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BAND AND LOOP

SPACE MAINTAINER
• THE FIRST STEP BEFORE AY
ORTHODONTIC PROCEDURE IS
UNDERTAKEN IS TO MAKE GOOD
STUDY MODELS
NEED FOR STUDY MODELS
• Study models are a pre requisite for
performing mixed dentition analysis
• They enable the operator to study the
occlusal status in a through
methodical fashion
• They are indispensible aids when
treatment planning is sought from
other dentists
• They are also indispensible aids for
educating patients.
IMPRESSION ARMAMENTARIUM
• IMPRESSION MATERIAL:
• Alginate
• TRAYS
• Perforated impression trays or solid
rim lock trays
• BEADING WAX
• Done on the entire periphery
• BITE REGISTRATION WAX
• Cenrtic wax bite is taken to ensure
that teeth dont chip during cast
trimming
IMPRESSION TECHNIQUE
• Teeth should scrupulously clean
before attempting to make the
impression
• Vigourous rinsing with a
mouthwash will help to get rid of
the saliva
MAXILLARY IMPRESSION
• Stand behind the patient
• With the fingers of the left hand
stretch the patients mouth to the
left
• Use the right side of the tray to
stretch the right side of the mouth
and gain entry into the oral cavity
• Centre the tray using frenum
attachments as general guides
• The anterior flange of the tray should
be 3/8 inches anterior to the incisors
• Tray should be pressed up and back ;
back portion being pushed slightly
sooner and harder.
• Middle finger of each hand supports
and guides the tray
• Index finger and thumb hold the
upper lip up and out
• A slight vibratory motion will aid the
material to fill in the crevices between
the teeth
• In seating the posterior portion of the
tray slightly before the anterior; the
material will flow anteriorly thus
preventing the gag reflex
• As soon as the tray is seated patient is
asked to bow the head forward
• Excess material in the rubber bowl is
checked for firmness and when set the
impression is removed from the mouth
MAndibular IMPRESSION
• Stand in front of the patient
• Use
• Index Finger: Hold down the lower
lip
• Middle finger: Seat the tray
• Thumb : To support the mandible
• Patient is instructed to stick his
tongue out and the put it back to
rest
• REMOVING THE IMPRESSIONS

• Grab either tray by the handle ,


break the seal and forcibly pull
down or up.
• When loose ask the patient to push
the tray with the tongue
• POURING THE IMPRESSIONS

• Impressions are poured using very


fine grade extra hard plaster.
MoDEL CARVING AND FINISHING

• TWO PARTS
• ANATOMIC PART
• ARTISTIC PART
• LOWER MODEL
• BASE: Parallel to the occlusal surface
• BACK: Place a point on the intersection of
mandibular central incisors and lingual
gingiva.
Inscribe another mark ¼ inch behind the
last erupted molar.
Draw a line through the central fossa of
each molar.
At the point of intersection make a
pencil mark
Trim the casts along the line joining the
points on the two sides
• SIDES
• Side cuts are made at an angle of 55° to
the back
• FRONT
• The front of the mandibular cast is
reduced by free hand trimming to
correspond to the anterior arch form

120
55
UPPER MODEL
The side cut is given at an angle of 63°
Front cuts are made at an angle of 25° to the
heel cut
The point at which these cuts meet anteriorly
should coincide with the midline.
25

120
63
• FINISHING
Fill in the voids in the base
Sandpaper the cast or use a carborundum
stone
Let the models dry for two to three days
Inscribe the details of the doctor and the
patient
Polish the cast by immession in soap water
• INSCRIBING INITIALS AND DETAILS
AREA INSCRIPTION
Back of upper model LEFT: Patients last name
and first initial RIGHT: Age

Back of lower model LEFT: Name RIGHT: Date


RIGHT FRONT OF UPPER CASE NUMBER
MODEL
LEFT FRONT OF UPPER MODEL Instructors initials
RIGHT CRVATURE OF LOWER Two of the patients initials
MODELS
CENTRE OF LOWER MODEL Abbreviation of the year
LEFT CURVATURE OF LOWER Students initials
MODEL
Model ANALYSIS
• Model analysis can be defined as the study of
maxillary or mandibular arches in all three
planes and is a valuable tool in orthodontic
diagnosis and treatment planning
• Orthodontic treatment in the mixed
dentition is largely dependent upon an
accurate space analysis. It is well
documented that space analysis involves
the comparison between the amount of
space available for the alignment of teeth
and the amount of space required to
place them in the correct position (Sim,
1972; Moyers, 1973, 1988; Cunat 1982;
Proffit and Fields, 2000).
• MODEL ANALYSIS done in the mixed
dentition study models are the mixed
dentition analysis.
• Several approaches have been devised either
to estimate the space available (Huckaba,
1964) or space required (Nance, 1947; Hixon
and Oldfather, 1958; Staley and Kerber, 1980;
Moyers, 1973, 1988; Tanaka and Johnston,
1974) for mixed dentition space analysis.
Mixed dentition analysis is based on the following
principles (Fields and Profitt; 1988)
The first permanent molars and incisors are erupted
and the succedanous teeth are forming
There is a size relationship between the unerupted
permanent teeth and primary teeth
There is a size difference between the primary canines
and molars and succedaneous teeth. The
mosiodistal widths of primary canines and molars
are greater than those of the permanent successors.
Nance referred to this tooth size differential as the
leeway space.This is estimated to be 0.9mm per
quadrant in the maxilla and 1.7mm per quadrant in
the mandible.
MOYER’S MIXED
• DENTITION ANALYSIS
According to Moyer a high correlation
exists among the sizes of different
groups of teeth in an individual thus by
measuring one group of teeth, it is
possible to make a prediction of the
other group of teeth
PROCEDURE
 measure the mesiodistal width of each of

maxillary & mandibular incisor
 measure the space left from the distal aspect
of lateral incisor to mesial aspect of first
permanent molar
 by using Moyer’s chart, find out the mesiodistal
width of cuspids & bicuspids for the given sum
of mesiodistal width of sum of incisor
 compare the space available & space required to
determine the arch length discrepancy
ADVANTAGES
 It has minimum error and the range of error is
precisely
• known
 It can be done with equal reliability by a
beginner or expert
 It is not time consuming
 It requires no special equipment
 It can be done in the mouth as well as in the
cast
 It may be used on both arches

Hays and Nance analysis
Armamentarium

Dental casts
Boley’s gauge mm ruler
Periapical radiographs
Cephalometric radiographs with Tracings and
Tweeds analysis
Procedure
1. Use Boley’s gauge to record the maximum width
of each permanent and primary maxillary and
•mandibular tooth from the permanent first molar
2. Record these dimensions on the Hays Nance
form
3. From the Periapical radiograph measure maxillary
mesodistal widths of unerupted canines and
premolars.
4. Use a radiographic measurement formula to
correct for magnification and actual tooth size
measurements.
5. A cephatometric analysis is using Tweeds
analysis is essential. This allows for correlation of
mandibular incisors.
Advantages
Minimum error
Can be performed with reliability

Allows analysis of both arches

Limitations
It requires celphalometric radiographs, knowledge
of Tweeds analysis and accurate tracing.
It is time consuming.
Complete mouth radiographs are needed.
TANAKA & JOHNSTON
• ANALYSIS (1974)
Tanaka & Johnston did a study to repeat Moyer’s
observation to validate its equation on a new
sample

The possibility of secular changes with in the


past 20 yrs was to be examined & they found
Moyer’s prediction table to be equally
appropriate for contemporary population
they have simplified Moyer’s 75% level of
• prediction table into a formula

Predicted width of maxillary canine & premolar


= sum of mandibular incisor +11
2

Predicted width of mandibular canine & premolar


= sum of mandibular incisor + 10.5
2
RADIOGRAPHIC METHOD:-
PROPORTIONAL EQUATION

PREDICTION METHOD

If most of the canines & premolars have


erupted & if one or two succedaneous teeth
are still unerupted, an alternative prediction
method can be used to estimate the
mesiodistal width of the unerupted
permanent tooth
PROCEDURE
The width of an unerupted teeth & an

erupted tooth is measured on the same
periapical film
The width of erupted tooth is measured on
the plaster cast
These three measurements comprise the
elements of a proportion that can be solved
to obtain the width of unerupted tooth on
the cast

unerupted tooth width = erupted tooth width(cast)
unerupted tooth width(in x-ray) erupted tooth width(x ray)

unerupted tooth width= ETW(cast) X UTW(x-ray)


ETW (x-ray)
HIXON AND OLD FATHER
ANALYSIS (1958)

Was introduced to avoid the difficulty
in obtaining an accurate radiograph of
the mandibular canine.

By adding the width of two mandibular


bicuspids on the X Ray to the widths
of the two incisors in the same
quadrant their table will predict the
total width of the cuspid bicuspid
segment in that quadrant
Combined widths of Estimated combined
• incisors and width of cuspid–
bicuspids (mm) Bicuspid(mm)
23 18.4
24 19.0
25 19.7
26 20.3
27 21.0
28 21.6
29 22.3
30 22.9

Applicable only in the mandibular arch

Valid only when long cone Xray machine


is used

Modified by Staley and Kerber in 1980


Bishara and Staley in 1984
Revised Hixon-oldfather prediction method for
the mandibular arch
Staley and Kerber generated a revised Hixon

and Oldfather prediction equation.
The original equation was derived primarily
from measurements of teeth on (LT) side of the
arch where as the revised equation was derived
from the means of measurements taken from both
the (RT) and (LT) side.
Records needed to perform the prediction
include a cast of the lower arch and periapical
radiographs of the unerupted lower premolars
taken with a long cone paralleling or right angle
technique.
21-23 RULE (Joseph SIM)


Rapid method to find out the space
required for cuspids and bicuspids
The key to this method is that space
needed in lower quadrant for eruption of
345 will not exceed 21 mm.
Space needed in upper arch will not
exceed 23mm.
(80% confidence level)
Kaplan et al. (1977) compared the accuracy
of the Hixon and Oldfather (1958), Moyers
•(1973), and Tanaka and Johnston (1974)
mixed dentition analyses. They proposed a
modification of the Hixon-Oldfather (1958)
equation wherein the width of the
mandibular lateral incisor was not used.
The other three values were added to yield
a value in close approximation to the
combined widths of the canine and
premolars.
Computed values are then added to the
predicted values to improve the accuracy.
Their equation was based on the use of a
19-inch target-skin distance, rather than the
•standard 16-inch long-cone distance.

They concluded that the Hixon and


Oldfather analysis was the most accurate of
the three methods for predicting the size of
the unerupted permanent canines and
premolars
Zilberman et al. (1977) checked the accuracy of the
Moyers (1973) and Hixon-Oldfather (1958)
estimations in a group of forty-six Israeli children.
• found a stronger correlation in both arches
They
between observed sizes and measurements from the
radiographs than from the Moyers’ tables (Moyers,
1973).
The scatter around the regression line based on
Moyers. (1973) estimate was larger than that around
the regression line based on radiographic findings.
Their study also indicated that the combination
method developed by Hixon and Oldfather (1958)
was comparable in accuracy to the strictly
radiograph measurement technique.
Smith et al. (1979) checked the accuracy of the
analysis based on Moyers’ (1973) tables, Hixon
and Oldfather.s (1958) combination procedure,

and their Tri-4 analysis.
They concluded that the Tri-4 analysis appeared
to be simpler and a more accurate method for
mixed dentition analysis than those in common
use at that time.
However, Gardner (1979) found that Nance
(1947), Moyers (1973) and Tanaka and Johnston
(1974) tended to overpredict by 1 to 3 mm, while
the Hixon and Oldfather (1958) was more likely to
underpredict by 0.5mm
Motokawa et al. (1987) compared four
nonradiographic techniques in Japanese
children and found the correlation between the
mandibular permanent incisors and
permanent canines and premolars were
relatively low compared with those of earlier
investigations. The difference may be 20
20attributed to racial variability. However, they
indicated that their interlateral incisor width (I.
L. I. W.) analysis was more accurate method,
in addition to being simpler and quicker
Motokawa et al. (1987) compared four
nonradiographic techniques in Japanese
children and found the correlation between the
mandibular permanent incisors and
permanent canines and premolars were
relatively low compared with those of earlier
investigations. The difference may be 20
20attributed to racial variability. However, they
indicated that their interlateral incisor width (I.
L. I. W.) analysis was more accurate method,
in addition to being simpler and quicker
SPACE MAINTENANCE
JC BRAUER in 1941 defined SPACE
MAINTENANCE as the process of maintaining
space in a given arch previously occupied by a
tooth or a group of teeth.

SPACE MAINTAINER is defined by BOUCHER as


a fixed or removable appliance designed to
preserve the space created by the premature
loss of a primary tooth or group of teeth
SPACE MANAGEMENT
“It includes measures that diagnose and
prevent or intercept situation so as to guide the
development of dentition and occlusion”.
PLANNING FOR SPACE
MAINTENANCE

The following considerations are


important to the dentist when space
maintenance is considered after the
untimely loss of primary teeth- .
a) Time elapsed since loss-

if space closure occurs,it usually


takes place during the first 6 months
after the extraction.
When a primary tooth is removed & all
factors indicate the need for space
maintenance,it is best to insert an
appliance as soon as possible after the
extraction.
Often the best approach,if possible,is
to fabricate an appliance before the
extraction & deliver it at the extraction
appointment
b) Dental age of the patient-

The chronologic age of the


patient is not so important as the
developmental age.
Gron studied the emergence of
permanent teeth based on the amount
of root development,as viewed on
radiographs,at the time of
emergence.she found that teeth erupt
when three-fourths of the root is
developed,regardless of the child’s
chronologic age.
c) Amount of bone covering the unerupted
tooth-
if there is bone covering the crowns,it can be
readily predicted that eruption will not occur for
many months,a space-maintaining appliance is
indicated. Mc Donald suggests that it takes 4-5
months for a tooth to erupt through 1 mm of bone

d) Sequence of eruption of teeth-


the dentist should observe the relationship of
developing & erupting teeth adjacent to the space
created by the untimely loss of a tooth.
e) Delayed eruption of the
permanent tooth-

in case of impacted
permanent tooth,it is necessary to
extract the primary tooth,construct a
space maintainer & allow the permanent
tooth to erupt at its normal position.
f) Congenital absence of the permanent
tooth-

if permanent teeth are congenitally


absent,the dentist must decide whether it is wise
to hold the space for many years until a fixed
replacement can be provided or it is better to allow
the space to close.
CLASSIFICATION OF SPACE
MAINTAINERS

1) Acc. To Hitchcock-
Removable or fixed or semi-fixed.
With bands or without bands.
Functional or non-functional.
Active or passive.
Certain combinations of the above.
2) Acc. To Raymond C.Thurow-
Removable
Complete arch
Lingual arch
Extra-oral anchorage
Individual tooth
3) Acc. To Hinrichsen-
Fixed space maintainers-
CLASS I (a) Non-functional types-
i. Bar type.
ii. Loop type.
(b) Functional types-
i. Pontic type.
ii. Lingual arch type.
CLASS II Cantilever type (distal
shoe,band & loop.)

Removable space maintainers-


Acrylic partial dentures
BAND AND LOOP SPACE
MAINTAINERS

They are
unilateral,
fixed,
nonfunctional and
passive space maintainers.
Indications
•Used when single tooth is missing in the
posterior segment
•It can also be given in bilateral posterior tooth
loss, before the eruption of permanent anteriors
in the mandible, two band and loop maintainer
can be given instead of removable space
maitainer.
•Unerupted premolar is more than 2 yrs from
clinical eruption and root length in <½ .
Contra indications
•High caries activity
•Marked space loss
•More than one adjoining teeth missing
Disadvantages
•Non functional
•Does not prevent continued supra eruption of
opposing tooth.
•Caries check is difficult.
•Oral hygiene maintenance is difficult
•The loop may slip from the position and impinge
on the gingiva.Occlusal rests given to the loop
that rests on the occlusal surface of the mesial
abutment tooth prevent this disadvantage.
COMPONENTS

The fixed space maintainers generally


constitute the following components:-

Band
Loop/arch wire
Solder joint
Auxiliaries
1)Loop bands
(i)Precious metal- First introduced by
Johnson
(ii)Chrome alloy bands
2)Tailored bands
(i)Precious metal
(ii)Chrome alloy
3)Preformed seamless bands
Chrome alloy precious metal which are
adapted, festooned and stretched to fit.
A range of preformed bands from 1-32 depending on
the mesiodistal width of the tooth for the maxillary
and mandibular teeth are available commercially.
Depending on the tooth to be banded

Anterior teeth 0.003 by 0.125 by 2 inches

Bicuspids 0.004 by 0.150 by 2 inches

Molar region 0.005 by 0.180 by 2 inches


(deciduous)

Molar region 0.006 by 0.180 by 2 inches


(Permanent)
IDEAL REQUIREMENTS OF A BAND

Every band should possess a few ideal criteria


such that
1. It should fit the contours of the tooth as closely as
possible, there by enhancing the placement of the
attachment in relationship to the tooth.
2. Should not extend subgingivally any more than
necessary
3. Band material should resist deformation under
stress in the mouth
4. Resist tarnish
5. Possess Inherent springiness
6. Cause no occlusal interference
Steps in band formation
Separation
Band filling or band pinching
Welding
Soldering
ARMAMENTARIUM FOR BAND
PINCHING
HOWS UTILITY PLIER
JOHNSONS CONTOURING PLIER
HOWLETS BANDFORMING PLIER

POSTERIOR ANTERIOR
TONGUE AND GROOVE PLIERS
MERSHONS BAND PUSHER
BAKER/ SWINEHEART BAND SEATER
STEPS IN BAND ADAPTATION
The band has two sides
1. Dull side : goes towards the
tooth helps to hold the cement in
place
2. Shiny side: goes away from the
tooth; helps the food to slip off
About 2 ¾ inch of band material is cut
using straight scissors
A loop is made with the dull sides
against each other
This is spot welded using the
manufactures heat
recommendations keeping in mind
that the electrodes should be flat
small and shiny
Before welding dip the ends of
the band in a mixture of alcohol
and water.
This helps to clean the band
And dissipate some heat and the
visible vapour is evidence that a
joint has been made.
The tangent ends of the band material
are rounded so as to not impinge on the
patients cheeks or tongue
The right corner of the lip is retracted, and
the band is carried by the How pliers.
The thumb of the left hand is used to place
the band down as far as possible keeping
the tails in the How pliers at the
mesiobuccal line angle.(HITCHCOCK)
Holding the band in place high on the
lingual and low on the buccal squeeze the
How pliers up against the tooth.
Remove the band and spot-weld the new
closer seam
This is followed by festooning the mesial
and distal parts of the band by cutting of
cresent shape material with curved scissors
and blending them with the buccal and
lingual sides
Now return the band back to the tooth
and use a band pusher to contour
the bucco occlusal sides of the band
to the tooth
The partly formed band should wind up
with its occlusal surface nearly parallel to
the occlusal surface of the tooth and the
lingual surface should be just below the
depth of the occlusal part of lingual
developmental groove. Mesially and
distally the occlusal surface of the band
should be just below the marginal ridge
and just above the mesial crest of
curvature
Final pinching is now done using the tongue and
grooove pliers.
These come in pairs one of the right side and
one for the left in case lower band pinching is
done from the buccal side.
In case lower bands are pinched from the lingual
side then they are to be used one for the
upper right and lower left and one for the
lower right and upper left.
Spot weld at the new contact
Cut off excess tails to 2mm of the seam and
smooth the tag ends.
Final infolding of the seam is done using the
band pusher
The band is now removed using a band
removing plier and the seam which was
infolded is now spot welded.
Final seating of the band is carried out by placing a
band adaptors serrated end on the bucco-
occlusal surface of the band and a tongue balde is
placed on top of it. The patient then bites on the
tongue blade which tranfers th epressure to the
band adaptor and then to the band and it moves
to its original position
AN impression is now made using impression
compound or alginate.
Sectional impressions can also be made using
alginate
The band is then transferred to the alginate
impression and stabilised using a wire inserted
diagonally or using sticky wax
In case of a compound imperssion the heated
spatula is used to melt some compound
around the periphery of the band so as to
stabilise it.
They are then poured using dental stone.
FABRICATION OF THE LOOP
Loop is prepared with .9mm hard round
stainless steel wire. The loop extends from the
middle of the band from its either side to reach
the distal surface of the anterior abutment
tooth.
The opening in the loop should be sufficient to
permit the eruption of cusps of the underlying
permanent tooth.
The loop should contact the mesial abutment
at the contact point (Barbar -1982).
If it is constructed below it, the chances of it
slipping gingivally are high
SOLDERING: It’s defined as the joining of
metals by the fusion of filler metal between
them, at a temperature below the solidus
temperature of the metals being joined and
below 450°C
BRAZING: It’s a term used industrially.
Soldering operations at or above 450°C is
generally termed brazing. Most dental
soldering procedures are actually brazing,
but the names are used interchangeably in
dentistry.
Brazing is defined as joining of metals
by the fusion of a filler metal between
them, at a temperature below the solidus
temperature of metals being joined and
above 450°C.
LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE: The temperature
at which metals of an alloy system begin to
solidify on cooling or become totally liquid on
cooling.

SOLIDUS TEMPERATURE: the temperature


at which metals of an alloy system become
completely solidified on cooling or start to melt
on heating.
WELDING: The joining of two or more
metal parts by applying heat, pressure
or both, with or without a filler metal, to
produce localized union across the
interface through fusion or diffusion.
COMPONENTS OF SOLDERED
JOINT

•Parent metal
•Solder/filler metal
•Fluxes and Anti fluxes
•Heat source
PARENT METAL

The parent metal is the metal or alloy to be


joined.
This is also known as a substrate metal or basis
metal.
Soldering operation is the same for any substrate
metal, but the ease of soldering is not same for
any substrate metal.
The composition of parent metal determines,
•Melting range
•Oxide that forms on the surface during heating
•Wettability of the substrate by the molten solder.
Soldering should take place below the solids
temperature of the parent metal.

Composition of alloy determines the oxides


that form on its surface during heating. The
flux used should be able to reduce these
oxides, inhibit further oxidation and facilitate
its removal.
Composition of alloy determines the wettability of
the substrate by the molten solder alloy. The
solder chosen must wet the metal at as low a
contact angle as possible to ensure wetting of the
joint area.
FLUX

• In Latin flux means “to flow”. Purpose of


flux is to remove any oxide coating on the
substrate metal surface when the filler metal
is fluid and ready to flow into place. They
protect the alloy surface from oxidation during
soldering and dissolve metallic oxides as they
are formed. The resulting solution of oxides or
other extraneous matter in flux constitutes
“slag”.
CLASSIFICATION
• According to their primary purpose/activity.
– Surface protection type: - This type of flux covers
the metal surface and prevents access to oxygen,
so that no oxides can form.
– Reducing agent type: - This type reduces any
oxides present and exposes clean metal.
– Solvent type: - This type dissolves any oxides and
drives them away.
• The composition of most commercial
fluxes is formulated to accomplish two or
more of these purposes.
According to their composition
• Borax fluxes
• Fluoride fluxes
3. According to the pH of the flux
Acidic fluxes – SiO2
Basic fluxes – CaO, lime
CaCO3 LIMESTONE
Neutral – Fluorspar (Ca.F2)
Borax (Na2B4O2)
BORAX FLUXES
• Are used for noble metal alloys.
• They are based on boric or borate compounds
such as boric acid/boric anhydrate and borax.
• They act as protective fluxes and reducing
fluxes for low stability oxides such as copper
oxide.
• They are available in
– Liquid form: Solution of borax/boric acid in water.
Indicated for soldering of orthodontic appliances
and bridges in which minimum amount of flux is
required.
– Paste form: Formed by mixing borax with
petroleum jelly. Required when fluxes are needed
in large quantity.
– Powder form: Contains a mixture of borax, boric
acid, silica flour and finely divided charcoal.
Charcoal is a reducing agent and silica holds
molten flux in surface of hot metal. This is usually
used for casting operation.
FLUORIDE FLUXES
• Used with base metal alloys. The oxides
formed on base metal alloys are more stable
and fluorides are used to dissolve chromium,
nickel and cobalt-oxides. So it acts as solvent.
Composition:-
• Potassium fluoride – 50-60%
• Boric acid – 25-35%
• Borax glass - 6-8%
• Potassium carbonate – 8-10%
• As the choice of flux is dictated by the type of
alloys to be soldered, the fluoride flux is used
with alloys containing base metals even if a
gold/silver solder is used.
• Some fluoride containing fluxes involve toxic
fluorides when heated, so inhalation of fumes
should be avoided
APPLICATION OF FLUX
• Painted on to the substrate metal at the
junction of pieces to be joined.
• Fused on to the surface of the filler metal
strip.
• Prefluxed solders: - solder available in a tube
form with flux contained inside the
tube.
• Whatever be the technique used the most
important thing to consider is the amount of
flux used.
• Too little flux tends to burn off and will be
ineffective.
• Excess flux remains trapped within filler metal
and cause a weakened joint.
ANTI FLUX

• Materials used to restrict flow of solder are


known as anti flux. It is applied on the surface
of specific area where the solder should flow
into. It is applied before applying flux or
solder.
• E.g.: Graphite in the form of soft lead pencil.
Disadvantage of graphite is that it can burn off
on prolonged heating at high temperature. In
such cases rouge or whiting (CaCO3 in alcohol
and water suspension) is used.
FILLER METAL/SOLDER
Qualities of an ideal solder
• Ease of flow at relatively low temperature.
• Sufficient fluidity to freely flow when melted.
• Ability to wet substrate metal.
• Strength compatible with that of the structure
being joined.
• Resistance to tarnish and corrosion.
• Acceptable colour to give an inconspicuous
joint.
• Resistance to pitting during heating.
FLOW TEMPERATURE
• The temperature at which the filler metal
wets and flows on the substrate metal and
produces a bond. It is usually higher than the
liquidus temperature.
• ISO 9333 requires that the flow
temperature of the filler metal should be
lower than the solidus temperature of the
substrate metals. A rule of thumb is that flow
temperature of the filler metal should be 56°C
(100°F) lower than the solidus temperature of
the substrate metal.
• If the flow point of the filler metal is close to
or above the solidus of either substrate
alloying can take place. An alloy formed
through diffusion can have properties
different from filler metal and substrate metal.
• CLASSIFICATION OF SOLDERS

I. Soft solders
Hard solders

II. Precious metal solders


Non precious metal solders
• SOFT SOLDERS
• They are lead- tin eutectic alloy with a
low melting point. Sometimes called as
plumbers solder. They have low fusion range
of about 260°C or less. Soft solders lack
corrosion resistance, so they are impractical
for dental use.
• HARD SOLDERS
• Hard solders have higher meting
temperature & possess greater hardness and
strength. Heating is done with gas torch or
special devices. Two types of hard solders are
used in dentistry.
Gold solders
Has good tarnish and corrosion resistance
Extensively used for crown and bridge
applications.
Composition -
Gold – 45-81 wt %
Silver- 8-30 wt %
Copper-7-20 wt %,
with small amounts of Tin, Zinc and
Phosphorus to modify fusion temperature
and flow qualities. They are high fusing with
a fusion temperature range of 750- 900° C
• Silver solders
• Used in orthodontic appliances
• They are low fusing –fusion temp-600-750°C
• Used with stainless steel or other base metal
alloys
• Resistance to tarnish and corrosion is not as
good as gold solders
• But have strength comparable to gold solders
Composition
• Silver -10-80 %
• Copper -15-30%
• Zinc -4-35%, with small amounts of
cadmium, tin and phosphorus.
• The formation of silver-copper eutectic
is responsible for the low melting range of
silver solder.
• HEAT SOURCE

• The most common instrument used as


heat source is gas- air or gas- oxygen torch.
The type of torch depends on the type of fuel.
• The fuels used are
• Hydrogen-low heat content, so heating is
slow.
• Natural gas- heat content is four times that of
hydrogen.
• Acetylene- high flame temperature, but
variation in temperature from one part of the
flame to the other part is more than 100°C. So
positioning of the torch is critical. It is
chemically unstable gas, decompose to carbon
and hydrogen. carbon can get incorporated in
to nickel and palladium alloys.
• Propane- is the best choice. Have highest heat
content& good flame temperature.
• Butane- has similar flame temperature and
heat content. Both are readily available.
Uniform in quality, virtually water free and
burn clean.
FLAME
The flame can be divided in to four zones, cold
mixing zone (unburned gas), partial
combustion zone (oxidizing), reducing zone,
oxidizing zone (burned gas). The portion of the
flame that is used to heat the soldering
assembly should be the neutral or slightly
reducing part, because this produces the most
efficient burning process and most heat.
Improperly adjusted torch or improperly
positioned flame can lead to oxidation of the
substrate or filler metal and result in a poorly
soldered joint. If unburned portion of flame is
used carbon may be introduced to the
substrate or filler metal.To prevent oxide
formation the flame should not be removed
once it has been applied to the joint area until
soldering process has been completed.
• TECHNIQUES OF SOLDERING

• Investment soldering
• Free hand soldering
INVESTMENT SOLDERING
• Used when very accurate alignment of
parts to be joined is needed. The parts are
placed on the master cast with a gap of at
least 1mm. the parts are fastened with sticky
wax before placing soldering investment. Anti
flux is applied to confine the flow of solder.
• The investment is preheated to eliminate
moisture. Flux can be applied before or after
heat treatment. Soldering is carried out with
reducing flame at 750- 870°C. the investment
is cooled 5 min before quenching. Flux will
cool to a glass which is removed by pickling.
• FREE HAND SOLDERING

• Free hand soldering is used for soldering


orthodontic appliances. Orthodontic torches
can be placed on a bench so that both hands
can be used to hold the parts in position.
STEPS IN SOLDERING
• Cleaning and preparing the surfaces to be
joined
• Assembling the parts to be joined
• Preparation and fluxing of the gap surfaces
between the gaps
• Maintaining the proper position of the parts
during procedure.
• Control of proper temperature
• Control of time to ensure adequate flow of
the solder& complete filling of the solder joint
• NEWER SILVER SOLDERS
• For joining stainless steel, additional alloys
with improved corrosion resistance are
available. Besides the gold soldering alloys,
other classifications of silver soldering alloys
(referred to here as brazing alloys), including
BAg-18 and BAg-21 (American Welding
Society), can be used very effectively.
These silver soldering alloys have silver contents
at about the same level as the solder products
presently employed, but they have slightly
higher copper contents, with additions of up
to about 10 percent tin for wetting stainless
steels and up to about 3 percent nickel for
immunity to crevice corrosion. The important
fact is that both cadmium and zinc are
removed from these alloys. products. Because
of the non-free-flowing characteristics of
these proposed soldering alloys for dental
applications, familiarization with their
properties and handling characteristics is
advisable.
HYDRO SOLDERING
• This industrial-strength
machine converts water
into oxy-hydrogen fuel
for an extremely hot
and precise reducing
flame operating at
4850˚F.
• This eliminates
accumulation of carbon
residues.
TYPES OF WELDING
• Cold welding is done by hammering or
pressure. An example of cold welding is the
gold foil filling.

• Hot welding uses heat of sufficient intensity


to melt the metals being joined. The heat
source is usually an oxyacetylene flame or
high amperage electricity.
• Spot welding
• Pressure welding
• Laser welding
• plasma welding
PARTS OF A SPOT WELDER
On/Off switch or Heat selector
Weld/Solder firing switch
Pilot light
Top and Side receptacles for plugging in
extension cables
Upper turret with four different electrodes
Pressure pad which is spring loaded