
equation which consider the deviations of real gas
Preal gas < Pideal gas
V real gas > V ideal gas

n2a
P + (V – nb) = nRT
V2
Johannes Diderck van der Waals (1837-1923). Dutch physicist

## ‘a’ is a constant which corrects for the

attractive forces between gas molecules
‘b’ is a constant which corrects the
volume of gas molecules
Preal gas< Pideal gas

In real gas,

## The attractive force slow down

the movement of molecules
less collision with wall
lower pressure exert compare
to ideal gas situation
(ideal gas  no attraction at all)

## large values of ‘a’ indicate strong

attractive forces

## Pideal = P real+ n2a

V2
Vreal gas > Videal gas

nb

## Excluded volume (nb) :

The volume occupied by molecules by which restricted
their movement
 depends on number(‘n’) and size of molecules(‘b’)

V ideal = V real – nb

## large values of ‘b’ indicate larger gas molecule

Van der Waals Constants for
Some Common Gases
Van der Waal’s Equation
Combining both factors into the ideal gas equation
PV = nRT

## Pideal = Preal + n2 a V ideal== V

Veffective real – nb
Vcontainer - nb
V2

## (Preal + n 2 a ) (V real – nb) = nRT

V2
Known as Van der Waals equation 12
4