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Random Access Special Topic

5 scenarios of RA

1:RRC Idle to
RRC
Connected

5:UL 2:Radio link


unsynchronism failure
UL data arrrived

4:UL
unsynchronism 3:Handover
DL data arrrived

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UE Random Access Procedure

 Random access characteristic


 Exists in both TD-LTE and FDD-LTE.
 No relation with the scale of cell.
 Divided into competitive and non- competitive random access.

 purpose of random access


 During attach procedure
 UE status changed from idle to connected.
 During handover procedure
 Get/ recover uplink synchronization
 Request UE ID from eNodeB
 Request uplink resoure from eNodeB

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UE Random Access Procedure

 Random access process can be used in the following situations:


 Access at RRC_IDLE status
 Access when the wireless link fault occurs
 Access in changeover
 Access at RRC_Connected status
 When there are downlink data (eg. The uplink is at non-synchronization status.)
 When there are uplink data (eg. The uplink is at non-synchronization status or no
PUCCH resource can be used for scheduling request.)

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UE Random Access Procedure

 Random access categories:


 Random access based on competitiveness
 Used in the five mentioned situations
 UE selects a preamble sequence randomly in the available preamble set in a
competitive way.
 Possible collision: two UEs use the same preamble sequence.
 Perform the synchronization process through four steps. The fourth step is used to
solve the collision.
 Random access based on non-competitiveness
 In handover or when the downlink data arrives
 The eNB allocates a preamble sequence.
 Perform the synchronization through three steps without solving the collision.

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UE Random Access Procedure

 Preamble categories:
 Preamble ID number:depend on configuration,maxmum 64(0~63)

 Preamble A: 0~59
 Preamble B: 4~59
 Dedicated Preamble(remaining ID)

PRACH frequency domain location:


0  nPRBoffset  N RB 6

RA UL

 First RB Number is congiured by L3 on OMC.

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UE Random Access Procedure

 Random Access Based on Competitiveness


UE eNB

1 Random Access Preamble

Random Access Response 2

3 Scheduled Transmission

Contention Resolution 4

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UE Random Access Procedure

 MSG1:send preamble sequence on PRACH


 According to root sequence number, cyclic shift and preamble formats , UE
generates the preamble sequence.
 Select preamble in group A/B randomly according to the MSG3 size and
pathloss information, then send the preamble on PRACH.
 According to the target PRACH received power, preamble formats in BCCH
and transmitting counter, UE caculates the PRACH initial emission power.
 eNB:according to the received preamble measurement, estimates the
distance between UE and eNB,generates the timing ajdustment.

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UE Random Access Procedure

 MSG2:Random Access Response


 eNB Send RAR on the PDSCH, the location is indicated by PDCCH and No
HARQ.
 MSG2 content:
 Preamble indication
 Timing adjustment information
 Temporary C-RNTI
 Msg3 resource allocation information
 UE detects RA response in a time window after sending MSG1. If UE fails to
receive the RA respondence in a time window, this RA process is terminated,
otherwise it goes to step3.

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UE Random Access Procedure

 MSG3
 According to MSG2 TPC indication, estimate pathloss and RB number
forPUSCH, UE cacaulates the MSG3 transmitting power. It’s open loop
power control.
 According to random access response, UE send MSG3 on dedicated resource.
MSG3 needs HARQ.
 MSG3 content:
 In attach:send RRC Connection Request on CCCH, include NAS UE ID and
establishment cause, but no NAS signalling message.
 In RRC Connection Re-establishment: Send RRCConnection
ReestablishmentRequest on CCCH no NAS message
 In handover:send Handover Confirm on DCCH with UE C-RNTI.
 Other (uplink or downlink arrives):send UE C-RNTI.

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UE Random Access Procedure

 MSG4: contention resolution


 Collision detect: eNB sends contention resolution ID ( UE NAS ID ) on PDSCH
or send C-RNTI on PDCCH to UE.
 With HARQ
 MSG4 content:
 UE NAS ID
 Resource allocation information
 UE:
 If UE finds its own NAS-layer ID is sending, UE sends ACK and temporary C-RNTI
becomes C-RNTI.Uplink synchronization finish.UE waits for being schedulled and
send data on uplink.
 If UE fails to detect NAS ID, there is a collision, UE waits a random time and do
random access again.

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UE Random Access Procedure

 Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness

UE eNB

0 RA Preamble assignment

Random Access Preamble 1

2 Random Access Response

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UE Random Access Procedure

 Random Access Based on Non-


Competitiveness
 1) eNB send non-contention Random
Access Preamble to UE,and this
preamble is not broadcasted in the
Broadcast information channel.

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UE Random Access Procedure

 Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness


 2)UE send dedicated preamble on RACH.
 3) eNB generates the RAR on MAC layer, and send the RAR in DL-
SCH,random access success.

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Contents

 LTE channel introduction and channel mapping


 UE power on procedure
 UE random access procedure
 Random access special scenarios application
 UE attach signalling flow
Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness:
Scenario 4
 eNB MSG0
 Send Msg0 on PDCCH; UE
Msg0: Dedicated
eNB
Preamble ID
 Include Dedicated Preamble and Mask Index 0
Mask Index;
 With HARQ; 1 Msg1:
preamble
 Initiated reason:
Min delay
 UE is out of synchronization on 2ms
Msg2: RA response on
uplink, 2
PDSCH
 Downlink data coming
 No need to allocateC-Rnti in Msg2 Delay about Timer
5ms
 UE 3
Msg3: connection
requirement, ect
 UE is Out of synchronization and
monitoring to receive PDCCH order;
 Send Msg1 with dedicated preamble
 Msg3 is not useful,if there is
data ,sending data , or
sendingPadding。

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Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness:
Scenario 4(UE leave)
 eNB  send MSG0 on PDCCH eNB
UE
 Msg0 is send on PDCCH;
Out of Sync
 Include Dedicated Preamble and Timer
Mask Index;
Msg0: Dedicated
 With HARQ; Preamble ID 0
 Initiated reason : 1 Mask Index
Msg1:
preamble
 UE is out of synchronization on
Min delay
uplink,
2ms
Start timer and timer is time out. Msg2: RA response on

PDSCH 2
 purpose:suspecting UE leaving, so
Timer
release connection to avoid UE Delay about
process hanging 5ms Msg3: connection
3 requirement, ect
 No need to allocateC-Rnti in Msg2

 UE
 UE hardware problem or power off,
not camping in the network.

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Random Access Based on Non-Competitiveness :
Scenario 3
UE
S-eNB T-eNB
 eNB  send MSG0 on PDCCH
Measure
 Msg0 is send on PDCCH Report

 Include Dedicated Preamble and Dedicated


Preamble
Mask Index Msg0: Dedicated
Mask Index

 With HARQ Preamble ID Mask 0


Index
 Initiated reason : 1
 Source eNB apply dedicated Msg1: preamble
preamble from target eNB and then Min delay
2ms
send preamble to UE. Msg2: RA response on PDSCH
2
 UE
 Monitor to receive PDCCH order. Delay about

 Send Msg1 with dedicated preamble 5ms


Msg3: connection requirement, ect
3

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Random Access Based on Competitiveness:
Scenario 5
 eNB  No need MSG4
 Send Temporary C-Rnti in RAR. UE eNB
MAC identifying Msg3 is for UE re-

1 Msg1: preamble

synchronization;
 MAC notice L3 that UE re- min delay
2ms
synchronization success.
2
Msg2: RA response on
PDSCH
 L3 send RRC Connection
Reconfiguration to re-setup Delay about
connection. 5ms
Msg3: connection requirement, ect
3
 UE
 Uplink data coming but uplink is at
non synchronization.
 Send RA request
 Include C-Rnti in Msg3,and
scrambling MSG3 by Temporary C-
Rnti.

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Contents

 LTE channel introduction and channel mapping


 UE power on procedure
 UE random access procedure
 Random access special scenarios application
 UE attach signalling flow
UE attach

 Attach flow

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UE attach

 NAS connection setup

Rrcconection setup

S1connection setup

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UE attach

 Attach/dettach signalling flow

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Reference parameter
 Cell High-speed Attribute小区高速移动属性
 Ncs Used to Generate PRACH Preamble用于生成PRACH前导的循环位移参数Ncs
 Logical Root Sequence Start Number Used to Generate PRACH Preamble用于生成PRACH
前导的逻辑根序列起始索引号
 Number of Non-dedicated Random Access Preambles竞争随机接入前导个数
 Size of Random Access Preambles Group A前导组A中的前导个数
 Threshold of Selecting Preamble Group选择随机接入前导组的门限(消息的长度)
 Message Power Offset for Group B 组B配置的功率余量
 The Switch of PRACH Starting RB Configuration Method PRACH起始RB配置方式选择开关
 the Initial RB Number for Random Access Preambles 随机接入前导的起始RB号
 PRACH Configuration Index PRACH配置索引
 Initial Power for Preamble of PRACH PRACH前导初始发射功率
 Power Ramping Step for PRACH PRACH的功率攀升步长
 Max retransmit number for PRACH PRACH前导最大重传次数
 TTI Window Size for PRACH Response UE对随机接入前导响应接收的搜索窗口
 Max Number of Messages HARQ Transmissions Message 3 最大发送次数
 MAC Contention Resolution Timer MAC冲突解决定时器

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24
PRACH premble
Ncs Used to Generate PRACH Preamble [1..11] defult:10
TableN CS for preamble generation (preamble formats 0-3).

Ncs Mid-spped High-


Cell range Cell range
configurati Ncs Ncs numbers speedNcs
(km) (km)
on (<) (≥)

0 0 118.93 1 64 15 1.08
1 13 0.79 64 1 18 1.51
2 15 1.08 55 2 22 2.08
3 18 1.51 46 2 26 2.65
4 22 2.08 38 2 32 3.51
5 26 2.65 32 2 38 4.37
6 32 3.51 26 3 46 5.51
7 38 4.37 22 3 55 6.80
8 46 5.51 18 4 68 8.66
9 59 7.37 14 5 82 10.66
10 76 9.80 11 6 100 13.23
11 93 12.23 9 8 128 17.23
12 119 15.95 7 10 158 21.52
13 167 22.82 5 13 202 27.81
14 279 38.84 3 22 237 32.82
15 419 58.86 2 32 - -

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25
PRACH premble

Logical Root Sequence Start Number Used to Generate PRACH [0..837]

Table Root Zadoff-Chu sequence order for preamble formats 0 – 3


Logical root sequence Physical root sequence number u
number (in increasing order of the corresponding logical sequence number)
0–23 129, 710, 140, 699, 120, 719, 210, 629, 168, 671, 84, 755, 105, 734, 93, 746, 70, 769, 60, 779
2, 837, 1, 838

24–29 56, 783, 112, 727, 148, 691

… …

204-263 152, 687, 144, 695, 134, 705, 138, 701, 199, 640, 162, 677, 176, 663, 119
720, 158, 681, 164, 675, 174, 665, 171, 668, 170, 669, 87, 752, 169, 670, 88, 751, 107, 732, 81, 758, 82, 757, 100, 739, 98, 741, 71,
768, 59, 780, 65, 774, 50, 789, 49, 790, 26, 813, 17, 822, 13, 826, 6, 833

… …

328–383 225, 614, 224, 615, 221, 618, 220, 619, 127, 712, 147, 692, 124, 715, 193, 646, 205, 634, 206, 633, 116, 723, 160, 679, 186, 653, 167,
672, 79, 760, 85, 754, 77, 762, 92, 747, 58, 781, 62, 777, 69, 770, 54, 785, 36, 803, 32, 807, 25, 814, 18, 821, 11, 828, 4, 835
384–455 3, 836, 19, 820, 22, 817, 41, 798, 38, 801, 44, 795, 52, 787, 45, 794, 63, 776, 67, 772, 72, 767, 76,
763, 94, 745, 102, 737, 90, 749, 109, 730, 165, 674, 111, 728, 209, 630, 204, 635, 117, 722, 188, 651, 159, 680, 198, 641, 113, 726,
183, 656, 180, 659, 177, 662, 196, 643, 155, 684, 214, 625, 126, 713, 131, 708, 219, 620, 222, 617, 226, 613
… …

820-837 336, 503, 305, 534, 373, 466, 280, 559, 279, 560, 419, 420, 240, 599, 258, 581, 229, 610

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26
PRACH preamble select
Number of Non-dedicated
Random Access Preambles
缺省值:52
64 Preambles ENUMERATE {
4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36,
40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64}

n Preamble dedicated m Preamble non-dedicated

p Preamble Group A q Preamble Group B

Size of Random Threshold of Message Power


Access Preambles Selecting Offset for Group B
Group A Preamble Group 缺省值:8dB
ENUMERATE
缺省值:48 { 缺省值:56bit ENUMERATE {
4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, ENUMERATE { -infinity, 0, 5, 8, 10,
32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 56, 144, 208, 256} 12, 15, 18} dB
60} All rights reserved
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PRACH preamble lacation

the Initial RB Number for PRACH


Random Access Preambles Configuration Index
[0..94] [0..63]
Uplink
subfram
Specifical
subframe e Uplink
subframe

nPRB  49
nPRB  48
nPRB  47
……………

nPRB  8
nPRB  7
………...

nPRB=2 nPRB  2
nPRB  1
nPRB  0

0n N 6
SR CCR#0 data: CQI CCR#0 pilot: CQI
RA UL
PRBoffset RB PUSCH CCR#1 data: CQI CCR#1 pilot: CQI

DMRS CCR#2 data: ACK/NACK CCR#2 pilot: ACK/NACK

RACH CCR#3 data: ACK/NACK CCR#3 pilot: ACK/NACK

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28
PRACH Configuration Index
Table Frame structure type 1 random access configuration for preamble formats 0-3

Number of Prach Configuration Index


slots per
second Preamble Format 0 Preamble Format 1 Preamble Format 2 Preamble Format 3
50 0, 1, 2, 15 16, 17, 18, 31 32, 33, 34, 47 48, 49, 50, 63
 The number of random 100 3, 4, 5 19, 20, 21 35, 36, 37 51, 52, 53
accessing based on
contention resolution; 200 6, 7, 8 22, 23, 24 38, 39, 40 54, 55, 56

 Probability of RA colliding; 300 9, 10, 11 25, 26, 27 41, 42, 43 57, 58, 59

 Physical Cell ID. 500 12, 13 28, 29 44, 45 N/A

1000 14 N/A N/A N/A


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29
PRACH format
TCP TSEQ TGP

CP Sequence Guard Pd
T RTD TMTD

Preamble TCP TMTD MaxCellRadius


format (km) TGP
Rcell  min( TCP  TMTD , TGP ) / 6.67 0 103.2768 97.0176 5.2 14.545367

1 685.3824 516.384 16.7 77.418191

2 203.424 197.1648 16.7 27.994603

3 685.3824 716.6784 16.7 100.25223

TMTD

One subframe (1ms)

15360  Ts 15360  Ts 15360  Ts 15360  Ts 15360  Ts 15360  Ts


One slot
24576 T
24576  Tss
2976  Ts Format
Cell range:
0~15km;
3168  Ts
0
21024  Ts 24576  Ts Format
15840  Ts
1
Format
30~77km;
6240  Ts 24576  Ts 24576  Ts 6080  Ts
2
Format
15~30km;
21024  Ts 24576  Ts 24576  Ts 21993  Ts
3
77~100km.
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30
PRACH Tx power Max retransmit number for
PRACH
缺省值:8
ENUMERATE {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
10, 20, 50, 100, 200}
Power Ramping Step for P0 +5deta(P)
PRACH 递增功率(可配)
ENUMERATE
缺省值:2dB {0, 2, 4, 6} dB
P0 +3deta(P)

Initial Power for Preamble of P0 +2deta(P)


PRACH P0 +deta(P)
缺省值:-110dBm
ENUMERATE { P0
-120,-118,-116,-114,-112,-110,
-108,-106,-104,-102,-100,
-98,-96,-94,-92,-90} dBm
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

PRACH = min{PcMAX ,
PREAMBLE_RECEIVED_TARGET_POWER + PL}

Pc
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MAX = PLmax+Pinitial+(N-1)*step
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31
Conflict Resolution

TTI Window Size for UE eNodeB


PRACH Response
缺省值:10ms Msg1: Random Access Preamble
ENUMERATE {
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10} ms
Msg2: Random Access Response

Max Number of
Messages HARQ
Transmissions [1..8] Msg3: Scheduled Transmission
default:3
MAC Contention
Resolution Timer
Msg4: Contention resolution
缺省值:48sf
ENUMERATE {
8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56,
64} sf
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32
Initial E-RAB setup succ rate

eNode MME
B
Initial Context Setup Request

Initial Context Setup Response

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33
Initial E-RAB setup succ rate

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34
E-RAB setup failure C373505474
C373505474 samplings

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35
E-RAB setup failure C373505475

C373505475 samplings Radio link failure

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36
初始E-RAB建立失败C373505476

C373505476 samplings Security activation failure

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37
初始E-RAB建立失败C373505477

C373505477 samplings Parameter Error失败

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38
初始E-RAB建立失败C373505478

C373505478 samplings Re-establishment

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39
初始E-RAB建立失败C373505479

C373505479 samplings Other cause

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40
E-RAB建立成功率

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41
E-RAB congestion

eNode MME
B
E-RAB Setup Request

E-RAB Setup Response

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42
KPI obtain method

KPI Obtain

Data
DT/CQT
analysis

KPI
KPI warn CNA/STS
evaluate

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43
KPI analysis method

TOP N TIME TREND

KPI
analysis

Location COMPARASION

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44
RRC failure analysis RRC setup problem

UE send No UE abnormal
?
Preamble? problem

Yes

eNodeB received No Adjust PRACH


Preamble? parameters

Yes
UE received RA No Adjust PDCCH
respons? parameters

Yes

UE sent RRC No UE abnormal


request? problem

Yes

No Adjust UL open
eNODEB received loop power control
RRC request? parameters
Yes

eNODEB sent setup No Congestion or other


message? problem

Yes No Adjust PDCCH


parameters
UE received setup No
message? Cell reselection
Optimize cell
Yes Yes reselection

UE sent setup No Radom Access


complete message? contention

Yes
eNODEB received No
setup complete Adjust UL open
message? loop power control
parameters
Yes

End
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45
RRC failure typical reason

cause resolution

 Poor coverage
 RF optimazation
 UL_RACH issue
 TA optimazation
 Paging failure when TAU
 Parameter optimazation
 Cell reselection unreasonable
 Capacity enhancement
 Power configuration
 Alarm monitor
 congestion
 alarm

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46
RRC failure case1

1.ENB doesn’t received RRC 2.UE doesn’t received RRC


Connection Request from UE Connection Setup from ENB
 Porr coverage  Poor coverage
 Preamble power  Cell reselection
configuration parameter fault
 ENB alarm
 Cell range configuration

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47
RRC连接问题分析示例

3.eNB reveiced RRC 4.UE received RRC


Conneciton Reject Connection Setup but no
response
 Check specific cause
 UE abnormal
 congestion
 unspecified  Coverage issue

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48
Security&authentication—MAC Failure

UE MME
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
Start T3460
AUTHENTICATION FAILURE (cause = "MAC failure")
Start T3418 Stop T3460
IDENTITY REQUEST
Start T3470
IDENTITY RESPONSE (IMSI)
Stop T3470
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
Stop T3418 Start T3460
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
Stop T3460

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49
Security&authentication—Sync Failure

UE MME

AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
Start T3460
AUTHENTICATION FAILURE (cause = "synch failure")
Start T3420 Stop T3460
Perform
re-synch
with HSS
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
Stop T3420 Start T3460
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
Stop T3460

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50
E-RAB failure typical cause

 Poor coverage
 Reject by MME/UE
 Parameter unreasonable
 Corner effect
 Equipment fault

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51